Charo Hodgkins, Monique Raats, Christopher Fife-Schaw, Matthew Peacock, A Groeppel-Klein, J Koenigstorfer, G Wasowicz, M Stysko-Kunkowska, Y Gulcan, Y Kustepeli, M Gibbs, Richard Shepherd, KG Grunert (2015)Guiding healthier food choice: systematic comparison of four front-of-pack labelling systems and their effect on judgements of product healthiness, In: British Journal of Nutrition113(10)pp. 1652-1663
Cambridge University Press
Different front-of-pack (FOP) labelling systems have been developed in Europe by industry and organisations concerned with health promotion. A study (n 2068) was performed to establish the extent to which inclusion of the most prevalent FOP systems--guideline daily amounts (GDA), traffic lights (TL), GDA+TL hybrid (HYB) and health logos (HL)--impact consumer perceptions of healthiness over and above the provision of a FOP basic label (BL) containing numerical nutritional information alone. The design included within- and between-subjects factors. The within-subjects factors were: food (pizzas, yogurts and biscuits), healthiness of the food (high health, medium health and low health) and the repeated measurements under BL and test FOP label conditions. The between-subjects factors were: the system (GDA, TL, GDA+TL hybrid, HL), portion size (typical portion size and a 50% reduction of a typical portion) and country (the UK, Germany, Poland and Turkey). Although the FOP systems tested did result in small improvements for objective understanding under some conditions, there was little difference between the provision of an FOP label containing basic numerical nutritional information alone or between the various systems. Thus, any structured and legible presentation of key nutrient and energy information on the FOP label is sufficient to enable consumers to detect a healthier alternative within a food category when provided with foods that have distinctly different levels of healthiness. Future research should focus on developing greater understanding of the psychological and contextual factors that impact motivation and the opportunity to use the various FOP systems in real-world shopping settings.
© 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. The purpose of this study is to examine the link between the reputational components of efficacy and moral reliability of institutions, and citizens' compliance with institutional recommendations. Research on bureaucratic reputations highlights the significance of positive political reputations based on credibility and legitimacy, but the impact of these components is not systematically isolated and studied. We draw insights from political psychology to move beyond a positive-negative valence-based approach of reputation, and highlight the different effect of efficacy and moral reliability components of reputation on citizens' cooperation, engagement in water saving activities, and levels of complaints. We use the Cypriot Water Authority as a case study and inquire how its institutional reputation influences Cypriot citizens' behavior regarding water use. Our data was collected via a representative national survey administered to a random sample of 800 Cypriots in the spring of 2009 and show that favorable perceptions of particular components of institutional reputation shape the levels of satisfaction with specific organizational outputs.
The impact of gynaecological cancers is multifaceted. Whilst many women enjoy good quality of life post treatment, a significant minority continue to experience poor emotional and physical wellbeing. Ineffective management of these consequences in follow-up care leads to lack of support and information contributing to ongoing unmet needs. This thesis explores the experience of women in the survivorship phase and efficacy of a psychosocial intervention to improve quality of life. Six studies were carried out. Study 1 (N=150), a Service Evaluation using the Holistic Needs Assessment (HNA), indicates women diagnosed with gynaecological cancers have heterogeneous concerns across the cancer trajectory, with varying levels of distress. Study 2, a systematic review of psychosocial interventions demonstrates promising results for use in women with gynaecological cancers, with most effective studies using relaxation or counselling/CBT techniques. Study 3 (N=49), a feasibility study, showed health and wellbeing events (HWE) were well received by patients and women intended to make behavioural changes post intervention. In study 4 (N=7), a focus group explored the experience of attending a HWE and, using thematic analysis, four themes emerged: 1) Sharing and validation of experience, (2) Individual and specific information, (3) Adjusting to a new self, (4) Behaviour change. Study 5 (N=216), a quasi-experimental design study on HWE’s indicated short-term improvements in social functioning, increases in fruit consumption, and trend for improvement in physical activity, yet a reduction in perceived social support and increase in depression; whilst long-term improvements in emotional/social/cognitive functioning, fatigue and financial difficulties were seen, increases in vegetable consumption, and the intervention may protect against depression and decreased resilience over time. In study 6 (N=12) focus group data explored patients’ experience of attending the HWE and thematic analysis revealed four themes: (1) Support; (2) Timing; (3) Reticence; (4) Understanding disease and the cancer experience. In summary, the results from this thesis suggest benefits in the use of health and wellbeing event interventions in a gynaecological cancer sample. However, further research is required to identify key intervention components suitable in this sample. Additional strategies may need to be considered to meet the unmet needs and ongoing physical and psychological sequelae these women face.
Background: Psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression are common post-stroke. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) have demonstrated effectiveness in alleviating such difficulties in other clinical health populations and show promise in stroke-related psychological difficulties. Objective and Outcomes: The study aimed to assess the feasibility of recruiting and retaining stroke survivors into a randomised waitlist control trial with an 8-week waitlist period and 3-month follow-up. We also aimed to assess the acceptability of an online mindfulness-based intervention for this population and the use of outcome measures relating to anxiety, depression, perceived stress, health status, quality of life and perseverative thinking. Methods: Stroke survivors were recruited at 6-month post-stroke in an NHS clinical setting. No criteria were set regarding minimum pre-existing psychological difficulties. Intervention: 10-session online mindfulness course, comprising elements of both MBSR and MBCT. Results: Fifty-four people were screened. Eighteen were deemed ineligible. Of the thirty-six assessed for eligibility, ten declined to participate. Twenty-four others considered participation but ultimately decided not to participate for reasons such as low confidence with computers. Two participants were successfully recruited and randomised (one to waitlist control). The intervention could be delivered as planned. The 8-week waitlist period was tolerated. No adverse effects were reported. Follow-up at 1 and 3-months was feasible. Reliable and clinically significant improvements were demonstrated in depression for one participant, certain mindfulness domains and quality of life scores. Where reliable deterioration was indicated to perseverative thinking and anxiety measures, low baseline scores prevent us from drawing any substantial inferences. Thematic analysis of interview data conducted with both participants and the recruiter indicated overall acceptability of the intervention and outcome measures used whilst highlighting difficulties in recruitment such as fears about safety online and the priority of physical rehabilitation. Conclusion: Despite the promise of MBIs for stroke-survivors, our poor recruitment rate indicates a larger trial of the proposed design is not currently feasible as planned.
This thesis (comprised of the literature review and empirical paper) aimed to explore the correlation between physical activity and mood in pregnant women. The literature review of this portfolio presents a narrative review of the research exploring the correlation between physical activity and mood in the general pregnant population. The findings of the review suggest that physical activity improves mood in this population. The empirical paper investigates the correlation between physical activity and mood over the duration of pregnancy. The findings suggest that increased physical activity from before pregnancy to the second trimester improves mood. The Summary of Clinical Experience is an outline of my experiences on 4 different clinical placements. The Table of Assessments outlines the titles of all assessments completed whilst on the clinical training programme.
This study compared 3 models of association between personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in a cross-sectional design. These models were as follows: (a) Emotional stability determines self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs, and conscientiousness is a direct predictor of self-care; (b) emotional stability determines self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs, and conscientiousness moderates the association between beliefs and self-care; (c) both emotional stability and conscientiousness determine self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs. Participants (N = 358, aged 12-30 years) with Type I diabetes completed measures of personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care. Structural equation modeling indicated that Model C was the best fit to the data.
Like other self-conscious emotions, shame takes on particular significance during late childhood and adolescence because of a developing capacity for self-reflection, self-other comparisons, and sensitivity to the views of others. Shame is a potentially important variable in adolescent well-being given its established associations with depression, reduced feelings of self-worth, and problematic anger. Three studies are reported that describe the development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale (ASPS), a novel semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness. The ASPS is a 19-item measure assessing 3 components of shame-proneness-negative self-evaluation, externalization, and emotional discomfort. Taken together, the studies support the reliability and validity of the ASPS as a semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness in adolescents aged 11 to 18 years. ASPS scores correlate as expected with scores on existing measure of shame-proneness and with measures of anger, negative affect, and self-esteem. More important, the data suggest that ASPS scores are related to, but distinct from, guilt. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the ASPS factor structure (RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05, CFI = .97, NNFI = .97). The ASPS represents a unique contribution to existing options for measuring shame-proneness in research and clinical contexts. Further work is required to assess the ASPS' temporal stability and its viability and psychometric properties in more culturally diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record
Mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective for health and wellbeing, and delivering mindfulness programmes online may increase accessibility and reduce waiting times and associated costs; however, research assessing the effectiveness of online interventions is lacking. We sought to: (1) assess the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on perceived stress, depression and anxiety; (2) assess different facets of mindfulness (i.e. acting with awareness, describing, non-judging and non-reacting) as mechanisms of change and (3) assess whether the effect of the intervention was maintained over time. The sample was comprised of 118 adults (female, n = 95) drawn from the general population. Using a randomised waitlist control design, participants were randomised to either an intervention (INT) or waitlist control (WLC) group. Participants completed the online intervention, with the WLC group starting after a 6-week waitlist period. Participants completed measures of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and perceived stress (PSS-10) at baseline, post-treatment, 3- and 6-month follow-up. Participants who completed the mindfulness intervention (n = 60) reported significantly lower levels of perceived stress (d = − 1.25 [− 1.64, − 0.85]), anxiety (d = − 1.09 [− 1.47, − 0.98]) and depression (d = − 1.06 [− 1.44, − 0.67]), when compared with waitlist control participants (n = 58), and these effects were maintained at follow-up. The effect of the intervention was primarily explained by increased levels of non-judging. This study provides support for online mindfulness interventions and furthers our understanding with regards to how mindfulness interventions exert their positive effects.
Background: Changes in perceptions of the self are often present after an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), and are associated with negative outcomes among survivors. Relatives’ perceptions of changes seem to be relevant also, and are associated with carer burden and family functioning. Furthermore, changes after an ABI may impact one’s social life and support network, and some suggest that perceptions of self-concept may be a factor contributing to this. Aims: This research aimed to investigate changes in perceptions of the self after an ABI, in addition to relatives’ perception of change, and whether these were associated with carers’ perceived burden and the perceived social support of survivors and relatives. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used based on questionnaires. ABI Survivors (n=15) and their nearest relative (n=15) were recruited from local community services, and completed the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISD-III) and Social Provisions Scale. Relatives also completed the Care Burden Scale. Results: There were no significant differences between survivors and relatives on the HISD-III, with both reporting current-state significantly more negatively than past-state. Relatives’ negative view of survivors’ current-state, and perceptions of changes compared to pre-injury were associated with increased carer burden. Relatives’ perceived social support was not associated with carer burden, or with their perception of survivors’ changes. Survivors’ perceived social support was not associated with self-concept, but was associated with relatives’ perceptions of changes pre to post-injury on the HISD-III. Conclusions: Relatives’ perceptions of changes are similar to survivors’ perceptions, indicating that they could be used as sources of information about the changes in survivors. However, their potential bias should be considered, as their perceptions may be associated with carer burden. Relatives’ perceptions are also important to consider when reviewing survivors’ perceived social support.
Background: Psychopaths represent a large cost to society due to their high criminality, antisociality, the costs of incarceration and the notion of therapeutic nihilism that dominates the literature. Subtypes of psychopathy seem to exist that map onto Karpman’s constructs of primary and secondary psychopathy. Cultural differences exist in the phenotypic structure of psychopathy and so further research is needed to ascertain whether similar subtypes emerge among psychopaths in the United Kingdom and what implications this may have for effective treatment and risk reduction Method: Data was collected as part of standard assessment and follow up procedures at 4 Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder Units over a 10 year period. Standardised psychometrics were used to assess for psychopathy, personality disorders and risk. Cluster analysis was employed to determine if subtypes of psychopathy emerged from the data and subsequent ANOVAs were used to externally validate and differentiate the emerging clusters. Finally, regression equations were used to determine whether cluster membership could predict change in risk over treatment. Results: Two subtypes of psychopathy emerge in the data resembling primary and secondary psychopathy. These subtypes differ in regard to symptomatology, personality profiles, exposure to childhood trauma, recidivism rates and risk. It was hypothesised that subtype membership would affect outcome. The best predictor of future risk is previous risk. Conclusion: Psychopathy should not be viewed as a unitary, nosological construct. Clear subtypes emerge in the data that can be differentiated by a range of variables. This has implications for more person centered treatment planning and potential future risk reduction.
There is some evidence for a positive relationship between affective responses to exercise and future physical activity behaviour, however previous research has been laboratory-based. This thesis aimed to contribute to the current theoretical understanding of affective responses to outdoor physical activity (walking and running), and the relationship of these affective responses to physical activity behaviour change, via three separate empirical studies and a synthesis of the qualitative data across studies. This research makes a number of contributions towards our understanding of the relationships between affective responses to exercise and future physical activity behaviour. Firstly, there was no reliable evidence to indicate that affective responses during everyday outdoor walking at baseline predicted future physical activity behavior (Study 1), though social factors were found to be important in both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Qualitative results suggested that the meanings of everyday walking might be one potential reason for this. Using a run-walking session as an exercise stimulus, affective responses mid-session, end-session and post-session did predict changes in physical activity six months later, whereas early-session affective responses were not significantly related to future physical activity (Study 2). Using results from the first two studies, a beginner run-walking intervention based on affect-regulated exercise intensity in was developed and optimised (Study 3), which was shown to be acceptable, enjoyable and feasible for a future randomised trial testing adherence. Qualitative results from the empirical studies were synthesised, and commonalities, differences and new insights into affective responses to walking and running were found. Results included themes of sources of affective responses (environment, social factors, dis/comfort, comparison with previous self and stages of exercise) and psychological outcomes of exercise (achievement, emotional and mental outcomes). The affective measure used in all empirical studies was analysed, with results showing the most promise for the measure in social situations.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a print-based intervention supported by Internet tools at improving physical activity in cancer survivors compared to a standard letter recommendation. Pre-diagnosis physical activity and self-efficacy were hypothesised to predict physical activity improvement.
Study design: Waiting list randomised control trial and cost-consequence analysis.
Methods: Adult cancer survivors who could become physically active without prior medical approval were randomised to receive either a print-based intervention supported by Internet tools (intervention, n=104) or a standard letter recommendation (control, n=103). Physical activity was assessed at 12-weeks with maintenance assessed at 24-weeks in the intervention arm. A number-needed-to-treat was calculated and a cost-consequence analysis completed.
Results: Participants in receipt of a print-based intervention supported by Internet tools improved their physical activity by 36.9% over 12-weeks compared to 9.1% in the control arm. Physical activity was maintained at 24-weeks in the intervention arm. Six-point-two-nine cancer survivors needed to receive the intervention for one to improve physical activity over a standard letter recommendation. Intervention delivery cost £8.19 per person. Pre-diagnosis physical activity and self-efficacy did not predict physical activity improvement.
Conclusion: A print-based intervention supported by Internet tools offers a promising low-cost means to intervene to improve physical activity in cancer survivors.
Objectives. The self-regulatory model proposes that an individual's cognitive representations of illness threat (illness representations) influence the selection and performance of strategies to cope with that illness (Leventhal, Meyer, & Nerenz, 1980). Also implicit in the model is the proposal that such coping strategies influence illness outcomes. These relationships represent a mediational model (Baron & Kenny, 1986). The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that coping strategies partially mediate the relationship between illness representations and illness outcome in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Design and methods. The study is an observational cross-sectional design. Self-report measures of illness representations, coping strategies, and illness outcome were collected from 125 women with rheumatoid arthritis attending rheumatology outpatient clinics. Clinical measures of disease activity and severity were obtained from hospital records. Results. Avoidant and resigned coping were found to partially mediate the relationship between symptom identity and the illness outcome measures of disability and psychiatric morbidity. As in other studies, strong relationships were found between illness representations and illness outcome. Conclusions. The finding that avoidant and resigned coping partially mediated the relationships between the illness representation dimension of symptom identity and two of the illness outcome measures (disability and psychiatric morbidity) provided some support for the hypothesis. However, the hypothesis was not fully supported, as coping did not partially mediate the relationship between any of the other illness representations and illness outcomes.
Objective: A waiting list randomised control trial has shown the Move More Pack, a print-based intervention supported by Internet tools, to improve physical activity levels in cancer survivors; however, one-third do not improve from the intervention. The objective of this process evaluation is to understand intervention use, the mechanisms of impact, the perceived benefits, and the contextual factors influencing these, identifying for whom it is a useful resource.
Methods: A mixed methods process evaluation, based on guidance from the UK Medical Research Council, including 181 questionnaire responses on intervention use and physical activity improvement over 12-weeks, 56 open text responses and 17 semi-structured interviews.
Results: The Move More Pack was suggested to be most useful when delivered towards the start of the cancer journey to those with a positive attitude to fighting cancer but with a low level of physical activity, capitalising on a teachable moment. It was suggested that healthcare professionals could support the effective distribution of the Move More Pack. The intervention’s printed components were more popular and well used than the Internet tools. The printed intervention components were positively correlated with physical activity improvement but the Internet tools were not. Females were more likely to use the intervention’s printed components than males. Cancer survivors using the intervention reflected that they had increased confidence and motivation for physical activity and other lifestyle behaviours.
Conclusion: The Move More Pack should be offered by healthcare professionals, during cancer treatment, when health is salient, to those with a positive attitude to fighting cancer but with low levels of physical activity. Use of the intervention’s printed components are more likely to improve physical activity than the Internet tools and are more likely to be used by females. The use of Internet tools to support physical activity improvement in cancer survivors requires further investigation.
Current literature highlights higher prevalence rates of sleep difficulties amongst adults with an intellectual disability. However, no synthesis has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of existing interventions in this population. Thus, the aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of sleep interventions in adults with an intellectual disability (ID).
Eight databases were searched to identify interventions for sleep difficulties amongst adults with an ID. The study quality was assessed with the Risk Of Bias In Non‐randomised Studies – of Interventions. Nine studies (n = 97) were eligible for inclusion in the review.
There was a notable study on heterogeneity in terms of the population, study design, intervention studied, sleep assessment and outcome assessments used. Eight of the nine studies reported improvement in sleep following intervention. However, these findings need additional support as only 97 participants involving a variety of interventions and measurement systems were used across all studies. Furthermore, eight of the nine studies had serious to critical risk of bias. The only study identified as having low risk of bias was a placebo‐controlled randomised controlled trial for the use of melatonin.
This review highlights the need for objective measures such as actigraphy and studies with greater experimental control investigating sleep interventions in adults with ID.
Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making ( Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable'. This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should express more supportive and favourable attitudes toward science. Research investigating the notion that 'to know science is to love it' has provided only weak empirical support and has itself been criticised for representing science and technology as a unified and homogenous entity. In practice, it is argued, how knowledge impacts on the favourability of attitudes will depend on a multiplicity of factors, not least of which is the particular area of science in question and the technologies to which it gives rise ( Evans P Durant, 1992). This article uses a new method for examining the knowledge-attitude nexus on a prominent area of 21st century science - biotechnology. The idea that greater scientific knowledge can engender change in the favourability of attitudes toward specific areas of science is investigated using data from the 2000 British Social Attitudes Survey and the 1999 Wellcome Consultative Panel on Gene Therapy. Together the surveys measure public opinion on particular applications of genetic technologies, including gene therapy and the use of genetic data, as well as more general attitudes towards genetic research. We focus our analysis on how two different measures of knowledge impact on these attitudes; one a general measure of scientific knowledge, the other relating specifically to knowledge of modern genetic science. We investigate what impact these knowledge domains have on attitudes towards biotechnology using a regression-based modelling technique (Bartels, 1996; Althaus, 1998; Sturgis, 2003). Controlling for a range of socio-demographic characteristics, we provide estimates of what collective and individual opinion would look like if everyone were as knowledgeable as the currently best-informed members of the general public on the knowledge domains in question. Our findings demonstrate that scientific knowledge does appear to have an important role in determining individual and group attitudes to genetic science. However, we find no support for a simple 'deficit model' of public understanding, as the nature of the relationship itself depends on the application of biotechnology in question and the social location of the individual.
Although research shows that acceptance, trust, and risk perception are often related, little is known about the underlying patterns of causality among the three constructs. In the context of a waterborne disease outbreak, we explored via zero-order/partial correlation analysis whether acceptance predicts both trust and risk perception (associationist model), or whether trust influences risk perception and acceptance (causal chain model). The results supported the causal chain model suggesting a causal role for trust. A subsequent path analysis confirmed that the effect of trust on acceptance is fully mediated by risk perception. It also revealed that trust is positively predicted by prior institutional trust and communication with the public. Implications of the findings for response strategies to contamination events are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity and reliability of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in screening for anxiety in older inpatients post-stroke. DESIGN: Longitudinal. SUBJECTS: A total of 81 inpatients with stroke aged 65 years or older were recruited at four centres in England. MAIN MEASURES: At phase 1 the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered and then the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (phase 2). The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory was repeated a median of seven days later (phase 3). RESULTS: Internal reliability of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory was high (α = 0.95) and test-retest reliability acceptable (τB = 0.53). Construct validity was evident relative to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Anxiety subscale (τB = 0.61). At a cut off of 6/7, sensitivity of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory was 0.88, specificity 0.84, with respect to the Structured Clinical Interview anxiety diagnosis. Hospital Anxiety and Depressions Scale - Anxiety subscale sensitivity was 0.88, specificity 0.54 at the optimum cut off of 5/6. A comparison of the areas under the curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristics for the two instruments indicated that the area under the curve of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory was significantly larger than that of the Hospital Anxiety and Depressions Scale - Anxiety subscale, supporting its superiority. CONCLUSIONS: The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory is an internally consistent, reliable (stable) and valid instrument with acceptable sensitivity and specificity to screen for anxiety in older inpatients with stroke.
C Fife-Schaw, S de Lusignan, J Wainwright, H Sprake, S Laver, V Heald, J Orton, M Prescott, H Carr, M O'Neill (2014)Comparing exercise interventions to increase persistence with physical exercise and sporting activity among people with hypertension or high normal blood pressure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial, In: TRIALS15ARTN 336
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Models approaching consumer expectations of their water supplier from a risk perspective suggest that consumers primarily and overwhelmingly want safe drinking water supply. In this study consumer preferences in the water sector are investigated in two contrasting case studies: Cyprus, where there have been significant quantity and continuity of supply issues, and Riga, where there have been water quality issues. While water quality is undoubtedly the main priority of water consumers in Riga, in Cyprus consumers indicate that they prioritise a more reliable service even though many are sufficiently dissatisfied with water quality that they do not drink the tap water. The analysis of consumer attitudes in the two case studies suggests that when water supply is unreliable, reliability takes precedence; once it is reliable quality issues come to the fore.
Dagmar Strohmeier, Martyn Barrett, Carmen Bora, Simona C. S. Caravita, Elisa Donghi, Edmond Dragoti, Christopher Fife-Schaw, Mercedes Gómez-López, Eszter Kapéter, Angela Mazzone, Rudina Rama, Gabi Roşeanu, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, Hanna Steiner, Simona Trip, Harriet Tenenbaum, Detlef Urhane, Carmen Viejo (2017)Young People’s Engagement with the European Union: The Importance of Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe, In: Journal of Psychology / Zeitschrift für Psychologie225(4)pp. 313-323
This study investigated whether demographic variables, efficacy beliefs, visions and worries are associated with four different forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union: intended voting in the 2019 EU elections, non-conventional political engagement, psychological engagement, and the wish that one’s own country should leave the EU. The sample comprised 3.764 young people aged 16 to 25 years living in seven European countries: Albania, Austria, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and UK. Economic challenges, human rights and the environment were the most important future visions; unemployment and poverty, climate change, civil unrests and the collapse of the EU were the most important future worries. The four forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union were differentially associated with predictors, although internal efficacy and future vision of economic challenges predicted all forms. Implications for future EU policy are discussed.
This study asks whether the Trust, Confidence and Co-operation model, proposed by Earle and Siegrist (2006), can be applied to the question of whether trust and confidence in the OSD will affect the public’s intention to attend the 2012 London Olympic Games.
Temperate zones including the UK and mainland Europe continue to be exposed to increasing temperatures and more frequent heatwaves as global warming continues. The built environment can mitigate the public health risk of overheating and recommendations for precautionary actions on homes have been published by government and industry. A key player in improving resilience is the householder, who can determine whether precautionary measures will be installed in their home. Previous research on flooding has applied Protection Motivation Theory to examine determinants of householder response to risk. However, flooding risks differ from those of overheating in several ways. The current study builds on this work to address the gap on understanding householder propensity to install precautionary measures against overheating. A large-scale survey (n = 1007) of householders was conducted in the south of England and regression analyses applied to the data. While threat appraisal (perception of threat risk and severity) had an influence on motivation to take action, coping appraisal (perception of ability to make changes, of the effectiveness of the changes and of convenience) was a stronger predictor, particularly for flat dwellers. Previous experience of overheating did not directly influence protection motivation. Age was negatively related to intentions to act but income was not a significant factor. Recommendations for policy and practice include focusing on enhancing coping appraisal, targeting older citizens, customising initiatives by type of property and occupancy, and framing mitigating actions in ways other than protection from overheating.
The evidence base for 'what works' for patients detained in high secure hospitals has predominantly been established from a clinical perspective, with the voices of those at the centre of care, the expert by experience, absent. Neglecting this voice renders an important source of information for evidence-based practice inaccessible to outcome evaluators. Twelve high secure patients considered 'ready' to be discharged were interviewed to explore what in their view had helped or hindered their progress to this stage. Thematic analysis steps were applied to interviews and eight themes were generated that represented valued elements of high security: temporary suspension of responsibility, collaboration in care, learning from others, supportive alliances, specific interventions (medical and psychotherapeutic), a safe environment and opportunities for work. Narratives demonstrated the complementary and unique contribution of the patient experience in informing 'what works', and are discussed alongside existing theories relevant to promoting clinical change and risk reduction. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
This study aimed to extend our theoretical understanding of how mindfulness-based interventions exert their positive influence on measures of occupational health. Employing a randomised waitlist control study design, we sought to: (1) assess an Internet-based instructor-led mindfulness intervention for its effect on key factors associated with ‘recovery from work’, specifically, work-related rumination, fatigue and sleep quality; (2) assess different facets of mindfulness (acting with awareness, describing, non-judging, and non-reacting) as mechanisms of change; and (3) assess whether the effect of the intervention was maintained over time by following up our participants after three and six months. Participants who completed the mindfulness intervention (N=60) reported significantly lower levels of work-related rumination and fatigue, and significantly higher levels of sleep quality, when compared with waitlist control participants (N=58). Effects of the intervention were maintained at three and six month follow-up with medium to large effect sizes. The effect of the intervention was primarily explained by increased levels of only one facet of mindfulness (acting with awareness). This study provides support for online mindfulness interventions to aid recovery from work and furthers our understanding with regards to how mindfulness interventions exert their positive effects.
The present thesis aims to understand the global decrease of homophobia over the last few decades. In Chapter 1, I summarise previous research on homophobia, especially in the context of Romania and the UK. The next two chapters focus on psychological interventions to reduce homophobia. A systematic review and set of meta-analyses in Chapter 2 found that education and contact with LGB people were effective interventions. The same review found that most research was conducted with American college students, and that some high-quality research performed by postgraduates was left unpublished. In Chapter 3, a systematic qualitative review found that these interventions were often described by participants as ‘eye-opening’, but were sometimes criticised as ‘out of context’. In the following chapter (Chapter 4), I looked at the change in homophobia on a societal level. Reanalysing data from a large scale international survey, I found that the same model could explain homophobia in the US, the UK and Romania, but the decrease of homophobia over a 20-year period remained unexplained. In the next two chapters, I turned from the causes to the consequences of the decrease in homophobia, asking whether the acceptance of LGB people may have negative implications for ethnic prejudice. In Chapter 5, I performed discourse analysis on media reports of a gay pride parade in Romania, finding that LGB people were excluded from constructions of Romanian national identity. In Chapter 6, I proposed a questionnaire and an experimental task to study sexualised nationalism, a set of ideologies that either include or exclude LGB people from national identities. I found that more acceptance of LGB people in Romania and the UK was not linked to exclusion of ethnic minorities. In the conclusion (Chapter 7), I propose that reducing homophobia can be achieved within a plurality of theoretical and practical frameworks.
There are different elements to parental monitoring including parental knowledge and parental control, which have differing links to child conduct problems. The aims of this study were to examine the antecedents of parental knowledge and control, and to explore the concurrent and longitudinal associations with child conduct problems over time. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from 1, 116 families with twins taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Assessments and interviews were conducted with mothers, teachers and children when children were aged 5, 7, 10, 12 and 18 years. Low family SES was found to predict lower parental knowledge and control at ages 10 and 12. Mother’s antisocial behaviour also predicted both parental knowledge and control at age 10, but only parental knowledge at age 12. Childhood conduct problems predicted later parental knowledge, but were not associated with parental control. Concurrently, conduct problems were negatively associated with parental knowledge, but were not robustly associated with parental control. Longitudinally, parental knowledge did not predict conduct problems independently of influences shared between siblings, therefore parental knowledge itself was not as influential as expected. Conversely, child conduct problems predicted less parental knowledge, over and above influences shared between siblings. As well as questioning the impact of parental knowledge on child conduct problems, these findings provide support for the importance of both child and parent-driven effects in contributing to behaviours’. Recommendations for future research and clinical intervention are discussed.
Animal rights extremists have carried out a number of campaigns in the past in order to protect animals. The actions they carry out as part of these campaigns are often described as acts of intimidation, however little has been done to explore how these groups use intimidation on the whole. Past research has focused mainly on specific animal rights campaign types (Donovan & Coupe, 2013; Munro, 2005) or action types (Monaghan, 1999). The current research aimed to explore the types of intimidating behaviours carried out by animal rights extremists in the UK across all campaign types. Literature reviews were carried out in order to understand more about the current knowledge of animal rights extremism and intimidation. Study 1 aimed to catalogue incidents carried out by animal rights extremists in the UK, and to identify any regular patterns of behaviour across and between distinct campaign groups. The results of this study demonstrated that animal rights extremists show patterns in their choice of actions and targets both across the campaigns, and more specific patterns emerged for the main five campaigns. Having identified that threats are closely associated with intimidation, both from the literature reviews and the findings of Study 1, the second study aimed to explore the type of language used by animal rights extremists when making threats. The findings of Study 2 indicate that animal rights extremists are extremely confident when making their threats, although they might not be truthful when doing so. Overall, the findings of this research have important practical implications for potential targets of animal rights extremists.