Professor Caroline Scarles
Caroline is currently Head of the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at the University of Surrey. Her key research interests lie in the areas of critical tourism, with particular focus on the role of the visual and technology in tourism. Bringing together her work on the visual, mobile technology and digital solutions in the visitor experience, Caroline's recent research has focused on enriching the visitor experience through augmented reality and image recognition technology in arts and heritage. Caroline also conducts research in the area of sustainability through work on the socio-cultural impacts of tourism on communities and pro-environmental behaviour change.
Caroline is lead editor of the journal, Tourist Studies, and resource editor for Annals of Tourism Research. She holds several national and international appointments, including: executive committee member for BEST EN and the Association for Tourism in Higher Education, international advisor for the Geographies of Leisure and Tourism Research Group for the Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers, a founding member of the International Network for Visual Studies in Organisations (inVISIO) and is a non-executive Director for Visit Surrey..
Visuals and visuality in tourism; technology and mediation in tourism, arts and heritage, community engagement and social sustainability.
If you are interested in studying for a PhD in any of the above areas, do email me directly.
2017 EPSRC. Next Generation Paper. £1.174m. Investigating Team: Frohlich, D. (PI), Scarles, C., Sporea, R., Bober, M., Brown, A. & Revill, G. (University of Surrey (DWRC, SHTM, CVSSP & SBS) & Open University). Project Partners include: Emirates Holidays, Bradt Travel Guides, TUI UK & Ireland, TTG, Hewlett Packard, Ifolor Finland, Novocentrix, VTT, Visual Atoms, and independent travel writers.
This project is world-leading research on the technical development of augmented paper solutions. Using the context of travel and tourism and partnering with global leaders in this and the technology industry, the potential impact of this project is significant with regard to the future use of paper technologies and bridging the gap between material and virtual worlds.
Further details of the projects are available online at: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-connecting-paper-web
Media coverage is available at: http://www.travolution.com/articles/104960/emirates-holidays-and-university-of-surrey-collaborate-on-next-gen-interactive-print, https://www.surrey.ac.uk/mediacentre/press/2018/university-surrey-wins-award-help-revolutionise-paper-technology
2015 RRUKA (Rail Research UK Association). Integrating data sources to enhance the experience for passengers with special needs through privacy aware mobile applications Investigating Team: Treharne, H., Ross, T. Bailey, S., Schneider, S. & Scarles, C. (2015). Project Partners: University of Surrey, University of Southampton and Loughborough University. Project Costs: £68K. This project identifies opportunities of mobile technology in enabling increased accessibility for visually impaired users of rail networks.
2012-2016 Beyond the Visual: Augmented Reality and Image Recognition Technology in Spaces of Exhibition. Developed through 6 stages of funding (EPSRC/AHRC/Innovate UK):
2015 Innovate UK/ICURe Innovation-To-Commercialiastion. Let’s Explore: Commercialising Augmented Reality for Cultural Organisations. Investigating Team: Treharne, H., Scott, M., Slater, A., Scarles, C. & Casey, M. (2015). Project Partners: The Lightbox, Project costs: £15K.
2015 Innovate UK/ICURe Innovation-To-Commercialiastion. Let’s Explore: Commercialising Augmented Reality for Cultural Organisations. Investigating Team: Treharne, H., Scott, M., Slater, A., Scarles, C. & Casey, M. (2015). Project Partners: The Lightbox, Project costs: £35K.
2014 Research+/NESTA/AHRC. Visit-AR: Augmented Reality in Spaces of Exhibition. Development of a mobile application for wide-scale adoption of augmented reality in cultural organisations to recognise both 2-D and 3-D objects. Investigating team: Treharne, H., Scarles, C. (co-I), Culnane, C. & Casey, M. (2013). Project partners: Brooklands Museum, Historic Royal Palaces, The Lightbox, Surrey Heritage, Visit Surrey, Watts Gallery. Project costs: £49K.
2014 EPSRC/IAA fund. Beyond the Visual: Augmented Reality in Spaces of Exhibition II: Product Deployment. Investigating team: Treharne, H., Scarles, C. (co-I). Project timeframe: March 2014-January 2015. Project partners: Pervasive Intelligence (Casey, M), The Lightbox (Scott, M. & Hall, P.), Consultancy from Slater, A. & Smith, M. Project costs: £25K.
2013 EPSRC/IAA fund. Beyond the Visual: Augmented Reality in Spaces of Exhibition II. Investigating team: Treharne, H., Scarles, C. (co-I), Culnane, C. & Casey, M. Project timeframe: September 2013 – June 2014. Project partners: Brooklands Museum, The Lightbox, Visit Surrey, Watts Gallery. Project costs: £56K.
2012 EPSRC/MILES fund. Beyond the Visual: Augmented Reality in Spaces of Exhibition. Investigating team: Casey, M., Culnane, C., Treharne, H., Scarles, C. (co-I), & Frohlich, D. Project Partners: The Lightbox, Watts Gallery. Project costs: £14K.
This research focused on the opportunities afforded by augmented reality within spaces of exhibition. Initially funded as part of the EPSRC MILES project promoting interdisciplinary work, the project brought together academics working in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management (Dr Scarles) and the Department of Computing (Drs Treharne, Casey and Culnane). The research developed technology that used augmented reality to enhance the visitor experience within cultural organisations (museums and galleries). In the first project, a series of live trials were conducted with staff, volunteers and visitors at Watts Gallery (Compton) and The Lightbox (Woking). The prototype Android application enabled the development of innovative technology covering: image overlay, multisensory engagement (augmented audio and visual content), and indoor localisation (tracking visitor movements through fingerprinting technology). Key findings indicate that augmented reality content significantly enriches the visitor experience and facilitates deeper audience engagement with exhibitions. This is achieved through multiple interpretations layers, increased dwell time at exhibits, and facilitates visitor empowerment. Opportunity also exists for organisations to understand visitor usage patterns thus potentially impacting on activity such as marketing strategy, collateral sales strategy, digital giving and fundraising opportunities during visits. This second project developed an open-platform application to facilitate the wide-scale adoption of augmented reality technology across local and regional cultural organisations (AHRC/NESTA). This extended the technology to include 3D as well as 2D objects (e.g. sculpture, ceramics, even racing cars (working in partnership with Brooklands Museum)). The impact of initial research findings secured engagement of arts and heritage partners for subsequent funding rounds. Partners included: Brooklands Museum, Historic Royal Palaces (focusing on Hampton Court Palace), Surrey Heritage/Surrey History Centre, The Lightbox, Visit Surrey, and Watts Gallery.
Funding from EPSRC/IAA enabled the team to identify opportunities for product deployment. A working business model and plan was developed and subsequent funding opportunities arose through iCURe/Innovate UK. The research team launched a company, Let’s Explore, as a direct result of the research and associated technological development. However, despite significant interest and extremely positive feedback from across the arts and heritage sector, the commercial viability of the technology in the context of arts and heritage has provided significant challenge due to several key areas limiting organisational ability to engage. These are: budget and available financial resources/stakeholder knowledge/long lead times for investment/fearfulness of investment in hardware and ‘short shelf-life technology, of organisations, and technical knowledge of software programme development in existing organisations providing digital solutions in arts and heritage (willingness to invest in company but lack of in-house development skills).
2008-12 inVISIO (The International Network for Visual Studies in Organisations). ESRC funded. Developed through 2 projects:
2010 ESRC Researcher Development Initiative. Project Title: Advancing Visual Methodologies in Business and Management. Investigating Team: Warren, S., Bell, E., Davidson, J., Schroeder, J., Scarles, C. (Surrey P.I) & Lee, W. Project timeframe: September 2010- September 2012. Project cost: £81,411
2008 ESRC Seminar Series Seminar Series for inVISIO (The International Network for Visual Studies in Organisations). Project team: Warren, S, Scarles, C. (Surrey P.I), Vince, R. Bell, E., Davison, J., McLean, C. & Schroeder, J. Series timeframe: October 2008-May 2010. Series cost: £14,995.
inVISIO brings together researchers, educators, practitioners and artists from an international community to explore the visual dimensions of business, management and organisational life. Dr Scarles is a founding member of this network along with colleagues from the University of Essex, University of Bath, Royal Holloway University, University of Manchester and the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York. The network was founded through an ESRC seminar series grant (see above). The impacts of this include invitations to present reflections and findings on visual methods in business and management research at several international conferences and seminars, including: an ESRC DTC Advanced Methods Training workshop entitled “Advancing Visual Methods in Business and Management” held at the University of Surrey in January 2013 (Dr Scarles was keynote and co-host of this event), PDW workshop at the US Academy of Management (2010) entitled “Working with Critical Documentary Film”, QUIC Seminar (2010) entitled “Computer Analysis of Visual Data”, workshop at the British Academy of Management entitled “Challenges and Controversies in Visual Research”, and a workshop seminar on “Postcards from Ethical Practice” at the Visual Methods Conference (2011) (Dr Scarles was co-author of this presentation).
Of note, a second significant research project was conducted by inVISIO founding members through an ESRC Researcher Development Initiative (RDI) (see above) (Dr Scarles was PI for Surrey). This project aimed to address the gap between existing preferences towards quantitative, or text-based qualitative methods within business and management research, and the potential afforded by new channels of visual media communication within research. The project developed a free to access, online resource for the development of researcher skills in visual methodology and analysis, specifically with the needs of the business and community management community in mind. The resulting website, ‘inspire’ (http://www.moodle.in-visio.org) was developed by 31 expert members of inVISIO and provides introductory and advanced materials, how-to guides, video case studies, tutorials and supporting references in a ‘one-stop-shop’ visual methods repository for anyone wishing to develop new skills in visual methods. The site continues to attract over 460 users worldwide (including academics and non-academic researchers. 62% from UK and 38% international including USA, Sweden and Australia) and within the first 9 months of its launch has received over 800 unique visits. This incorporates over 18,000 unique page views, over 920 repeat visits during which visitors view twice as many pages and spend on average twice as long on the site. This demonstrates its substantial impact on the scientific community and beyond, and the impact this resource continues to have to facilitate capacity building within this area.
The network continues to thrive with over 550 members from across academia and industry sharing ideas and knowledge via the inVISIO website at: http://in-visio.org, thus establishing a supporting community for the project website and identifying opportunities for future initiatives such as conferences, workshops and publications.
2007-2010. The Effects of Tourist Photographic Practice on Host Communities. ESRC, Sole researcher/PI, including 3 months fieldwork period in Peru. Project cost: £64,413.
This research involved working directly with community members in the High Andes of Peru in Cusco to investigate the effects of tourist photography on those being photographed. In addition to theoretical contributions to academic knowledge on socio-cultural impacts of tourism on local communities, the ethics of tourist photography, tourist behaviour and visual methods, research findings had considerable impact on industry practice. Examples of this include the production of an industry report and user-guide to disseminate research findings from one ESRC funded project have been directly implemented within the tourism industry. These outputs have facilitated changes to company sustainability policies and tour leader training policies within tour operators, further clarifying the key issues and areas of confusion and concern when tourists photograph local people at destinations. Findings were disseminated to 45 tour operators in the UK (including the 13 operators that were directly involved in the research project). The impact these outputs have had is evident as both Explore Worldwide (the UK’s leading adventure travel company specialising in sustainable travel) and Journey Latin America, have integrated findings into tour leader training courses and tour leader manuals. For Explore this has involved the distribution of industry documents as standard across all leaders working on over 500 tours in over 130 countries. Tourism Concern (the world leading campaigning group for human rights in tourism) have also incorporated research findings into their own research and development of best practice guidelines on poverty alleviation in tourism and engaging with indigenous communities. The guide is also available on their open access website (over 15,000 individual supporters across 20 countries, academic network and Ethical Tour Operator Group and over 20,000 website hits per month), and through the Association of Independent Tour Operators (AITO), Sustainable Tourism Committee (with over 120 operators registered) and travel publications such as Wanderlust (readership of over 40,000).
2007 DEFRA. Public Perceptions of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism. Investigating team: Miller, G., Rathouse, K., Scarles, C, Holmes, K. & Tribe, J. Project cost: £69,812
Prof Scarles has worked on research commissioned by DEFRA on Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism. Research findings can be found at:
- Level 1 Business Environment
- Level 1 Business Impacts
- Level 3 Sustainable Operations
- MSc Sustainable Tourism Management
- MSc Tourism Social Sciences
- PhD Research Methods
Postgraduate research supervision
CURRENT PHD SUPERVISION
2016 – present Digital Communication and Collaboration Platforms for B2V in Tourism. PhD Candidate: Husna Zainal Al Abidin. First Supervisor with Dr Christine Lundberg.
2016 – present Travel to Enlightenment: Can Polar Tourism Act as a Moment of Inspiration, a Lifetime of Action? PhD Candidate: Christy Hehir. First Supervisor with Dr Joseph Kantenbacher & Dr Kayleigh Wyles (ESRC DTP Studentship).
2013 – 2017 Mobilising Ethical behaviour in the UK Tourism Industry. PhD Candidate: Kelsy Hejjas. First Supervisor with Prof. Graham Miller.
2012 – 2017 Social Media, Storytelling and Tourism. PhD Candidate: Fred Lund. Second Supervisor with Dr Scott Cohen.
2012 – 2016 Politicising the host-guest encounter, PhD Candidate: Lynn Beard. First Supervisor with Prof. John Tribe (ESRC DTC Studentship)
2012 – 2016 Effective Capacity Building within Destinations Communities: Tour Operator and Local Community Negotiations. PhD Candidate: Claudia Eger. First Supervisor with Prof. Graham Miller (ESRC DTC Case Studentship).
2008 – 2013 Networks, Acts and Artefacts: Exploring Actor Network Theory Through Letterboxing, PhD Candidate: Tadashi Yamagata. First Supervisor with Professor John Tribe.
2007 - 2012 Pilgrimage and Religiousness as Tourist Practice and Performance, PhD Candidate: Matina Terzidou. First Supervisor with Prof. Mark Saunders.
2007 – 2011 The Relationship Between the Film Industry and Tourism in Marketing Destinations, PhD Candidate: Maltika Siripis. First Supervisor with Professor David Airey.
2007 – 2010 The Development of Tourist Attractions Using Korean Gastronomy. PhD Candidate: Yeong Gug Kim. Second Supervisor with Dr Anita Eves.
dilute the boundaries between the individual,
organisational, and societal drivers of corporate philanthropy.
This creates a complex framework in which charitable
project selection occurs. Using the example of
European tour operators, this study investigates the
mechanisms through which companies invest in charitable
projects in overseas destinations. Inextricably linked to
this is the increasing contestation by local communities as
to how they are able to engage effectively with tourism in
order to realise the benefits tourism development can bring.
This research furthers such debates by exploring the processes
through which tour operators facilitate community
development through charitable giving. Findings show,
with no formal frameworks in existence, project selection
depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional
with the personal, with trust being positioned as a
central driver of these informal processes. Discretionary
responsibilities are reworked through business leaders?
commitment to responsible business practises and the
ethical subjectivity guiding these processes.
The primary objective of the study is to determine why employees engage and disengage from CSR interventions within the context of multinational hospitality and tourism organisations. In order to fully examine the subjective experience of employees engaging in organisational CSR, a qualitative methodology is employed. Data was drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality case study organisations and involved extensive interview data collected from CSR leaders, engaged and disengaged employees, and industry professionals. This exploratory research subsequently contributes to the understanding of employee engagement in CSR by identifying opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in corporate responsibility policy and initiatives.
This research also contributes to emerging evidence within the literature that suggests disengagement is not the counterpart of engagement. Having studied individual differences in CSR engagement, findings suggests that the engagement and disengagement are not opposites and unique antecedents to both engagement and disengagement are identified as arising at the personal, activity, and organisational level. A multilevel analysis subsequently contributes to the advancement of employee CSR engagement understanding.
Critically, it is proposed that employees are situated along a spectrum of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged, with a key contribution of this research being a model that addresses variation in individual engagement and disengagement. Recognising that employees accept, interpret and operationalise corporate responsibility differently, this study draws on social identity theory to account for individual differences amongst employees. While there are some common drivers of engagement across the entire spectrum of employees, differences also exist depending on the degree to which employees support CSR within their organisations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary depending on employees? existing level of broader engagement include: observed benefits of participation, CSR intervention design, organisational culture, employee CSR perceptions, and CSR leadership. Employee CSR engagement is also identified as being driven by the type of CSR intervention, communication, individual values, and person-organisation fit.
Social Responsibility, Journal of Business Ethics Springer Verlag
retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifcally to employees. However, despite specifc benefts of CSR
relating to employees and their importance as a stakeholder group, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to
the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organizational level. Both research and practice of
CSR have largely treated the individual organization as a ?black box,? failing to account for individual diferences amongst
employees and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is further exacerbated by
the tendency in stakeholder theory to homogenize priorities within a single stakeholder group. In response, utilizing case
study data drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality organizations, combined with extensive interview data
collected from CSR leaders, industry professionals, engaged, and disengaged employees, this exploratory research produces
a fner-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for
individual employee engagement in CSR interventions. This research proposes that employees are situated along a spectrum
of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged. While there are some common drivers of engagement across
the entire spectrum of employees, diferences also exist depending on the degree to which employees, rather than senior
management, support corporate responsibility within their organizations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary
depending on employees? existing level of broader engagement include organizational culture, CSR intervention design,
employee CSR perceptions, and the observed benefts of participation.
The findings show that social media platforms have grown into a ?virtual apparatus? utilising institutional technologies to suppress certain kinds of user behaviour. However, some users resist the constraining structures and they use the technologies of power to mediate engaging stories. The findings also show that DMOs? social media strategies and practices are largely dependent on alliances with various storytellers. DMOs employ a strategy of ?free value utilisation? by sourcing content from users, while also enticing users to contribute stories to their social media platforms by providing culturally driven raw material. It is recommended that DMOs should operationalise the conceptual framework in their social media strategies to mediate appealing narratives that connects with people. They should also employ a strategy of ?experiential micro-branding?, where every shared user story can be utilised as it represents a micro-brand appealing to a specific target segment.
through which empowerment and education acquire their value and meaning. Conceptually, the paper
employs social cognitive theory to explore the interplay between social learning, relational agency,
and culture. This interplay builds the foundation for the development of an empowerment model of
capacity building that proposes an interlinked system of community capacity and empowerment dimensions.
The model is explored in the context of the Education for All project in the High Atlas Mountains of
Morocco. The research combines participant observation, qualitative interviews and visual methods to
provide rich insights to situated knowledges of learning and empowerment. Findings reveal that the
meaning of education equates to the capacity to aspire to a different life. This problematizes the way gender
and gender relations are understood in the rural Berber villages. The girls? education unsettles the
repeating cycle of female educational deprivation, and leads them to become role models within their
communities. This instills the image of educated women in community consciousness, leading to an
incipient change in perceptions of what girls and women can be and do
Using the case of the Education for All project, findings reveal that caring at a distance is a crucial element of responsible action in tourism. Tour operators? investment in destination projects emerges primarily through an ethic of care between them and destination communities, with multiple layers of shared, performed and displaced responsibility underpinning this business practise. However, with no formal frameworks in existence, tour operators? selection of projects depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional with the personal, with trust being positioned as a central driver of these informal processes.
With regard to destination communities, lived experience and informal education are identified as core components of capacity building processes. Friendship is equated to the meaning of education, with empowerment being re-negotiated as learning to be responsible for the self. This understanding challenges local interpretations of equality based on gendered notions of respect. Women?s increasing sense of responsibility, confidence and competence has the potential to problematize relations of (dis)respect and the role and position of women within society. Two recommendations to aid in this process were developed: anti-gossip campaigns and mentoring schemes.