Caroline Scarles

Professor Caroline Scarles


Professor of Tourism
MA, MSc, PhD
+44 (0)1483 689653
02 AP 02

Biography

Research

Research interests

My teaching

Supervision

Postgraduate research supervision

My publications

Publications

Miller G, Holmes K, Scarles C, Tribe J (2009) Barriers to sustainable leisure, In: Caudwell J (eds.), Tourism and Leisure: Local communities and local cultures in the UK pp. 143-158 Leisure Studies Association
Miller G, Scarles C, Tribe J (2007) Keynote presentation: Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Scarles CE (2009) Where Words Fail, Visuals Ignite: The Role of Visual Autoethnography in Tourism,
Scarles CE (2009) Confusion of Ethics and Ethical Confusion: Understanding Tourists' Photographic Behaviour at Destinations,
Scarles C, Liburd JJ (2010) BEST education network think tank ix: The importance of values in sustainable tourism, Tourism and Hospitality Research 10 (2) pp. 152-155
Scarles C (2013) The ethics of tourist photography: Tourists' experiences of photographing locals in Peru, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 31 (5) pp. 897-917
Despite references to photography as a tool for consuming and constructing the tourist experience, little attention has been afforded to the effects of such practice. In this paper I therefore seek to unpack the ethics of the seemingly fleeting relationships between tourists and host communities that emerge during photographic encounters. Focusing on the emergent interactions between tourists and locals who are photographed, I explore the social and cultural values that underpin tourists' ethical considerations of whether or not to photograph local people. In doing so, I first contend that tourists draw upon a range of photographic strategies as they negotiate the moral maze of ethical considerations during photographic encounters and engagement with locals at destinations. Secondly, I suggest that the ethical considerations of tourist photographic practice find genesis in a web of partial knowledges, subjective interpretations, and reflexive performances of self and others. In doing so, I propose that tourist practice is driven by subjective interpretations of that which is appropriate, acceptable, or responsible with regard to photographing. Thus, I contend, an immanence of ethical consideration arises in the immediacy of the moment of photographing, as photography emerges as a complex fusion of both predictable and reactionary practices that align general ethical viewpoints with unpredictable ethical responses. © 2013 Pion and its Licencors.
Scarles C (2012) THE PHOTOGRAPHED OTHER: INTERPLAYS OF AGENCY IN TOURIST PHOTOGRAPHY IN CUSCO, PERU, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 39 (2) pp. 928-950 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles C (2009) Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT 28 (3) pp. 423-431 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Scarles CE (2014) Tourism and The Visual, In: Lew A, Hall M, Williams A (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Tourism 26 Wiley
This chapter explores the relationship between the visual and tourism as it has emerged through history. Beginning with the ocularcentric tendencies of the Grand Tour, the chapter works through the emergence of photography to the opportunities afforded to the visual in the virtual environments of the 21st century. Tourism and the visual are inherently interlinked. However, in reflecting upon the position of the visual as the dominant sense within tourism, the chapter moves beyond the visual as primarily concentrated upon within destination marketing and the exoticisation of the other for touristic consumption. In doing so, it critiques the relationship between tourism and the visual as a series of embodied performances and practices, reflects upon the effects of technology and user-generated media in changing the mediascapes and offers a series of methodological insights. In doing so, it confronts significant shifts in producer/consumer relationships and the emergent power dynamics in the construction and consumption of place through the visuals encountered throughout our tourist experiences.
Scarles CE (2009) Where Words Fail, Visuals Ignite,
Scarles CE, Lester J (2013) Mediating the Tourist Experience: From Brochures to Virtual Encounters, In: Lester J, Scarles C (eds.), Mediating the Tourist Experience: From Brochures to Virtual Encounters Chapter One Ashgate Publishing
Scarles CE (2003) Mediating Landscapes: The Processes and Practices of Image Construction in Tourist Brochures of Scotland,
Scarles C (2009) Becoming tourist: renegotiating the visual in the tourist experience, ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING D-SOCIETY & SPACE 27 (3) pp. 465-488 PION LTD
Scarles CE (2007) Where Words Fail, Visuals Ignite: Exploring the Embodied Visualities of the Tourist Experience,
Scarles C (2008) Discourse, Communication and Tourism, LEISURE STUD 27 (1) pp. 95-97 ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Ji Mingjie, Wong IpKin Anthony, Eves Anita, Scarles Caroline (2016) Food-related Personality Traits and the Moderating Role of Novelty-seeking in Food Satisfaction and Travel Outcomes, Tourism Management 57 pp. 387-396 Elsevier
Previous research on tourist food consumption acknowledges that food-related personality traits, including neophilic and neophobic tendencies, can impede or encourage tourists to try novel food at a destination. However, the travel motivation literature advocates that tourists tend to be in a general condition of seeking novel experiences, including sampling a destination?s novel food. How food-related personality traits interact with novelty pursuits to influence tourists? food consumption and subsequent satisfaction and travel outcomes remains unknown. The study proposes a framework of tourist food experience that leads from food-related personality traits, novel food consumption, and satisfaction to travel outcomes. While the results support the baseline model, the moderating effect of novelty seeking demonstrates that novelty seeking does not moderate the relationship between personality traits and consumption of novel food. It does, however, moderate satisfaction with food.
Scarles CE, Kim YG, Eves A (2008) Travel Motivations and Local Choice: Local Food and Beverages,
Scarles CE (2006) Responsible marketing and marketing responsibility,
Scarles CE (2013) Eliciting Embodied Knowledge and Response: Respondent-led photography and visual autoethnography, In: Rakic T, Chambers D (eds.), An Introduction to Visual Research Methods in Tourism
Scarles CE (2009) Photographing Locals: The Effects of Tourist Photography on Host Communities,
Scarles CE (2010) Managing and Regulating Tourist Photography,
Scarles CE (2005) Becoming tourist: renegotiating the visual in the tourist expectation,
Scarles C (2011) Introducing applied dissertations: Opportunities for industry connection in postgraduate study, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education 10 (1) pp. 37-48 Elsevier
Hanna P, Scarles C, Cohen SA, Adams M (2016) Everyday climate discourses and sustainable tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 24 (12) pp. 1624-1640
Debates surrounding the human impact on climate change have, in recent years, proliferated in political, academic, and public rhetoric. Such debates have also played out in the context of tourism research (e.g. extent to which anthropogenic climate change exists; public understanding in relation to climate change and tourism). Taking these debates as its point of departure, whilst also adopting a post-structuralist position, this paper offers a Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of comments to an online BBC news article concerning climate change. Our analysis finds three key ways responsibility is mitigated through climate change talk: scepticism towards the scientific evidence surrounding climate change; placing responsibility on the ?distant other? through a nationalistic discourse; and presenting CO2 as ?plant food?. The implications of these ways of thinking about climate change are discussed with a focus on how this translates into action related to the sustainability of tourism behaviours. In doing so, it concludes that a deeper understanding of everyday climate talk is essential if the tourism sector is to move towards more sustainable forms of consumption.
Scarles CE (2009) Photographing Locals: The Effects of Tourist Photography on Host Communities,
Scarles CE, Miller G, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism: The UK Perspective,
Scarles CE, Scarles C (2011) Visualising Sustainability: Reflections on Applied Student Learning through Visual-based Assessment,
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism Torquay,
Scarles CE, Siripis M, Airey D (2013) Being a Tourist or Performer? Tourists' Negotiation with Mediated Destination Image in Popular Film, In: Lester J, Scarles C (eds.), Mediating the Tourist Experience: From Brochures to Virtual Encounters
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles CE (2008) An Examination of Motives to Choose Local Food at a Tourist Destination,
Miller G, Rathouse K, Scarles C, Holmes K, Tribe J (2010) PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 37 (3) pp. 627-645 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles C (2013) Empirical verification of a conceptual model of local food consumption at a tourist destination, International Journal of Hospitality Management 33 (1) pp. 484-489
This study empirically tests a conceptual model of local food consumption proposed by Kim et al. (2009) and examines relationships among the key factors found in the model. This study quantitatively identified factors affecting local food consumption: five motivations (cultural experience, interpersonal relationship, excitement, health concern, and sensory appeal); food-related personality traits (food neophobia and food involvement); and 'demographic factors' (i.e., gender, age, and annual income) and their relationships. This study showed that demographic variables (gender and age) were related to some motivational factors and significant differences in the FNG associated with gender, age and income. © 2012.
Scarles CE (2005) Becoming tourist: visual moments and photographic theory in understanding the tourist experience,
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles CE (2009) Building A Model of Local Food Consumption on Trips and Holidays: A Grounded Theory Approach,
Scarles CE (2009) Where Words Fail, Visuals Ignite,
Scarles CE, Lester J (2013) Mediating Tourism: Future Directions?, In: Lester J, Scarles C (eds.), Mediating the Tourist Experience: From Brochures to Virtual Encounters Chapter 16 Ashgate Publishing
Scarles CE, Bramwell B, Lane B, MacCabe S, Mosedale J (2009) Editorial, Special Issue on Responsible Tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 19 (3) pp. 253-258
Bramwell B, Lane B, McCabe S, Mosedale J, Scarles C (2008) Research perspectives on responsible tourism, JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 16 (3) pp. 253-257 CHANNEL VIEW PUBLICATIONS
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles CE (2009) Why Do Tourists Taste Local Food and Beverages? Motives to Consume Local Food and Beverages,
Scarles CE, Sanderson E (2007) Becoming the field: The Opportunities of Autoethnography in the Field,
Scarles CE, Holmes K, Miller G (2009) Barriers to Sustainable Leisure, In: Cauldwell J (eds.), Tourism and Leisure: Local Communities and Local Cultures in the UK
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2007) Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism, In: Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Scarles C (2010) WHERE WORDS FAIL, VISUALS IGNITE Opportunities for Visual Autoethnography in Tourism Research, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 37 (4) pp. 905-926 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Scarles CE Applied Dissertations: Creating Opportunity for Industry Connection in Taught Postgraduate Study,
Scarles CE, Holmes K, Miller G, Tribe J (2008) Towards a conceptualisation of sustainable leisure,
Scarles CE (2006) Directing and Enlivening Place: Tour Opeartor Practices of Responsible Marketing and Marketing Responsibility,
Kim YG, Eves A, Scarles C (2012) Empirical verification of a conceptual model of local food consumption at a tourist destination, International Journal of Hospitality Management
This study empirically tests a conceptual model of local food consumption proposed by and examines relationships among the key factors found in the model. This study quantitatively identified factors affecting local food consumption: five motivations (cultural experience, interpersonal relationship, excitement, health concern, and sensory appeal); food-related personality traits (food neophobia and food involvement); and 'demographic factors' (i.e., gender, age, and annual income) and their relationships. This study showed that demographic variables (gender and age) were related to some motivational factors and significant differences in the FNG associated with gender, age and income. Crown Copyright © 2012.
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Scarles CE (2006) Performing tourist spaces: immersing self with other through photographic practice,
Scarles CE, Warren S (2008) Work and play: Materialising Identity Through Visual Research,
Scarles CE, Miller G (2007) Getting Fit to Innovate: TUI's InnOlympics,
Miller G, Scarles C, Tribe J (2007) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism. Achieving Sustainable Tourism,
Lund N, Cohen S, Scarles C (2017) The power of social media storytelling in destination branding., Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 8 pp. 271-280 Elsevier
A large part of the global population is now connected in online social networks in social media where they share experiences and stories and consequently influence each other?s perceptions and buying behaviour. This poses a distinct challenge for destination management organisations, who must cope with a new reality where destination brands are increasingly the product of people?s shared tourism experiences and storytelling in social networks, rather than marketing strategies. This article suggests a novel interpretation on how these online social networks function with regard to generating engagement and stimulating circulation of brand stories by offering a conceptual framework based on the sociological concepts of storytelling, performance, performativity, and mobility. These concepts are characterised as ?technologies of power?, for their role in shaping the social mechanisms in social media. VisitDenmark, the DMO of Denmark, is used as a case to put the framework into practice. The case demonstrates how DMOs can use the framework to strengthen their ssocial media branding, and five practical recommendations for how to do so are provided.
Beard Lynn, Scarles Caroline, Tribe John (2017) MESS AND METHOD: USING ANT IN TOURISM RESEARCH, Annals of Tourism Research 60 pp. 97-110 Elsevier
The use of actor-network thinking is increasingly evident in tourism research. ANT offers the researcher a practical, fieldwork-based orientation, emphasising detailed description of relationships between actors in practice. However, questions which arise for the researcher in using ANT are seldom confronted in the literature. This paper contributes to the growing ANT literature in tourism by identifying five ?character traits? relating to selection and use of method in ANT research. It uses an empirical case study to show how these traits are performative in the researcher?s ?hinterland? of methodological choices, providing theoretical and practical reflections for future researchers. It ends by considering how acknowledging these traits in the account can demonstrate adherence to accepted criteria for research quality.
Terzidou M, Scarles CE, Saunders MNK (2017) Religiousness as tourist performances: A case study of Greek Orthodox pilgrimage, Annals of Tourism Research 66 pp. 116-129 Elsevier
The aim of this paper is to decipher ways of experiencing religiousness through tourist performances, intersecting textual approaches with the essential embodiment and materiality of the tourist world. Exploring the diversity of religious tourists? practices within the Greek Orthodox context, two dimensions underpinning religious tourist experience are highlighted: institutional performances and unconventional performances. Focussing on the embodied experience and drawing upon theories of performance, the paper critiques the interplays of body and place to re-conceptualise current understanding of the pilgrimage/tourism relationship. In doing so, the paper proposes that tourism and religion are not separate entities but linked through embodied notions of godliness sensed through touristic performances.
Eger C, Miller G, Scarles Caroline (2017) Corporate Philanthropy Through the Lens of Ethical Subjectivity, Journal of Business Ethics pp. 1-13 Springer
The dynamic organisational processes in businesses dilute the boundaries between the individual, organisational, and societal drivers of corporate philanthropy. This creates a complex framework in which charitable project selection occurs. Using the example of European tour operators, this study investigates the mechanisms through which companies invest in charitable projects in overseas destinations. Inextricably linked to this is the increasing contestation by local communities as to how they are able to engage effectively with tourism in order to realise the benefits tourism development can bring. This research furthers such debates by exploring the processes through which tour operators facilitate community development through charitable giving. Findings show, with no formal frameworks in existence, project selection depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional with the personal, with trust being positioned as a central driver of these informal processes. Discretionary responsibilities are reworked through business leaders? commitment to responsible business practises and the ethical subjectivity guiding these processes.
Eger C, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2017) Corporate Philanthropy Through the Lens of Ethical Subjectivity, Journal of Business Ethics Springer
The dynamic organisational processes in businesses
dilute the boundaries between the individual,
organisational, and societal drivers of corporate philanthropy.
This creates a complex framework in which charitable
project selection occurs. Using the example of
European tour operators, this study investigates the
mechanisms through which companies invest in charitable
projects in overseas destinations. Inextricably linked to
this is the increasing contestation by local communities as
to how they are able to engage effectively with tourism in
order to realise the benefits tourism development can bring.
This research furthers such debates by exploring the processes
through which tour operators facilitate community
development through charitable giving. Findings show,
with no formal frameworks in existence, project selection
depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional
with the personal, with trust being positioned as a
central driver of these informal processes. Discretionary
responsibilities are reworked through business leaders?
commitment to responsible business practises and the
ethical subjectivity guiding these processes.
The concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and employee engagement are growing in importance, both in academia and in practise. Research suggests that there is a strong correlation between the two with CSR linked to organisational advantages, including recruitment, retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifically to employees. Furthermore, with employee engagement a well-established antecedent to obtaining objectives, employees are an integral stakeholder group in CSR adoption and dissemination. However, despite specific benefits of CSR relating to employees and their importance as stakeholders, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organisational level. Within research and practise of CSR, the organisation is often treated as a ?black box?, failing to account for individual differences and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is a theoretical challenge shared by stakeholder theory, which often suggests internal homogeneity within stakeholder groups despite diversity of objectives and stakes in the organisation.
The primary objective of the study is to determine why employees engage and disengage from CSR interventions within the context of multinational hospitality and tourism organisations. In order to fully examine the subjective experience of employees engaging in organisational CSR, a qualitative methodology is employed. Data was drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality case study organisations and involved extensive interview data collected from CSR leaders, engaged and disengaged employees, and industry professionals. This exploratory research subsequently contributes to the understanding of employee engagement in CSR by identifying opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in corporate responsibility policy and initiatives.
This research also contributes to emerging evidence within the literature that suggests disengagement is not the counterpart of engagement. Having studied individual differences in CSR engagement, findings suggests that the engagement and disengagement are not opposites and unique antecedents to both engagement and disengagement are identified as arising at the personal, activity, and organisational level. A multilevel analysis subsequently contributes to the advancement of employee CSR engagement understanding.
Critically, it is proposed that employees are situated along a spectrum of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged, with a key contribution of this research being a model that addresses variation in individual engagement and disengagement. Recognising that employees accept, interpret and operationalise corporate responsibility differently, this study draws on social identity theory to account for individual differences amongst employees. While there are some common drivers of engagement across the entire spectrum of employees, differences also exist depending on the degree to which employees support CSR within their organisations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary depending on employees? existing level of broader engagement include: observed benefits of participation, CSR intervention design, organisational culture, employee CSR perceptions, and CSR leadership. Employee CSR engagement is also identified as being driven by the type of CSR intervention, communication, individual values, and person-organisation fit.
Kantenbacher Joseph, Hanna Paul, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline, Yang Jingjing (2017) Consumer priorities: What would people sacrifice in order to fly on holidays?, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor & Francis
Holidaying is an important leisure pursuit and, for a growing minority, air travel is the default mode for holiday mobility. However, the current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. Efforts to motivate reductions in consumption of holiday air travel must contend with the embeddedness of flying as a social practice and should be informed by an understanding of how people prioritize air travel for holidays relative to other forms of consumption. Using data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults, this exploratory study uses a novel method to assess the willingness of individuals to sacrifice holiday air travel relative to their willingness to make changes to their daily consumption patterns. We find a greater readiness to undertake additional expense (of time, effort, or money) than to retrench incumbent consumption patterns in order to fly for holidays. Reluctance to sacrifice for the sake of flying was greatest with regards to those items that are most associated with the basic infrastructure of modern life (e.g., mobile phones). Examining product-specific pro-environmental sacrifice in relative terms, our findings suggest that voluntary reductions in flying is more plausible than other modes of pro-environmental sacrifice.
Kantenbacher Joseph, Hanna P, Cohen Scott, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2017) Public attitudes about climate policy options for aviation, Environmental Science & Policy 81 pp. 46-53 Elsevier
The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation?s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.
Benckendorff P, Tussyadiah I, Scarles C (2017) The Role of Digital Technologies in Facilitating Intergenerational Learning in Heritage Tourism, In: Stangl B, Pesonen J (eds.), The Role of Digital Technologies in Facilitating Intergenerational Learning in Heritage Tourism 2018 pp. 463-472 Springer
This research proposes a framework of intergenerational learning (IGL) that supports child-to-parent influence in the context of heritage learning using augmented reality (AR) and serious game applications. Positioning children as the behavioural catalysts in the learning process, the framework is developed based on several considerations and requirements. First, the technologies are designed to play a role in attracting and engaging children in learning and providing an intergenerational participation structure to allow children to influence parents? attitudes and behaviour. Second, using the mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics framework of game design, the game elements are designed to provide realistic context for experiential learning, informative guiding and player interactions to increase engagement, as well as clear and measurable success indicators to increase motivation. The outcome of this framework is attitude and behaviour change in children and parents with regards to heritage preservation and appreciation, which is one of the main goals of heritage tourism managers.
Hejjas K, Miller G, Scarles C (2018) ?It?s Like Hating Puppies!? Employee Disengagement and Corporate
Social Responsibility,
Journal of Business Ethics Springer Verlag
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been linked with numerous organizational advantages, including recruitment,
retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifcally to employees. However, despite specifc benefts of CSR
relating to employees and their importance as a stakeholder group, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to
the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organizational level. Both research and practice of
CSR have largely treated the individual organization as a ?black box,? failing to account for individual diferences amongst
employees and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is further exacerbated by
the tendency in stakeholder theory to homogenize priorities within a single stakeholder group. In response, utilizing case
study data drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality organizations, combined with extensive interview data
collected from CSR leaders, industry professionals, engaged, and disengaged employees, this exploratory research produces
a fner-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for
individual employee engagement in CSR interventions. This research proposes that employees are situated along a spectrum
of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged. While there are some common drivers of engagement across
the entire spectrum of employees, diferences also exist depending on the degree to which employees, rather than senior
management, support corporate responsibility within their organizations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary
depending on employees? existing level of broader engagement include organizational culture, CSR intervention design,
employee CSR perceptions, and the observed benefts of participation.
Kantenbacher Joseph, Hanna Paul, Cohen Scott, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2017) Public Attitudes about Policy Options for Aviation. Environmental Science and Policy, Environmental Science and Policy 81 pp. 46-53 Elsevier
The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation?s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.
Hanna Paul, Font Xavier, Scarles Caroline, Weeden Clare, Harrison Charlotte (2017) Tourist destination marketing: From sustainability myopia to memorable experiences, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 9 pp. 36-43 Elsevier
This study explores the way in which consumers interpret and process the marketing and communication of sustainable forms of tourism in destinations, in order to inform policy makers about the appropriateness of different types of sustainability messages. Through a thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore the ways in which consumers engage with, and respond to, explicit discourses of sustainability in marketing a tourist destination. We find that overt discourses of sustainability are often rejected by consumers, thus suggesting that messages concerned with sustainability should place greater priority upon consumer experience and opportunities afforded by the purchase and consumption of the travel experience (that happens to be sustainable) they can expect at their chosen destination. As such, commitments to sustainability manifest within organisational philosophy and practice should not drive the principle, overt discourse communicated to consumers. Rather, as embedded within product and practice, such messages would have greater power and effect if they occupied a more subliminal position in destination marketing materials.
Terzidou M, Scarles C, Saunders M (2018) The complexities of religious tourism motivations: Sacred places, vows and visions, Annals of Tourism Research 70 pp. 54-65 Elsevier Masson
The aim of this paper is to understand the complexity of travel motivations to sacred places. Using ethnographic techniques within the Greek Orthodox context, we argue that while motivations are institutionally constructed, they are fragile, dynamic and progressive; being embedded within everyday performances of religion. This calls into question the fixed centeredness and predetermined sacredness of religious sites. Travel motivations become directly influenced by believers? intimate and emergent performances not only of places but also of religion itself; the meaning of places being based on lived experiences of doing religion and interacting with the sacred, as exemplified in vows and visions. Such understandings are crucial in predicting the effects of failing pilgrimages and the processes of authentication of places, which can help explain visitation patterns.
The emergence of social media necessitates a fundamental rethink of marketing practises as brands are now co-created with social media users. Destination management organisations (DMOs) therefore need to develop new social media strategies. This thesis suggests that DMOs ought to strengthen their storytelling capabilities as it is an essential tool in increasing social media engagement. A conceptual framework is therefore developed drawing on four particular sociological concepts: storytelling, mobilities, performance and performativity. Based on Foucauldian thinking, they are conceptualised as ?technologies of power?, which are techniques used in the practical operation of power. They demonstrate that a combination of individuals? storytelling performances, performative acts and mobilities enable stories to spread and influence brand narratives. DMOs can employ the conceptual framework to understand and analyse the underlying mechanisms that shape social interaction in social media and they can operationalise the technologies of power to engage with social media users and spread their preferred brand narratives.
The findings show that social media platforms have grown into a ?virtual apparatus? utilising institutional technologies to suppress certain kinds of user behaviour. However, some users resist the constraining structures and they use the technologies of power to mediate engaging stories. The findings also show that DMOs? social media strategies and practices are largely dependent on alliances with various storytellers. DMOs employ a strategy of ?free value utilisation? by sourcing content from users, while also enticing users to contribute stories to their social media platforms by providing culturally driven raw material. It is recommended that DMOs should operationalise the conceptual framework in their social media strategies to mediate appealing narratives that connects with people. They should also employ a strategy of ?experiential micro-branding?, where every shared user story can be utilised as it represents a micro-brand appealing to a specific target segment.
Eger C, Miller G, Scarles C (2018) Gender and capacity building: A multi-layered study of empowerment, World Development 106 pp. 207-219 Elsevier
This study shifts the focus from building individual capacities to understanding the relational acts
through which empowerment and education acquire their value and meaning. Conceptually, the paper
employs social cognitive theory to explore the interplay between social learning, relational agency,
and culture. This interplay builds the foundation for the development of an empowerment model of
capacity building that proposes an interlinked system of community capacity and empowerment dimensions.
The model is explored in the context of the Education for All project in the High Atlas Mountains of
Morocco. The research combines participant observation, qualitative interviews and visual methods to
provide rich insights to situated knowledges of learning and empowerment. Findings reveal that the
meaning of education equates to the capacity to aspire to a different life. This problematizes the way gender
and gender relations are understood in the rural Berber villages. The girls? education unsettles the
repeating cycle of female educational deprivation, and leads them to become role models within their
communities. This instills the image of educated women in community consciousness, leading to an
incipient change in perceptions of what girls and women can be and do
This research critiques the relationship between tour operators and destination communities with a key focus on capacity building and gender (dis)empowerment in the context of education. Capacity building processes are studied employing social learning theory to enable an interconnected investigation of different capacity building levels and the ways in which these influence and are influenced by gender. The research critiques tour operators? selection of destination projects, analysing the intended and unintended effects of an education project for girls situated in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. A dialogue between theory, context and partial perspectives is established through the adoption of an Islamic feminist framework, challenging dominant understandings and fostering the creation of differences from within.
Using the case of the Education for All project, findings reveal that caring at a distance is a crucial element of responsible action in tourism. Tour operators? investment in destination projects emerges primarily through an ethic of care between them and destination communities, with multiple layers of shared, performed and displaced responsibility underpinning this business practise. However, with no formal frameworks in existence, tour operators? selection of projects depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional with the personal, with trust being positioned as a central driver of these informal processes.
With regard to destination communities, lived experience and informal education are identified as core components of capacity building processes. Friendship is equated to the meaning of education, with empowerment being re-negotiated as learning to be responsible for the self. This understanding challenges local interpretations of equality based on gendered notions of respect. Women?s increasing sense of responsibility, confidence and competence has the potential to problematize relations of (dis)respect and the role and position of women within society. Two recommendations to aid in this process were developed: anti-gossip campaigns and mentoring schemes.
Eger Claudia, Scarles Caroline, Miller Graham (2019) Caring at a distance: a model of business care, trust and displaced responsibility, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 27 (1) Taylor and Francis
This paper advances an ethic of care for sustainable tourism. The study develops an original business care model that captures the dynamic interrelationships between care, responsibility and trust in corporate philanthropy. The model provides a novel perspective on how responsible business practices are formed across distance by shedding light on the different layers of responsibility and trust that characterize business?stakeholder relationships. The model is evaluated using the example of tour operators? engagement in the Education for All project in Morocco. Findings show that tour operators? commitment to caring at a distance becomes part of shared, displaced and performed articulations of responsibility. While performed responsibility acknowledges the embodiment of care, displaced responsibility shifts the responsibility to select, perform and/or oversee acts of care to stakeholders in destinations. Shared responsibility requires attention to the ways in which meanings and practices of care are co-constructed in corporate philanthropy with trust functioning as a central driver of these processes.
Frohlich David M., Corrigan-Kavanagh Emily, Bober Mirek, Yuan Haiyue, Sporea Radu, Le Borgne Brice, Scarles Caroline, Revill George, Van Duppen Jan, Brown Alan W., Beynon Megan (2019) The Cornwall a-book: An Augmented Travel Guide Using Next Generation Paper, The Journal of Electronic Publishing 22 (1) Michigan Publishing
Electronic publishing usually presents readers with book or e-book options for reading on paper or screen. In this paper, we introduce a third method of reading on paper-and-screen through the use of an augmented book (?a-book?) with printed hotlinks than can be viewed on a nearby smartphone or other device. Two experimental versions of an augmented guide to Cornwall are shown using either optically recognised pages or embedded electronics making the book sensitive to light and touch. We refer to these as second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) paper respectively. A common architectural framework, authoring workflow and interaction model is used for both technologies, enabling the creation of two future generations of augmented books with interactive features and content. In the travel domain we use these features creatively to illustrate the printed book with local multimedia and updatable web media, to point to the printed pages from the digital content, and to record personal and web media into the book.