Dr Femi Adeyemi-Ejeye

Senior Lecturer in Video Technology

Academic and research departments

Department of Music and Media.


Areas of specialism

Video Compression; Video Transmission; Ultra-High Definition; Video Quality; Immersive media (360, VR and AR)

University roles and responsibilities

  • Senior Placement Tutor, Film Production and Broadcast Engineering
  • Programme leader, PhD Innovative Media Technology

    Previous roles

    01 February 2023 - 31 August 2023
    Interim Associate Dean (Doctoral College), Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
    01 January 2018 - 01 September 2020
    Admissions Tutor, Film and Video production Technology
    University of Surrey
    20 September 2017 - 31 July 2022
    University of Surrey
    01 May 2019 - 01 May 2022
    Deputy Chair, University Early Careers Researchers (ECR) Forum
    University of Surrey
    01 April 2022 - 01 February 2023
    Interim Chair, University Early Careers Researchers (ECR) Forum

    Affiliations and memberships

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
    Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG)


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    Indicators of esteem

    • Invited member of the IEEE CTSoc: Wireless and Network Technologies (WNT) Technical Committee (2020 - Present)


      Postgraduate research supervision



      OLUWATOBI BAIYEKUSI, Haitham Mahmoud, De Mi, Junaid Arshad, Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, Haeyoung Lee (2024)An ML-based Spectrum Sharing Technique for Time-Sensitive Applications in Industrial Scenarios

      Industry 4.0, driven by enhanced connectivity by wireless technologies such as 5G and Wi-Fi 6, fosters flexible industrial scenarios for high-yield production and services. Private 5G networks and 802.11ax networks in unlicensed spectrum offer very unique opportunities, however existing techniques limit the flexibility needed to serve diverse industrial use cases. In order to address a subset of these challenges, this paper offers a solution for time-sensitive application use cases. A new technique is proposed to enable data-driven operations through Machine Learning for technologies sharing unlicensed bands. This enables proportionate spectrum sharing informed by data to improve critical applications performance metrics. The results presented reveal improved performance to serve critical industrial operations, without degrading spectrum utilization.

      Anthony David Orme, Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, Andrew Gilbert (2024)Towards Rapid Elephant Flow Detection Using Time Series Prediction for OTT Streaming

      Broadcast television traditionally employs a unidirectional transmission path to deliver low latency, high-quality media to viewers. To expand their viewing choices, audiences now demand internet OTT (Over The Top) streamed media with the same quality of experience they have become accustomed to with traditional broadcasting. Media streaming over the internet employs elephant flow characteristics and suffers long delays due to the inherent and variable latency of TCP/IP. Early detection of media streams (elephant flows) as they enter the network allows the controller in a software-defined network to re-route the elephant flows so that the probability of congestion is reduced and the latency-sensitive mice flows can be given priority. This paper proposes to perform rapid elephant flow detection, and hence media flow detection, on IP networks within 200ms using a data-driven temporal sequence prediction model, reducing the existing detection time by half. We propose a two-stage machine learning method that encodes the inherent and non-linear temporal data and volume characteristics of the sequential network packets using an ensemble of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) layers, followed by a Mixture Density Network (MDN) to model uncertainty, thus determining when an elephant flow (media stream) is being sent within 200ms of the flow starting. We demonstrate that on two standard datasets, we can rapidly identify elephant flows and signal them to the controller within 200ms, improving the current count-minsketch method that requires more than 450ms of data to achieve comparable results.

      George Roberts, Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye (2023)Performance Evaluation of MPEG-5 part 2 (LCEVC): Impact of Packet Loss, In: Multimedia Tools and Applications Springer

      This paper presents an evaluation of the latest MPEG-5 Part 2 Low Complexity Enhancement Video Coding (LCEVC) for video streaming applications using best effort protocols. LCEVC is a new video standard by MPEG, which enhances any base codec through an additional low bitrate stream, improving both video compression efficiency and and transmission. However, there is an interplay between packetization, packet loss visibility, choice of codec and video quality, which implies that prior studies with other codecs may be not as relevant. The contributions of this paper is, therefore in twofold: It evaluates the compression performance of LCEVC and then the impact of packet loss on its video quality when compared to H.264 and HEVC.The results from this evaluation suggest that, regarding compression, LCEVC outperformed its base codecs, overall in terms average encoding bitrate savings when using the constant rate factor (CRF) rate control. For example at a CRF of 19, the average encoding bitrate was reduced by 18.7% and 15.8% when compared with the base H.264 and HEVC codecs respectively. Furthermore, LCEVC produced better visual quality across the packet loss range compared to its base codecs and the quality only started to decrease once packet loss exceeded 0.8-1%, and decreases at a slower pace compared to its equivalent base codecs. This suggests that the LCEVC enhancement layer also provides error concealment. The results presented in this paper will be of interest to those considering the LCEVC standard and expected video quality in error-prone environments

      Anthony O. Adeyemi-Ejeye, Mohammed Alreshoodi, Laith Al-Jobouri, Martin Fleury (2019)Impact of Packet Loss on 4K UHD Video for Portable Devices, In: Multimedia Tools and Applications78(22)pp. 31733-31755 Springer

      Ultra High Definition (UHD) video streaming to portable devices has become topical. Two standardized codecs are current, H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC) and the more recent High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). This paper compares the two codecs’ robustness to packet loss, after making allowances for relative coding gain. A significant finding from the comparison is that the H.264/AVC codec is less impacted by packet loss than HEVC, despite their differing coding efficiencies and including at low levels of packet loss. The results will be especially relevant to those designing portable devices with 4K UHD video display capability, allowing them to estimate the level of error concealment necessary. The paper also includes the results of HEVC compressed UHD video streaming over an IEEE 802.11ad wireless link operating at 60 GHz as a pointer to future performance in an error-prone channel.

      Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, M Alreshoodi, L Al-Jobouri, M Fleury, J Woods (2017)Packet loss visibility across SD, HD, 3D, and UHD video streams, In: Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation45pp. 95-106 Elsevier

      The trend towards video streaming with increased spatial resolutions and dimensions, SD, HD, 3D, and 4kUHD, even for portable devices has important implications for displayed video quality. There is an interplay between packetization, packet loss visibility, choice of codec, and viewing conditions, which implies that prior studies at lower resolutions may not be as relevant. This paper presents two sets of experiments, the one at a Variable BitRate (VBR) and the other at a Constant BitRate(CBR), which highlight different aspects of the interpretation. The latter experiments also compare and contrast encoding with either an H.264 or an High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) codec, with all results recorded as objective Mean Opinion Score (MOS). The video quality assessments will be of interest to those considering: the bitrates and expected quality in error-prone environments; or, in fact, whether to use a reliable transport protocol to prevent all errors, at a cost in jitter and latency, rather than tolerate low levels of packet errors.

      A. O. Adeyemi-Ejeye, M. Alreshoodi, L. Al-Jobouri, M. Fleury (2019)Prospects for live higher resolution video streaming to mobile devices: achievable quality across wireless links, In: Journal of Real-Time Image Processing16(1)pp. 127-141 Springer Verlag

      From a review of the literature and a range of experiments, this paper demonstrates that live video streaming to mobile devices with pixel resolutions from Standard Definition up to 4k Ultra High Definition (UHD) is now becoming feasible by means of high-throughput IEEE 802.11ad at 60 GHz or 802.11ac at 5 GHz, and 4kUHD streaming is even possible with 802.11n operating at 5 GHz. The paper, by a customized implementation, also shows that real-time compression, assisted by Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) at 4kUHD, is also becoming feasible. The paper further considers the impact of packet loss on H.264/AVC and HEVC codec compressed video streams in terms of Structural Similarity (SSIM) index video quality. It additionally gives an indication of wireless network latencies and currently feasible frame rates. Findings suggest that, for medium-range transmission, the video quality may be acceptable at low packet loss rates. For hardware-accelerated 4kUHD encoding, standard frame rates may be possible but appropriate higher frame rates are only just being reached in hardware implementations. The target bitrate was found to be important in determining the display quality, which depends on the coding complexity of the video content. Higher compressed bitrates are recommended, as video quality may improve disproportionately as a result.

      M Alreshoodi, Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, J Woods, SD Walker (2015)Fuzzy logic inference system-based hybrid quality prediction model for wireless 4kUHD H.265-coded video streaming, In: IET Networks. Special Issue on Creating a Smarter Environment through the Advancement of Communication Systems, Networks and Applications4(6)pp. 296-303 Institution of Engineering and Technology

      Networked visual applications such video streaming have grown exponentially in recent years, yet are known to be sensitive to network impairments. However, available measurement techniques that adopt a full reference model are impractical in real-time streaming because they require the original video sequence available at the receivers side. The primary aim of this study is to present a hybrid no-reference prediction model for the perceptual quality of 4kUHD H.265-coded video in the wireless domain. The contributions of this paper are two-fold: first, an investigation of the impact of quality of service (QoS) parameters on 4kUHD H.265-coded video transmission in an experimental environment; second, objective model based on fuzzy logic inference system is developed to predict the visual quality by mapping QoS parameters to the measured quality of experience. The model is evaluated in contrast to random neural networks. The results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from the proposed hybrid prediction model. This study will help in the development of a reference-free video quality prediction model and QoS control methods for 4kUHD video streaming.

      Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, M Alreshoodi, SD Walker (2017)Implementation of 4kUHD HEVC-content transmission, In: Multimedia Tools and Applications76(17)pp. 18099-18118 Springer

      The Internet of things (IoT) has received a great deal of attention in recent years, and is still being approached with a wide range of views. At the same time, video data now accounts for over half of the internet traffic. With the current availability of beyond high definition, it is worth understanding the performance effects, especially for real-time applications. High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) aims to provide reduction in bandwidth utilisation while maintaining perceived video quality in comparison with its predecessor codecs. Its adoption aims to provide for areas such as television broadcast, multimedia streaming/storage, and mobile communications with significant improvements. Although there have been attempts at HEVC streaming, the literature/implementations offered do not take into consideration changes in the HEVC specifications. Beyond this point, it seems little research exists on real-time HEVC coded content live streaming. Our contribution fills this current gap in enabling compliant and real-time networked HEVC visual applications. This is done implementing a technique for real-time HEVC encapsulation in MPEG-2 Transmission Stream (MPEG-2 TS) and HTTP Live Streaming (HLS), thereby removing the need for multi-platform clients to receive and decode HEVC streams. It is taken further by evaluating the transmission of 4k UHDTV HEVC-coded content in a typical wireless environment using both computers and mobile devices, while considering well-known factors such as obstruction, interference and other unseen factors that affect the network performance and video quality. Our results suggest that 4kUHD can be streamed at 13.5 Mb/s, and can be delivered to multiple devices without loss in perceived quality.

      Jesus Gutierrez, Pablo Perez, Marta Orduna, Ashutosh Singla, Carlos Cortes, Pramit Mazumdar, Irene Viola, Kjell Brunnstrom, Federica Battisti, Natalia Cieplinska, Dawid Juszka, Lucjan Janowski, Mikołaj Leszczuk, ANTHONY ADEYEMI-EJEYE, Yaosi Hu, Zhenzhong Chen, Glenn Van Wallendael, Peter Lambert, Cesar Diaz, John Hedlund, Omar Hamsis, Stephan Fremerey, Frank Hofmeyer, Alexander Raake, Pablo Cesar, Marco Carli, Narciso Garcia (2021)Subjective evaluation of visual quality and simulator sickness of short 360? videos: ITU-T Rec. P.919, In: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia IEEE

      —Recently an impressive development in immersive technologies, such as Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR) and 360° video, has been witnessed. However, methods for quality assessment have not been keeping up. This paper studies quality assessment of 360° video from the cross-lab tests (involving ten laboratories and more than 300 participants) carried out by the Immersive Media Group (IMG) of the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG). These tests were addressed to assess and validate subjective evaluation methodologies for 360° video. Audiovisual quality, simulator sickness symptoms, and exploration behavior were evaluated with short (from 10 seconds to 30 seconds) 360° sequences. The following factors’ influences were also analyzed: assessment methodology, sequence.

      Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, M Alreshoodi, L Al-Jobouri, M Fleury, J Woods, M Medhi (2017)IEEE 802.11ac wireless delivery of 4kUHD video: The impact of packet loss, In: ICCE-Berlin 2017 Proceedings IEEE

      This paper examines the 4kUHD video quality from streaming over an IEEE 802.11ac wireless channel, given measured levels of packet loss. Findings suggest that there is a strong content dependency to loss impact upon video quality but that, for short-range transmission, the quality is acceptable, making 4kUHD feasible on head-mounted displays.

      M Alreshoodi, Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, J Woods, SD Walker, J Pokhrel (2016)Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Quality Prediction Model for Wireless 4kUHD H.265-coded Video Streaming, In: ICCE 2016 Proceedingspp. 407-408 IEEE

      This paper proposes a prediction model for the perceptual quality of wireless 4kUHD H.265 video streaming. Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System (IT2FLS), the model exploits application and physical layer parameters. The results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from the proposed prediction model. This study should help in the development of a reference-free video quality prediction model and QoS control methods for 4kUHD video streaming.

      M Alreshoodi, Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, L Aljobouri, M Fleury, B Alzahrani (2017)Packet Loss Visibility for Higher Resolution Video on Portable Devices, In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE) IEEE

      After adjusting for coding gain between the H.264 and HEVC codecs, a comparison is made between the two codecs’ robustness to packet loss. A counter-intuitive finding arises that the less efficient codec is less affected by packet loss than the more efficient codec, even at very low levels of packet loss. The findings will be of interest to those designing portable devices that can display up to 4kUHD video.

      Anthony Adeyemi-Ejeye, M Mehdi, MG Martini, N Phillip, J Orwell (2017)Design of a Hybrid Multi-Occupant Visitor Communication and Door Control System, In: ICCE-Berlin 2017 Proceedings IEEE

      Door phone systems, allowing occupants of a building to communicate with visitors at the door, have evolved over the years, with the current advancements being a fully internet protocol (IP) based solution. In order to adopt newer IP based solutions, current analogue systems can be replaced, yet this may be costly and cumbersome, especially in a conventional multioccupant building. We therefore propose an architecture which supports current analogue door phone systems, and also provides IP based functionality. We have implemented the proposed architecture based on SIP, WebRTC and an IoT gateway system connected to the multi-occupant conventional video door phone system.