Dr Sarah Bath

Senior Lecturer in Public Health Nutrition
PhD, BSc, Registered Dietitian (with HCPC), FHEA


Areas of specialism

Iodine; Early life nutrition; Dietary assessment; Micronutrients; Dietetics

University roles and responsibilities

  • Programme Director for MSc in Nutritional Medicine
  • Chair of the Board of Studies for MSc in Human Nutrition
  • Module organiser (BMS3058 and BMSM009)
  • Personal Tutor (undergraduate and postgraduate)

    My qualifications

    PhD Nutritional Sciences
    University of Surrey
    Graduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching (GCLT)
    Higher Education Academy
    BSc Nutrition and Dietetics
    University of Surrey

    Previous roles

    2012 - 2013
    Post-doctoral research fellow (iodine projects)
    University of Surrey
    2013 - 2016
    MRC Research Fellow (Population Health Scientist)
    University of Surrey
    2009 - 2011
    Student member of the Nutrition Society Council


    In the media

    May 2013
    BBC Breakfast news
    Live TV interview to discuss Lancet publication on iodine and IQ
    May 2013
    BBC 5 Live: 
    Live Radio Interview to discuss Lancet publication on iodine and IQ
    May 2013
    ITV Lunchtime News
    Live TV interview to discuss Lancet publication on iodine and IQ
    May 2013
    BBC World News
    Live TV interview to discuss Lancet publication on iodine and IQ
    “Pregnant mothers and the dangers of iodine deficiency”
    Interviewed for print article
    The Guardian
    BBC Radio 4: In their element series, Awesome Iodine
    Radio interview to discuss iodine research


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Indicators of esteem

    • Prize winner in Young Scientists’ Competition, Nutrimenthe International Conference,  2013

    • British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (BSPED) annual meeting: Best abstract, 2012

    • A winner of the Nutrition Society Postgraduate Competition, 2012

    • University of Surrey, FHMS Postgraduate Research Student of the Year, 2012

    • Nutrition Society student competition for oral communication at the Winter Meeting, 2011

    • Prize winner at British Dietetic Association Symposium for Dietitians New to Research, 2008

    Research funding:

    • Academy of Medical Sciences (Springboard)
    • Medical Research Council (Population Health Scientist Fellowship)


    Postgraduate research supervision

    Postgraduate research supervision




    Deborah Levie, Tim I M Korevaar, Sarah C Bath, Mario Murcia, Mariana Dineva, Sabrina Llop, Mercedes Espada, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Yolanda B de Rijke, Jesús M Ibarluzea, Jordi Sunyer, Henning Tiemeier, Margaret P Rayman, Mònica Guxens, Robin P Peeters (2019) Association of maternal iodine status with child IQ: a meta-analysis of individual-participant dataJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 104: 5957-5967

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for thyroid hormone production. Adequate iodine intake is especially important during pregnancy and early life, when brain development is dependent on thyroid hormones. Iodine intake recommendations vary around the world, but most recommendations generally reflect the increased requirements during pregnancy and lactation, although adequate iodine intake prior to pregnancy is also important. Tremendous progress has been made in improving iodine intake across the world over the past 30 years, mainly through salt iodisation programmes. However, in countries without strong iodine fortification programmes, and with shifts in dietary patterns, a need has arisen for health organisations, governments and clinicians to ensure adequate iodine is consumed by everyone in the population. For example, in countries where adequate iodine intake depends on individual food choice, particularly of iodine-rich milk and dairy products, intake can be highly variable and also vulnerable to changing dietary patterns. In this Review, iodine is considered in the wider context of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, the dietary trends for salt restriction for cardiovascular health, and the increasing uptake of plant-based diets.

    Katie Nicol, Anne P. Nugent, Jayne V. Woodside, Kathryn H. Hart, Sarah C. Bath (2023)Iodine and plant-based diets: a narrative review and calculation of iodine content, In: British Journal of Nutrition131(2)pp. 265-275 Cambridge University Press

    An increasing number of food-based recommendations promote a plant-based diet to address health concerns and environmental sustainability in global food systems. As the main sources of iodine in many countries are fish, eggs and dairy products, it is unclear whether plant-based diets, such as the EAT-Lancet reference diet, would provide sufficient iodine. This is important as iodine, through the thyroid hormones, is required for growth and brain development; adequate iodine intake is especially important before, and during, pregnancy. In this narrative review, we evaluated the current literature and estimated iodine provision from the EAT-Lancet reference diet. There is evidence that those following a strict plant-based diet, such as vegans, cannot reach the recommended iodine intake from food alone and are reliant on iodine supplements. Using the EAT-Lancet reference diet intake recommendations in combination with iodine values from UK food tables, we calculated that the diet would provide 128 μg/d (85 % of the adult recommendation of 150 μg/d and 51–64 % of the pregnancy recommendation of 200–250 μg/d). However, if milk is replaced with unfortified plant-based alternatives, total iodine provision would be just 54 μg/d (34 % and 22–27 % of the recommendations for adults and pregnancy, respectively). Plant-based dietary recommendations might place consumers at risk of iodine deficiency in countries without a fortification programme and where animal products provide the majority of iodine intake, such as the UK and Norway. It is essential that those following a predominantly plant-based diet are given appropriate dietary advice to ensure adequate iodine intake.

    Katie Nicol, Anne P. Nugent, Jayne V. Woodside, Kathryn Hayley Hart, Sarah C Bath (2024)The impact of replacing milk with plant-based alternatives on iodine intake: a dietary modelling study, In: European Journal of Nutrition63pp. 599-611 Springer

    Purpose Cow’s milk is the primary source of iodine in the UK, but consumption of plant-based milk alternatives (PBMA) is increasing and these products are often not fortified with iodine. We evaluated the impact that replacing current milk consumption with PBMA would have on iodine intake. Methods We used data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2016–2019) for children (1.5–10 years), girls 11–18 years, and women of reproductive age (WRA). We used a dietary modelling approach with scenarios using brand-level iodine-fortification data (0, 13, 22.5, 27.4 and 45 µg/100 mL). Relative to usual diet, we calculated change in iodine intake, and the proportion with intake below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) or above the upper limit. Results For all groups, replacement with PBMA, either unfortified or fortified at the lowest concentration, resulted in a meaningful decrease in iodine intake, and increased the proportion with intake 

    Mariana Dineva, Margaret P Rayman, Deborah Levie, Sandra Hunziker, Mònica Guxens, Robin P Peeters, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Amaia Irizar, Alba Jimeno-Romero, Jordi Sunyer, Tim I M Korevaar, Sarah C Bath (2023)Exploration of thyroglobulin as a biomarker of iodine status in iodine-sufficient and mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women, In: European journal of nutrition Springer

    Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) reflects recent iodine intake but has limitations for assessing habitual intake. Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, which increases with thyroid size, appears to be an indicator of longer-term iodine status in children and adults, however, less is known in pregnancy. This study investigated the determinants of serum-Tg in pregnancy and its use as an iodine-status biomarker in settings of iodine-sufficiency and mild-to-moderate deficiency. Stored blood samples and existing data from pregnant women from the Netherlands-based Generation R (iodine-sufficient) and the Spain-based INMA (mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient) cohorts were used. Serum-Tg and iodine status (as spot-urine UI/Creat) were measured at median 13 gestational weeks. Using regression models, maternal socio-demographics, diet and iodine-supplement use were investigated as determinants of serum-Tg, as well as the association between UI/Creat and serum-Tg. Median serum-Tg was 11.1 ng/ml in Generation R (n = 3548) and 11.5 ng/ml in INMA (n = 1168). When using 150 µg/g threshold for iodine deficiency, serum-Tg was higher in women with UI/Creat 

    M. Dineva, S.C. Bath, M.P. Rayman (2020)Iodine status of consumers of milk-alternative drinks in the United Kingdom: data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society79(OCE3)E752 Cambridge University Press
    Ian Givens, Sarah C Bath (2020)Dairy foods as a source of dietary iodine, In: Milk and Dairy Foods323pp. 323-345 Elsevier Science & Technology
    Furio Pacini, Birte Nygaard, Sarah C Bath (2016)Abstracts, In: European thyroid journal5(Suppl 1)pp. 57-176 S. Karger AG
    Sarah Bath (2017)Iodine supplementation in pregnancy in mildly deficient regions, In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology5(11)pp. 840-841 Elsevier

    It is well known that severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy affects fetal brain development and has implications for cognition in later life, including reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) scores.1 However, the effects of mild-to-moderate deficiency during pregnancy are less well known. Findings of observational studies in mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women have shown an association with lower IQ, reading ability,2 and spelling scores in offspring.3 Although several randomised controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy have been done in regions of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, they did not measure neurodevelopment in offspring.

    SC Bath, M Rayman (2016)Trace element concentration in organic and conventional milk – what are the nutritional implications of the recently-reported differences?, In: The British Journal of Nutrition: an international journal of nutritional science116(01)pp. 3-6

    We have been asked to comment on differences in trace element concentrations between organic and conventional milk found in the recent meta-analysis by Średnicka-Tober and colleagues(1). Such a comment is important because in fact the most significant difference revealed between organic and conventional milk, in terms of contribution to nutrient requirements, is that of iodine. In many countries, and particularly in the UK where iodised salt is rarely used(2), milk is the single biggest contributor to iodine intake(3). By contrast, milk is a relatively inconsequential source of fatty acids, particularly of those desirable long-chain n-3 PUFAs. This calls into question the emphasis placed on the n-3 PUFAs both in the paper and the press release. We will concentrate our comment on the difference in iodine, selenium and iron concentration. We will use the standard meta-analysis data presented by the authors as these are weighted according to the size of the studies (unweighted meta-analyses are generally not considered appropriate) and were the only analyses to find significant differences in mineral concentrations between organic and conventional milk samples. For the same reason, we will use the weighted mean percentage differences derived from the standard meta-analyses.

    SC Bath, E Combet, P Scully, M Zimmermann, MP Rayman (2014)Iodine status in UK schoolchildren, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY73(OCE1)pp. E37-E37 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    Deborah Levie, Tim I M Korevaar, Sarah C Bath, Mario Murcia, Mariana Dineva, Sabrina Llop, Mercedes Espada, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Yolanda B de Rijke, Jesús M Ibarluzea, Jordi Sunyer, Henning Tiemeier, Margaret P Rayman, Mònica Guxens, Robin P Peeters (2019)Association of maternal iodine status with child IQ: a meta-analysis of individual-participant data, In: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism104(12)pp. pp 5957-5967 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Context While the consequences of severe iodine deficiency are beyond doubt, the effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnancy on child neurodevelopment are less well established. Objective To study the association between maternal iodine status during pregnancy and child IQ and to identify vulnerable time-windows of exposure to suboptimal iodine availability. Design Meta-analysis of individual-participant data from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: Generation R (The Netherlands), INMA (Spain), and ALSPAC (United Kingdom); pregnant women were enrolled between 2002-2006, 2003-2008, and 1990-1992, respectively. Setting General community. Participants 6180 mother-child pairs with measures of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations in pregnancy and child IQ. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancy, fertility treatment, medication affecting the thyroid, and pre-existing thyroid disease. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure Child non-verbal and verbal IQ assessed at 1.5-8 years of age. Results There was a positive curvilinear association of the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) with mean verbal IQ only. UI/Creat ˂ 150 µg/g was not associated with lower non-verbal IQ [-0.6 points, 95% CI -1.7 to 0.4, P=0.246] or lower verbal IQ [-0.6, 95% CI -1.3 to 0.1, P=0.082]. Stratified analyses showed that the association of UI/Creat with verbal IQ was only present up to 14 weeks of gestation. Conclusions Fetal brain development is vulnerable to mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, particularly in the first trimester. Our results show that any potential randomized, controlled trial investigating the effect of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderate iodine deficient women on child neurodevelopment, should start with supplementation not later than the first trimester.

    V Furmidge-Owen, SC Bath, CWG Redman, MP Rayman (2014)A longitudinal study of iodine status throughout gestation in UK women, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY73(OCE1)pp. E38-E38 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    S Bath, S Button, MP Rayman (2011)Summer Meeting, 4-6 July 2011, 70th Anniversary: From plough through practice to policy Abstracts, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY70(OCE4)pp. E117-E117 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    Karen Mullan, Lesley Hamill, Katy Doolan, Ian Young, Peter Smyth, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, Andrew A. Meharg, Manus Carey, Claire McKernan, Marcia Bell, Neil Black, Una Graham, David McCance, Cathy McHugh, Paul McMullan, Siobhan McQuaid, Aonghus O’Loughlin, Antoinette Tuthill, Sarah C. Bath, Margaret Rayman, Jayne V. Woodside (2019)Iodine status of teenage girls on the island of Ireland, In: European Journal of Nutritionpp. 1-9 Springer

    Purpose The trace element iodine is a vital constituent of thyroid hormones. Iodine requirements increase during pregnancy, when even mild deficiency may affect the neurocognitive development of the offspring. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the means of assessing iodine status in population surveys; a median UIC of 100–199 µg/L is deemed sufficient in a non-pregnant population. Milk is the main dietary source of iodine in the UK and Ireland. Methods We surveyed the iodine status of 903 girls aged 14–15 years in seven sites across the island of Ireland. Urine iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples collected between March 2014 and October 2015. Food group intake was estimated from iodine-specific food-frequency questionnaire. Milk-iodine concentration was measured at each site in summer and winter. Results The median UIC overall was 111 µg/L. Galway was the only site in the deficient range (median UIC 98 µg/L). All five of the Republic of Ireland sites had UIC ≤ 105 µg/L. In the two sites surveyed twice, UIC was lower in summer vs winter months [117 µg/L (IQR 76–165) vs 130 µg/L (IQR 91–194) (p ˂ 0.01)]. Milk samples collected from Galway and Roscommon had a lower mean iodine concentration than those from Derry/Londonderry (p ˂ 0.05). Milk intake was positively associated with UIC (p ˂ 0.001). Conclusions This is the largest survey of its kind on the island of Ireland, which currently has no iodine-fortification programme. Overall, the results suggest that this young female population sits at the low end of sufficiency, which has implications if, in future, they enter pregnancy with borderline status.

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio

    SC Bath, CJ Nezianya, MP Rayman (2015)A label-based assessment of the iodine content of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE5)pp. E303-E303 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    SC Bath, VL Furmidge-Owen, CWG Redman, MP Rayman (2015)Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier, In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION101(6)pp. 1180-1187 AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN

    Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (

    SC Bath, S Button, MP Rayman (2014)Availability of iodised table salt in the UK - is it likely to influence population iodine intake?, In: Public Health Nutr17pp. 450-454

    OBJECTIVE: Iodine deficiency has recently been found in UK young and pregnant women, which is of concern given the importance of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy for fetal brain development. The WHO recommends that iodine deficiency in a population should be corrected through salt iodisation but there is a lack of UK data on iodised-salt availability, a situation that the present study aimed to address. DESIGN: Availability of iodised salt for household use was determined by a shelf survey in five supermarket chains in each of sixteen UK areas (in Southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland) encompassing a total of seventy-seven supermarkets. All branches of a sixth supermarket chain that had 2·3 % of the market share sold exclusively iodised salt. Weighted iodised-salt availability was calculated taking the market share of supermarkets into account. SETTING: The UK. SUBJECTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: Iodised salt was available in thirty-two of the seventy-seven supermarkets (41·6 %). After accounting for market share and including all six UK supermarket chains, the weighted availability of iodised salt was 21·5 %. The iodine concentration of the major UK brand of iodised salt is low, at 11·5 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to other countries, iodised household table salt is unlikely to contribute meaningful amounts to UK iodine intake as (i) availability is low, (ii) table salt is only a small percentage of total UK salt intake and (iii) UK public-health campaigns have encouraged reduced salt consumption. As iodine intake in the UK is dependent entirely on food choices, regular monitoring of iodine status is essential.

    SC Bath, ML Sleeth, M McKenna, A Walter, A Taylor, MP Rayman (2014)Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION112(10)pp. 1715-1723 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    SC Bath (2014)Direct or indirect iodine supplementation of infants?, In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology2(3)pp. 184-185
    Sarah Bath, Margaret Rayman (2017)Has the UK really become iodine sufficient?, In: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology6(2)pp. 89-90 Elsevier

    In December, 2016, the Iodine Global Network (IGN) published its new map of global iodine nutrition based on median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) in school-aged children.1 Notably, the status of the UK, which was classified as mildly iodine deficient in 2014–15 (mUIC 50–99 μg/L), had become adequate by 2016 (mUIC 100–299 μg/L).1 The reason for this apparently rapid improvement lies in the different data sources used; data that showed mild deficiency in 2014–15 came from spot-urine samples from 737 girls aged 14–15 years from nine UK centres (mUIC 80·1 μg/L),2 whereas the 2016 data were based on spot-urine samples from 458 boys and girls aged 4–18 years, which were collected in year 6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS).

    S Bath, MP Rayman (2011)Iodine deficiency in UK schoolgirls, In: The Lancet378(9803)pp. 1623-1623 Elsevier
    S. Maria O'Kane, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi, Maria S. Mulhern, J.J. Strain, Emer M. Mackle, Duygu Koca, Lutz Schomburg, Sarah Hill, Jennifer O’Reilly, Diana Kmiotek, Christian Deitrich, Sarah C. Bath, Alison J. Yeates (2017)Cow's milk consumption increases iodine status in women of childbearing age in a randomized controlled trial, In: Journal of Nutrition148(3)pp. 401-408 American Society for Nutrition

    Background: Recent evidence has highlighted the prevalence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in women of childbearing age and pregnant women, with important public health ramifications owing to the role of iodine, required for thyroid hormone production, in neurodevelopment. Cow’s milk contributes the greatest amount to iodine intakes in several countries. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased cow’s milk consumption on iodine status, thyroid hormone concentrations and selenium status. Methods: A 12 week, randomized-controlled trial was conducted in 78 low-moderate milk consuming (

    Inés Velasco, Sarah Bath, Margaret Rayman (2018)Iodine as Essential Nutrient during the First 1000 Days of Life, In: Nutrients10(3) MDPI

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the cyto-architecture of the cerebral cortex can be irreversibly disturbed in iodine deficiency causing abnormal neuron migratory patterns which are associated with cognitive impairment in children. In this context, the role of iodine as key factor in the programming of foetal and infant neurodevelopment, needs to be revisited with a special focus on areas of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The objective of this review is to summarize the available evidence from both animals and human studies, for the effect of iodine deficiency (particularly, of maternal hypothyroxinemia) on brain development and neurological or behavioural disorders, such as lower intelligence quotient (IQ) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with pregnancy/neonatal loss, and adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the impact of mild–to–moderate iodine insufficiency, though prevalent in pregnancy, is not well-documented. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy was associated with pregnancy/infant loss, or with other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), from 3140 singleton pregnancies and from a further 42 women with pregnancy/infant loss. The group was classified as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient with a median urinary iodine concentration of 95.3 µg/L (IQR 57.0–153.0; median urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) 124 µg/g, IQR 82-198). The likelihood of pregnancy/infant loss was not different across four UI/Creat groups (250 µg/g). The incidence of pre-eclampsia, non-proteinuric gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, glycosuria, anaemia, post-partum haemorrhage, preterm delivery, mode of delivery, being small for gestational age, and large for gestational age did not differ significantly among UI/Creat groups, nor were there any significant differences in the median UI/Creat. We conclude that maternal iodine status was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in a mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant population. However, in view of the low number of women with pregnancy/infant loss in our study, further research is required.

    SC Bath, A Walter, A Taylor, J Wright, MP Rayman (2014)Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: The influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status, In: British Journal of Nutrition111(9)pp. 1622-1631

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. © The Authors 2013.

    J Mao, SC Bath, VJM Pop, HL Vader, CWG Redman, MP Rayman (2013)Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Thyroid Function in UK Pregnant Women: a Randomised, Controlled Pilot Trial, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E293-E293 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    Deborah Levie, Sarah Bath, Monica Guxens, Tim I.M Korevaar, Mariana Dineva, Eduardo Fano, Jesus M. Ibarlueza, Sabrina Llop, Mario Murica, Margaret P. Rayman, Jordi Sunyer, Robin P. Peeters, Henning Tiemieer (2020)Maternal iodine status during pregnancy is not consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or autistic traits in the child, In: Journal of Nutrition Oxford University Press

    Background: Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause intellectual disability, presumably through inadequate placental transfer of maternal thyroid hormone to the fetus. The association between mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency and child neurodevelopmental problems is not well understood. Objective: We investigated the association of maternal iodine status during pregnancy with child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic traits. Methods: Collaborative study of three population-based birth cohorts: Generation R (N=1634), INMA (N=1293), and ALSPAC (N=2619). Exclusion criteria were multiple fetuses, fertility treatment, thyroid-interfering medication use, and pre-existing thyroid disease. The mean age of assessment in the cohorts was between 4.4 – 7.7 years for ADHD symptoms and 4.5 – 7.6 years for autistic traits. We studied the association of the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) < 150 μg/g – in all mother-child pairs, and in those with a urinary-iodine measurement at ≤ 18 weeks and ≤ 14 weeks of gestation – with the risk of ADHD or a high autistic-trait score (≥ 93rd percentile cut-off), using logistic regression. The cohort-specific effect estimates were combined by random effects meta-analyses. We also investigated whether UI/Creat modified the association of maternal free thyroxine (FT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations with ADHD or autistic traits. Results: UI/Creat

    J Mao, VJ Pop, SC Bath, HL Vader, CWG Redman, MP Rayman (2016)Effect of low-dose selenium on thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid function in UK pregnant women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION55(1)pp. 55-61 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
    D Levie, T Korevaar, Sarah Bath, A Dalmau-Bueno, M Murcia, M Espada, Mariana Dineva, J Ibarluzea, J Sunyer, H Tiemeier, M Rebagliato, Margaret Rayman, R Peeters, M Guxens (2018)Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy, Child IQ, and Autistic Traits: a Meta-analysis of Individual-participant Data, In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism00224 Oxford University Press

    Low maternal free thyroxine (FT4) has been associated with poor child neurodevelopment in some single-centre studies. Evidence remains scarce for potential adverse effects of high FT4 and whether associations differ in countries with a different iodine status. To assess the association of maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy with child neurodevelopment in countries with a different iodine status. Design, Setting and Participants:Meta-analysis of individual-participant data compromising 9,036 mother-child pairs from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INMA (Spain), Generation R (The Netherlands) and ALSPAC (United Kingdom). Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatments, thyroid interfering medication usage, and known thyroid disease. Main outcomes:Child non-verbal IQ at 5-8 years of age, verbal IQ at 1.5-8 years of age, and autistic traits within the clinical range at 5-8 years of age. Results: FT4 97.5th percentile was associated with a 1.9 (1.0 to 3.4) fold higher risk of autistic traits. No independent associations were found with thyrotropin.Low maternal FT4 was consistently associated with lower IQ across cohorts. Further studies should replicate the findings of autistic traits and investigate the potential modifying role of maternal iodine status. FT4 seems a reliable marker of fetal thyroid state in early pregnancy, regardless of the type of immunoassay

    Andrea Darling, Margaret Rayman, Colin D. Steer, Jean Golding, Susan Lanham-New, Sarah Bath (2017)Association between maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood; results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, In: British Journal of Nutrition117(12)pp. 1682-1692 Cambridge University Press

    Seafood intake in pregnancy has been positively associated with childhood cognitive outcomes which could potentially relate to the high vitamin-D content of oily fish. However, whether higher maternal vitamin D status [serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, 25(OH)D] in pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of offspring suboptimal neurodevelopmental outcomes is unclear. A total of 7065 mother-child pairs were studied from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort who had data for both serum total 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy and at least one measure of offspring neurodevelopment (pre-school development at 6–42 months; “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” scores at 7 years; IQ at 8 years; reading ability at 9 years). After adjustment for confounders, children of vitamin-D deficient mothers (< 50.0 nmol/L) were more likely to have scores in the lowest quartile for gross motor development at 30 months (OR 1.20 95% CI 1.03, 1.40), fine motor development at 30 months (OR 1.23 95% CI 1.05, 1.44), and social development at 42 months (OR 1.20 95% CI 1.01, 1.41) than vitamin-D sufficient mothers (≥ 50.0 nmol/L). No associations were found with neurodevelopmental outcomes, including IQ, measured at older ages. However, our results suggest that deficient maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may have adverse effects on some measures of motor and social development in children under 4 years. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency may be important for preventing suboptimal development in the first 4 years of life.

    MP Rayman, SC Bath, J Westaway, P Williams, J Mao, JJ Vanderlelie, AV Perkins, CWG Redman (2015)Selenium status in UK pregnant women and its relationship with hypertensive conditions of pregnancy, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION113(2)pp. 249-258 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    SC Bath, CW Redman, MP Rayman (2015)Can toenail iodine concentration be used as a biomarker of iodine status?, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE2)pp. E176-E176 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    J Mao, SC Bath, JJ Vanderlelie, AV Perkins, CWG Redman, MP Rayman (2016)No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION115(1)pp. 32-38 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    J Mao, SC Bath, P McCabe, CWG Redman, MP Rayman (2015)Effect of selenium supplementation on adiponectin concentration as a marker of type-2 diabetes risk in UK pregnant women, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE2)pp. E172-E172 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    SC Bath, MP Rayman (2013)Iodine deficiency in the UK: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(2)pp. 226-235 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    SC Bath, E Combet, P Scully, MB Zimmermann, KHC Hampshire-Jones, MP Rayman (2016)A multi-centre pilot study of iodine status in UK schoolchildren, aged 8-10 years, In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION55(6)pp. 2001-2009 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
    Mariana Dineva, Harry Fishpool, Margaret Rayman, Jeewaka Mendis, Sarah Bath (2020)Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of iodine supplementation on thyroid function and child neurodevelopment in mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women, In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Oxford University Press

    Background: Mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, particularly in pregnancy, is prevalent; this is of concern as observational studies have shown negative associations with child neurodevelopment. Though neither the benefits nor the safety of iodine supplementation in pregnancy in areas of mild-to-moderate deficiency are well researched, such supplementation is increasingly being recommended by health authorities in a number of countries. Objective: By reviewing the most recent published data on the effects of iodine supplementation in mildly-to-moderately deficient pregnant women on maternal and infant thyroid function and child cognition, we aimed to determine whether the evidence was sufficient to support such recommendations in these areas. Design: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCT interventions and observational studies was conducted. To identify relevant papers we searched the PubMed and Embase databases. We defined mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency as a baseline, median, urinary iodine-concentration (UIC) of 50-149 µg/L. Eligible studies were included in meta-analyses. Results: In total, 37 publications were included – ten RCTs, four non-RCT interventions and 23 observational studies. Most studies showed no effect of iodine supplementation on maternal or infant thyroid-stimulating hormone and free-thyroxine. Most RCTs found that supplementation reduced maternal thyroglobulin and in three RCTs, it prevented or diminished the increase in maternal thyroid volume during pregnancy. Three RCTs addressed child neurodevelopment; only one was adequately-powered. Meta-analyses of two RCTs showed no effect on child cognitive [mean difference (MD) (95%CI): -0.18 (-1.22, 0.87)], language [MD (95%CI): 1.28 (-0.28, 2.83)] or motor scores [MD (95%CI): 0.28 (-1.10, 1.66)]. 4 Conclusions: There is insufficient good-quality evidence to support current recommendations for iodine supplementation in pregnancy in areas of mild-to-moderate deficiency. Well designed RCTs with child cognitive outcomes are needed in areas of moderate deficiency (median UIC

    MP Rayman, SC Bath (2015)The new emergence of iodine deficiency in the UK: consequences for child neurodevelopment, In: ANNALS OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY52(6)pp. 705-708 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
    SC Bath, CD Steer, PM Emmett, J Golding, MP Rayman (2013)Dietary factors that influence maternal iodine status in UK pregnant women, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E292-E292 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    MP Rayman, E Searle, L Kelly, S Johnsen, K Bodman-Smith, SC Bath, J Mao, CWG Redman (2014)Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION112(1)pp. 99-111 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
    SC Bath, KB Jolly, MP Rayman (2013)Iodine Supplements During and After Pregnancy, In: JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION309(13)pp. 1345-1345 AMER MEDICAL ASSOC
    Mariana Dineva, Margaret P. Rayman, Deborah Levie, Mònica Guxens, Robin P. Peeters, Jesus Vioque, Llúcia González, Mercedes Espada, Jesús Ibarluzea, Jordi Sunyer, Tim I. M. Korevaar, Sarah C. Bath (2019)Similarities and differences of dietary and other determinants of iodine status in pregnant women from three European birth cohorts, In: European Journal of Nutrition59pp. 371-387 © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany

    Purpose As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status. Methods Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254). Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat, µg/g) was measured in spot-urine samples in pregnancy (≤ 18-weeks gestation). Maternal dietary intake, categorised by food groups (g/day), was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Multivariable regression models used dietary variables (energy-adjusted) and maternal characteristics as predictors of iodine status. Results Median UI/Creat in pregnant women of ALSPAC, INMA, and Generation R was 121, 151, and 210 µg/g, respectively. Maternal age was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts (P ˂ 0.001), while UI/Creat varied by ethnicity only in Generation R (P ˂ 0.05). Of the dietary predictors, intake of milk and dairy products (per 100 g/day) was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts [ALSPAC (B = 3.73, P ˂ 0.0001); INMA (B = 6.92, P = 0.002); Generation R (B = 2.34, P = 0.001)]. Cohort-specific dietary determinants positively associated with UI/Creat included fish and shellfish in ALSPAC and INMA, and eggs and cereal/cereal products in Generation R. Conclusions The cohort-specific dietary determinants probably reflect not only dietary habits but iodine-fortification policies; hence, public-health interventions to improve iodine intake in pregnancy need to be country-specific.

    Deborah Levie, Sarah Bath, Mariana Dineva, Henning Tiemeier, Margaret Rayman, Monica Guxens, Robin P. Peeters, Tim I.M Korevaar (2020)Response to Letter to the Editor: Association of Maternal Iodine Status With Child IQ: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data, In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Oxford University Press (OUP)
    SC Bath, VJM Pop, VL Furmidge-Owen, MAC Broeren, MP Rayman (2016)Thyroglobulin as a functional biomarker of iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women in the United Kingdom, In: Thyroid

    Background Though iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a matter of public-health concern, a functional measure of iodine status is lacking. The thyroid-specific protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), which reflects thyroid size, has shown promise as a functional measure in studies of children and adults, but data in pregnancy are sparse. In a cohort of mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women, we aimed to explore whether serum Tg is a sensitive functional biomarker of iodine status and to examine longitudinal change in Tg with gestational age. Method 230 pregnant women were recruited at an ante-natal clinic at 12 weeks of gestation to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention (SPRINT) study, in Oxford, UK. Repeated measures of urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio, serum TSH and Tg at 12, 20, and 35 weeks of gestation were collected. Women were dichotomised by their iodine-to-creatinine ratio, (

    SC Bath, S Button, MP Rayman (2011)Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake, In: British Journal of Nutrition107(7)pp. 935-940 Cambridge University Press

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P 

    Sarah Bath, S Hill, HG Infante, S Elghul, CJ Nezianya, Margaret Rayman (2017)Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison to cows’ milk, In: British Journal of Nutrition118(7)pp. 525-532 Cambridge University Press

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using ICP-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut, and hemp) by analysing 47 products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n=5) and organic (n=5) cows’ milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n=44) was low, at 7.3 μg/kg, just 1.7% of our value for winter conventional cows’ milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat, and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287, 266 μg/kg respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with calcium, at the time of this study, just three of 47 drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows’ milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

    SC Bath, MP Rayman (2013)Is iodine deficiency during pregnancy a public health concern in the UK?, In: Nutrition Bulletin38(4)pp. 400-404
    Sarah C. Bath (2019)The effect of iodine deficiency during pregnancy on child development., In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Cambridge University Press

    It is well known that severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause impaired brain development in the child, with effects on cognitive and motor function, hearing and speech. Whether mild-to-moderate deficiency also affects neurological development is less well known, but in the last decade a number of observational studies have been conducted to answer this question and these studies are reviewed in this article. The picture is now emerging that even mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy may be associated with subtle impairments in cognition and school performance, though the evidence from randomised controlled trials is still lacking. As global efforts to eradicate iodine deficiency in populations continue, it is more likely that mild-to-moderate, rather than severe, iodine deficiency will be the issue of concern in pregnancy, and therefore further research in regions of mild-to-moderate deficiency is required to strengthen the research base and to inform public-health policy.

    Sarah Bath (2016)The challenges of harmonising the iodine supply across Europe, In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology5(6)pp. 411-412 Elsevier

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is required for brain and neurological development; its deficiency during pregnancy and early life is associated with poorer cognitive function in the offspring1. This has implications at both the individual level (e.g. lower IQ1), and at the country level (e.g. economic potential2). Iodine deficiency affects many pregnant women in Europe3 and although this is a public-health concern, there is a lack of consistency across countries both in the supply of iodine (e.g. iodised salt programs) and the monitoring of population iodine status

    Deborah Levie, Tim I.M. Korevaar, Tessa A. Mulder, Sarah C. Bath, Mariana Dineva, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Mikel Basterrechea, Loreto Santa Marina, Marisa Rebagliato, Jordi Sunyer, Margaret P. Rayman, Henning Tiemeier, Robin P. Peeters, Mònica Guxens (2019)Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Child Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis, In: Thyroid Mary Ann Liebert

    Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for optimal fetal brain development. Evidence suggests that both low and high maternal thyroid hormone availability may have adverse effects on child neurodevelopmental outcomes, but the effect on behavioral problems remains unclear. We studied the association of maternal thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy with child Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: 7669 mother-child pairs with data on maternal thyroid function and child ADHD were selected from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INMA (N=1073, Spain), Generation R (N=3812, The Netherlands) and ALSPAC (N=2784, United Kingdom). Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatments, usage of medication affecting the thyroid, and pre-existing thyroid disease. We used logistic regression models to study the association of maternal thyroid function with the primary outcome, ADHD, assessed via the DSM-IV criteria by parents and/or teachers at a median child age of 4.5 to 7.6 years, and with the secondary outcome, an ADHD symptom score above the 90th percentile. Effect modification by gestational age and sex was tested with interaction terms and stratified analyses. Results: Overall, 233 (3%) children met the criteria for ADHD. When analyzed continuously, neither FT4 nor TSH was associated with a higher risk of ADHD [Odds ratio (OR), 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.1 (1.0-1.3), P=0.060 and OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, P=0.385, respectively] or with high symptom scores. When investigating effect modification by gestational age, a higher FT4 was associated with symptoms above the 90th percentile but only in the first trimester [for FT4 per 1SD: OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4), P=0.027]. However, these differential effects by gestational age were not consistent. No significant effect modification by sex was observed. Conclusions: We found no clear evidence of an association between maternal thyroid function and child ADHD.

    K.R Mullan, P. McMullan, A. Hunter, D.R McCance, P. Smyth, S.C Bath, M. Rayman, J.V Woodside (2020)Selenium status in a Northern Irish pregnant cohort with iodine deficiency, In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Springer Nature

    Selenium and iodine are trace elements that are maximally concentrated in the thyroid. Iodine is a substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis, while the selenoproteins protect the thyroid from the oxidative stress incurred. We measured plasma selenium concentration in 241 pregnant women in 1st trimester, previously reported to have iodine deficiency. Mean age was 30.3 years (SD 5.4), BMI 26.2 kg/m2 (SD 4.9) and 53% reported taking supplements. Median urinary-iodine concentration was 73 μg/L (IQR 37-122) (WHO recommendation, ≥150 μg/L). Mean plasma-selenium concentration was 75 μg/L (SD 7.7) which is below the 80-125 μg/L reported to be optimal. Four-day food diaries revealed a selenium intake of 43μg/day (SD 15.9), also below the 55-70 μg/day reported to be optimal. This is the first report of selenium status in pregnancy on the island of Ireland. The possible combined effects of iodine and selenium deficiencies in pregnancy merit further investigation.

    SARAH C BATH, Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman, Magalie Sabatier, Sovianne ter Borg, Ans Eilander, Katja Hora, Burcu Aksoy, Nevena Hristozova, Lilou van Lieshout, Halit Tanju Besler, John H Lazarus (2022)A systematic review of iodine intake in children, adults, and pregnant women in Europe ? comparison against dietary recommendations and evaluation of dietary iodine sources, In: Nutrition reviews Oxford University Press
    MARIANA DINEVA, A. Hall, M. Tan, A. Blaskova, SARAH C BATH (2022)Iodine status during child development and hearing ability - a systematic review, In: British journal of nutrition Cambridge University Press

    Iodine, through the thyroid hormones, is required for the development of the auditory cortex and cochlea (the sensory organ for hearing). Deafness is a well-documented feature of endemic cretinism resulting from severe iodine deficiency. However, the range of effects of suboptimal iodine intake during auditory development on the hearing ability of children is less clear. We therefore aimed to systematically review the evidence for the association between iodine exposure (i.e., intake/status/supplementation) during development (i.e., pregnancy and/or childhood) and hearing outcomes in children. We searched PubMed and Embase and identified 330 studies, of which 13 were included in this review. Only three of the 13 studies were of low risk of bias or of good quality, this therefore limited our ability to draw firm conclusions. Nine of the studies (69%) were in children (one RCT, two non-RCT interventions and six crosssectional studies) and four (31%) were in pregnant women (one RCT, one cohort study and two case reports). The RCT of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women found no effect on offspring hearing thresholds. However, hearing was a secondary outcome of the trial and not all women were from an iodine-deficient area. Iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient children (in both non-RCT interventions) resulted in improved hearing thresholds. Five of six cross-sectional studies (83%) found that higher iodine status in children was associated with better hearing. The current evidence base for the association between iodine status and hearing outcomes is limited and further good-quality research on this topic is needed.

    Lisa M Mohebati, Peter Hilpert, Sarah Bath, Margaret P Rayman, Monique M Raats, Homero Martinez, Laura E Caulfield (2021)Perceived insufficient milk among primiparous, fully breastfeeding women: Is infant crying important?, In: Maternal and Child Nutritione13133

    Breastfeeding mothers often report perceived insufficient milk (PIM) believing their infant is crying too much, which leads to introducing formula and the early abandonment of breastfeeding. We sought to determine if infant crying was associated with reported PIM (yes/no) and number of problems associated with lactation (lactation problem score [LPS] 6‐point Likert scale) before formula introduction. Primiparous breastfeeding mothers were recruited at birth and visited at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Among those fully breastfeeding at 1 week (N = 230), infant crying variables based on maternal reports were not associated with PIM at 1 week, but LPS was. However, a mother's expectation that her infant would cry more than other infants was associated with increased odds of reporting PIM at 2 and 4 weeks, as were delayed onset of lactation and previous LPS. At 1 week, crying variables (frequency, difficulty in soothing) were associated with LPS along with percent weight change. Delayed onset of lactation, infant care style, number of breastfeeds and previous LPS were longitudinally associated with change in LPS from 1 to 2 weeks and 2 to 4 weeks. Our data suggest that reported infant crying is associated with PIM and LPS in the first 4 weeks of life. Guidance on what to expect in crying behaviour and the impact of infant care style may be beneficial in reducing PIM and LPS in the first month.

    MARGARET PHILOMENA RAYMAN, MARIANA DINEVA, SARAH C BATH (2020)Iodine status of consumers of milk-alternative drinks v. cows' milk: data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey, In: British Journal of Nutritionpp. 1-9
    Oliver C Witard, Sarah C Bath, Mariana Dineva, Laury Sellem, Ana-Isabel Mulet-Cabero, Laura H. van Dongen, Ju-Sheng Zheng, Carina Valenzuela, Benoit Smeuninx (2022)Dairy as a Source of Iodine and Protein in the UK: Implications for Human Health Across the Life Course, and Future Policy and Research, In: Frontiers in nutrition (Lausanne)9800559 FRONTIERS MEDIA SA

    This narrative review summarizes key concepts in dairy nutrition for supporting human health throughout the life course. Milk and dairy products have been a staple component of our diet for thousands of years and provide a wide range of important nutrients that are otherwise difficult to obtain from dairy-free diets. In this review, we provide a broad perspective on the nutritional roles of iodine and dairy protein in supporting human health during pregnancy and early life, childhood and adolescence, mid- and later-life. New methodologies to identify biomarkers of dairy intake via high-throughput mass spectrometry are discussed, and new concepts such as the role of the food matrix in dairy nutrition are introduced. Finally, future policy and research related to the consumption of dairy and non-dairy alternatives for health are discussed with a view to improving nutritional status across the lifespan.

    Andrea Cannas, Margaret P Rayman, Ourania Kolokotroni, Sarah C Bath (2022)Iodine status of pregnant women from the Republic of Cyprus, In: British journal of nutrition Cambridge University Press

    Iodine supply is crucial during pregnancy to ensure the proper thyroid function of mother and baby and support fetal brain development. Little is known about iodine status or its dietary determinants in pregnant women in the Republic of Cyprus. We therefore recruited 128 pregnant women at their first-trimester ultrasound scan to a cross-sectional study. We collected spot-urine samples for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC, µg/L), and creatinine concentration (Creat, g/L), the latter of which allows us to correct for urine dilution and to compute the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat). Women completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a general questionnaire. We used a General Linear model to explore associations between maternal and dietary characteristics with UI/Creat. The median UIC (105 µg/L) indicated iodine deficiency according to the World Health Organisation criterion (threshold for adequacy=150 µg/L) and the UI/Creat was also low at 107 µg/g. Only 32% (n=45) of women reported the use of iodine-containing supplements; users had a higher UI/Creat than non-users (131 µg/g vs. 118 µg/g), though this difference was not significant in the adjusted analysis (P=0.37). Of the dietary components, only egg intake was significantly associated with a higher UI/Creat in adjusted analyses (P=0.018); there was no significant association with milk, dairy products, or fish intake. Our results suggest that pregnant women in Cyprus have inadequate iodine status and are at risk of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Further research on dietary sources in this population is required.

    K Nicol, E Thomas, A Nugent, J Woodside, K Hart, S C Bath (2022)Iodine fortification of plant-based dairy and fish alternatives - the effect of substitution on iodine intake based on a market survey in the UK, In: British journal of nutritionpp. 1-28 CUP

    Iodine deficiency has been demonstrated in UK women, which is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development during pregnancy. Plant-based diets are increasingly popular, especially with young females, which may affect iodine intake as the main dietary sources are dairy and fish; plant-based products are naturally low in iodine. We, therefore, aimed to (i) assess the iodine fortification of milk-, yoghurt-, cheese- and fish-alternative products available in UK supermarkets and (ii) model the impact that substitution with such products would have on iodine intake using portion-based scenarios. A cross-sectional survey of retail outlets was conducted in 2020 and nutritional data was extracted from food labels. We identified 300 products, including plant-based alternatives to: (i) milk (n=146), (ii) yoghurt (n=76), (iii) cheese (n=67), and (iv) fish (n=11). After excluding organic products (n=48), which cannot be fortified, only 28% (n=29) of milk alternatives and 6% (n=4) of yoghurt alternatives were fortified with iodine, compared to 88% (n=92) and 73% (n=51) respectively with calcium. No cheese alternative was fortified with iodine but 55% were fortified with calcium. None of the fish-alternatives were iodine-fortified. Substitution of three portions of dairy (milk/yoghurt/cheese) per day with unfortified alternatives would reduce iodine provision by 97.9% (124 vs. 2.6 µg) and substantially reduce the contribution to adult intake recommendations (83 vs. 1.8%). Our study highlights that the majority of plant-based alternatives are not iodine-fortified and that use of unfortified alternatives in place of dairy and fish may put consumers at risk of iodine deficiency.

    MP Rayman, S Bath, V Pop, V Furmidge-Owen, M Broeren (2016)The relationship between iodine status, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin in a cohort study of UK pregnant women, In: European Thyroid Journal5(Suppl)pp. 100-100
    SC Bath, MP Rayman (2014)Development of an evidenced-based iodine food fact sheet for use in the UK, In: European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety4(3)pp. 243-?
    P Emmett, S Bath, C Steer, J Golding, M Rayman (2013)IODINE STATUS, In: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM63pp. 75-76 KARGER
    SC Bath, MP Rayman (2012)Antenatal Thyroid Screening and Childhood Cognitive Function, In: NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE366(17)pp. 1640-1641 MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC
    SC Bath, A Walter, A Taylor, MP Rayman (2008)Iodine status of UK women of childbearing age, In: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics21pp. 379-380
    SC Bath, S Button, MP Rayman (2017)Iodised salt availability in the United Kingdom70pp. E117-?
    J Patel, AJ Heighington-Wansbrough, SC Bath (2019)New to Research: A pilot validation study of an iodine screening tool for women of childbearing age, In: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Volume 32, Issue S1 - Special Issue:Abstracts from the 2018 BDA Research Symposium, 5 December 2018, Birmingham, UK32pp. 24-25 Wiley

    Background: Iodine intake is required for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for neurological development. A large proportion of UK women of childbearing age are likely to have insufficient iodine intake, and should they become pregnant, there would be a risk to fetal neurodevelopment. However, there are no useful biomarkers to measure iodine status in an individual; urinary iodine concentration can only be used for population assessment. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an iodine intake screening tool that had previously been developed, against a reference measure for estimating iodine intake. We hypothesized that the short screening tool (28 questions) would be able to correctly classify daily iodine intake as low (˂140 lg), adequate (140 lg - 600 lg) or excessive (˃600 lg). Methods: Healthy females aged 18–50 years, were recruited from the University of Surrey population and contacts of the researchers. They were asked to complete the iodine screening tool and a 4-day dietary record using estimated measures of intake. The screening tool was coded to calculate daily iodine intake based on estimated iodine content per portion and frequency of consumption. Dietary records were analysed in Nutritics to give an average daily iodine intake. Values from the tool and the dietary record were compared using a Spearman Rank correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Cohen's j was used to assess iodine intake classification from the two methods of assessment. A sensitivity analysis was performed to exclude outliers and highlight variations in individual components of the screening tool. The project received a favourable ethical opinion from the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences Ethics Committee (University of Surrey). Results: Twenty-one female participants (mean age 33 ± 4) were recruited. There was no significant difference (p = 0.566) between median iodine intake from the screening tool (155 lg/day, interquartile range (IQR): 70–180 lg) and dietary records (100 lg/day, IQR: 88–176 lg). There was a moderate correlation (rs=0.540, p = 0.012) and moderate agreement for categorisation of participants based on iodine intake (j=0.521, p = 0.017) with 67% of those with low intakes according to the reference measure also being categorized as low using the screening tool (Table 1); none of the participants had excessive iodine intake. The exclusion of brown seaweed improved sensitivity of the tool (to 75%) by removing outliers. Bland- Altman analysis indicated high accuracy but large limits of agreement. Discussion: The percentage of women correctly classified was similar or higher than other validation studies of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) using dietary records as a reference measure (45% - 66%)1–3. The Cohen’s j value is also higher than those from those studies (0·15 - 0·3), indicating a greater agreement regarding classification. Conclusion: The screening tool is a quick, simple and moderately accurate method of classifying individuals into low and normal intakes of iodine using 4-day dietary records as a reference measure.

    SC Bath, C Steer, J Golding, PM Emmett, MP Rayman (2017)Maternal iodine status during pregnancy and the impact on cognitive outcomes in the offspring(70)pp. E386-?
    SC Bath, S Button, MP Rayman (2017)Does farm-management system affect milk-iodine concentration? Comparison study of organic and conventional milk, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society70pp. E119-?
    SC Bath, A Walter, A Taylor, J Wright, MP Rayman (2010)Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society69pp. E483-?