Allan studied Economics and Geography at University College Swansea, before obtaining his PhD at the London School of Economics. After completing his doctoral thesis, he worked as a Research Fellow at the LSE and then was Lecturer in Geography at the University of Durham. In 1978 he moved to the Geography Department at the University of Exeter, where he was successively Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Reader and then, from 1995, Professor of Human Geography and European Studies.He was Co-Director of the Centre for European Studies 1987-95. He also jointly established, with Gareth Shaw, an MSc in Tourism, Development and Policy at Exeter in 2000. He was appointed to the Chair in European Integration and Globalization at London Metropolitan in 2006, in the Institute for the Study of European Transformations, and the Working Lives Research Institute. He joined the Tourism Group in the Faculty of Management at Surrey in January 2011.
He is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Science, and has been a member of several Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) committees including: the Research Grants Board, and the 'One Europe or Several' Commissioning Panel. He chaired the ESRC/NERC Transdisciplinary Seminars competition and was vice chair of the ESRC First Grants Commissioning Panel in 2006, and a member of the Commissioning Panel for CASE Studentships, 2006-9.
Within the Royal Geographical Society with the IBG, he has been Chair of the Annual Conference in 2005, Chair of the Research Groups Sub-Committee, a Member of the Research Committee, and a Member of Council. He was awarded the Heath prize of the Royal Geographical Society in 1995 for his research on Europe. He was founding co-editor of European Urban and Regional Studies, 1994-2009, and founding Co-Editor of Tourism Geographies, 1999-2016. He is an Adjunct Professor in the National Centre for Research on Europe, at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand.
His central research interest s are the relationships between economic development and mobility, and especially the roles of knowledge and risk. He is especially interested in the relationships between tourism and migration, return migration, innovation, productivity and entrepreneurship. He has undertaken research in a number of European countries, but especially Central Eastern Europe, Southern Europe and the UK, as well as New Zealand.
Areas of specialism
Affiliations and memberships
The innovation journey of tourism entrepreneurs: evidence from Spain and the UK and policy implications
My core research interest is the relationship between mobility and economic development. I study this in the context of both tourism and international migration. My main research area is Europe, especially the UK and Eastern Europe, but I have historical interests in Southern Europe, and have also worked on New Zealand. Within the field of economic development, I am particularly interested in innovation, knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and productivity. I also research the role of risk and uncertainty in mobility. Among my other interests are international youth and later life migrations.
inter-relationship has been largely neglected. Starting from the international economics literature, which focuses largely on the multinational enterprise, and on knowledge issues, the relationship can be conceptualised in three ways: internationalization is a form of innovation, successful internationalization requires innovation, and internationalization requires firms to have superior knowledge.
Turning from this generic literature to the specificities of tourism, two aspects of the
simultaneity of production and consumption critically shape internationalization: the
requirement for co-presence, and consumer mobility. However, a firm-focussed
approach fails to address the changing international environment of the enterprise,
especially the increasing importance of global connectivity in relation to entrepreneurs, labour and tourists.
through a comparative study of migrant and non-migrant owners and managers in
London hotels. The findings show the dependence of the sector on international
managers whose contribution to innovation is understood in relation to the global
environment of London, sectoral particularities and complex processes of mobility
amongst both migrant and non-migrant managers. Although there is only limited
evidence of differences in the levels or types of innovation, international migration is
significant in the transfer and dispersion of knowledge, and plays a key role in the
incremental innovation processes which are essential to innovation performance in
at the intersection of flows, In: Gartner WC, Hsu C (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Tourism Research pp. 251-264 Routledge
relationships, and knowledge transfer. First, there has been considerable interest in
recent years in ideas relating to ?tourist-migrant? workers, that is, in the complex
inter-relationships between economic and cultural/tourism motivations, particularly
amongst young people. However, this represents only one of the many economic
relationships between tourism and migration, two phenomena that often have been
studied in isolation (Williams and Hall, 2002). There is a need for a better
understanding of how these are entwined in an economy of flows (Hudson 2004),
shaping economic outcomes in the tourism sector. Secondly, there has also been a
neglect of the role of labour mobility in knowledge transfer, innovation, and
competitiveness ? and this is particularly notable in an industry such as tourism,
where demand and, in part, production, are essentially based on mobility.
International tourists seek out experiences and services beyond their usual
countries of residence, and the resulting demand for knowledge in the labour force
that provides these creates a potentially significant role of migrant workers. This
paper brings these themes together, in order to explore the role of migration in the
creation and transfer of knowledge and skills in tourism.
of innovations. Specific attention is focussed on the integration of management perspectives into tourism
research. The paper explores some of the key mechanisms and conduits of knowledge transfer within
tourism. In doing so it explores such concepts as interlocking directorships, communities of practice,
learning regions and labour mobility. There is also an emerging research agenda on knowledge management
within tourism but progress is variable with most research being within the hotel sector, where
a range of recent studies have examined aspects of knowledge transfer. The paper also draws attention to
the need to give closer attention to the nature of innovations within tourism and to consider these in
a knowledge management framework.
spatial clusters. The findings demonstrate that spatial proximity, product similarity and market similarity have positive impacts on knowledge transfers and innovation spillovers, at both the local and the regional scales. They also show that the influences of product similarity and spatial proximity are closely related, but that the first of these is generally more influential at both the local and particularly, the regional
scale. The paper also identifies some of the sources, mechanisms, channels and outcomes of knowledge transfer.
innovation networks, mobile knowledge carriers and diasporas: Insights from a pioneering boutique hotel chain, Journal of Economic Geography 12 (5) pp. 1113-1138 Oxford University Press
transfer of tacit knowledge, as opposed to skills and capital. In part, this
results from lack of engagement between research on migration and that on
knowledge and learning, even in debates concerning the relative importance
of distanciated versus localised knowledge transfers. However, positioning
international migration in relation to the literature on knowledge management
opens up new perspectives on its role in the overall transfer of knowledge in
the economy. Starting from the premise that all tacit knowledge transactions
are socially situated, this paper sets out a multi-level approach to
understanding the role of migrants in knowledge exchanges. The national, the
urban and the firm constitute key levels in this analysis, although these are
understood as inter-folded rather than as discrete sites of analysis.
transfer by health care workers, with significant potential benefits for countries
of destination and, in the case of returned migration, countries of origin. This
is examined using a typology that recognizes four types of tacit knowledge:
embrained, embodied, embedded, and encultured. There are, however,
constraints to learning and knowledge transfer in the form of professional and
social recognition as well as language barriers and power relationships.
These theoretical ideas are explored through a case study of internationally
mobile Slovak doctors after their return to Slovakia. Individual learning and
knowledge sharing with colleagues, both abroad and after return, are
analysed through in-depth interviews.
mostly focussed on western market economies. This paper explores the distinctive
migration from Vietnam to the eastern block countries that was dictated by Cold War
geopolitics. It examines how the intersection of migration policies and politicoeconomic
conditions, before and after the end of state socialism in 1989, produced
two distinctive migration phases. Faced with economic constraints, and mediated by
their relationships with the Slovak population, most Vietnamese who stayed in, or
migrated to, Slovakia after 1989 survived economically by finding a niche in market
trading. This paper adopts a path-creating path-dependent perspective to examine
these migration trajectories through an analysis based on in-depth interviews with
asopis 49 (4) pp. 663-700
oková M. (2017) Connectivity as the Facilitator of the Intra-European Student Migration, Population, Space and Place 24 (3) e2101 Wiley
Despite the expanding research literature in this field, there are still significant gaps. This paper makes two main contributions. First, it analyses changes in the spatial distribution of intra-European student migration stocks in the period 1998-2012, focussing on shifts across three sub-periods in the parallel processes of concentration in poles of attraction, and regionalization, at a time of major institutional shifts such as EU enlargement and the introduction of the ERASMUS programme (Teichler et al., 2011). Network analysis brings a fresh perspective to this spatial analysis.
Research on migration intentions is relatively fragmented, traditionally drawing conclusions from relatively small survey samples, focussing on individual countries, or relying on public opinion polls which provide very few explanatory variables. This paper addresses these limitations by developing a multi-level model of an extensive range of macro, meso and micro determinants of migration intentions across different time frames. The paper utilises an online panel survey of 20,473 non-student respondents aged 16-35 from 9 EU countries.
Ordinal multi-level modelling, with post-stratification weighting, is used to determine the key drivers of, and barriers to, migration intentions in both a pan-European model, and nine separate national-scale models. The findings confirm the significance of macro, meso and micro factors. While socio-economic factors emerge as powerful explanatory factors, non-pecuniary factors are also important, including sensation seeking. There are broad similarities in the findings across the separate national-level models, but also differences in the relative importance of socio-economic, gender, and personality factors. Migration intentions were highly dependent on the decision-making time frame: 17 per cent of respondents over one year, but 30 per cent over five years, are likely to migrate or to have made firm plans to migrate. The rank ordering of the countries challenges the notion of there being a simple differentiation between the newer and older member states of EU.
This research provides insights into the appreciations of corruption on the meso-level of Slovakia and micro-level of individual entrepreneurs in tourism and agriculture in the country against the macro-level IACD. It critically analyses how IACD impacts on societal discourse on corruption in Slovakia by tracking the genealogy of corruption from the time of the emergence of Slovakia as a nation in the 19th century to the present. Consequently, it looks into how individual SMEs in tourism and agriculture utilise this discourse in their understandings and behaviours towards corruption, utilising the lens of governmentality. The interview data was collected from 30 SMEs in Western and Central Slovakia.
Discourse analysis of media texts reveals curious workings of IACD in the local context where international truths are adopted and adapted to suit local appreciation of corruption in such a way that does little to combat corruption. IACD misses the crucial subtle meanings and moral refinements that corruption carries in the Slovak context. These are embraced creatively by entrepreneurs. Corruption is either morally justified or condoned. It manifests itself either in the direct undermining of the ongoing anti-corruption efforts.
The findings shed light on the struggling anti-corruption fight in the country, the need to abandon the universalising strategies of IACD in favour of more context-sensitive tailored solutions. Above all, the thesis highlights a glaring gap in anti-corruption - its desire to ingrain western institutions with a little foundational work in terms of shifting beliefs and mindsets of population. Without it, anti-corruption can only offer limited results. Free media that are tasked with the role to raise awareness in populations, that is to say to induce the particular mindset, do not take up this challenge in the face of pursuing their own interests. In Slovakia, an approach that would set traditional rural morality, rather than economic morality of IACD, at the heart of corruption, appears a way forward.
The principal contributions of this research stem from being the first study to explore corruption in depth in SMEs, and thus the first to address corruption in tourism and agriculture not only in Slovakia or CEE, but ? at least in the English language - in the world. It brings fresh and, above all, detailed insights into the mechanisms and dynamics of petty corruption. It is also the first study to devote extensive attention to the ways corruption is discussed in the media.
This study also provided the context to gauge the extent to which the tenet of ?freedom of movement?, in the form of circular East to West migration flows, contributed to professional and personal development. The focus was the formal and informal learning made possible through the international migration experience. The researcher employed face to face interviews to gather in-depth qualitative data. A sample of 30 returned migrants were interviewed, supplemented by interviews with key informants from business, government and civil society sectors in Slovakia. In turn, four respondent groups were approached, which culminated with 72 study respondents in total.
The findings from the study revealed that international migration may be a context for accelerated learning, that contributes to professional but also personal development, in the form of hard and soft-skills acquisition, including key competencies such as enhanced confidence, independence and critical thinking. All of these attributes were identified to be in short supply in the post-communist labour market, and key to various transition issues, as addressed by the key informants.
Comparatively, this study built on the seminal work of Williams and Balaz (2008) on international migration and knowledge. These scholars argued that international migration is an important vehicle for the acquisition, and circulation, of tacit knowledge. Potentially migrants constitute sources of key know-how, in addition to acting as boundary spanning knowledge brokers, that help to connect regions and/or countries through their embedded and encultured knowledge of multiple contexts.
This study also built on Williams? and Balaz?s (2008) theoretical perspectives, by focusing on international migration and knowledge, in addition to exploring the implications of this new learning on the individual. In the field of adult learning, knowledge is not just a brick by brick accumulation of information, but also highly personal. Therefore, knowledge is not just a process driven added-value for the individual, but may also be emancipatory. Therefore, this study explored how international migration can be a context for deep personal learning and not just professional knowledge acquisition. By applying Jack Mezirow?s (1991) transformative learning theory and linking the migration experience to a ?disorienting dilemma?, this study concludes that international migration may contribute to transformative learning. The outcome can be the acquisition of a ?more open, integrated and discerning? meaning perspective.
Purpose: This study seeks to assess the often repeated, but empirically unconfirmed, supposition that there is a positive connection between foreign board members (FBMs) and firm innovativeness, and to set a research agenda for future studies on the topic.
Design: The analyses are based on a large sample of firms within the European Union, utilizing patent and trademark data together with information on the national diversity of the boards.
Findings: The analyses confirm that there is a positive association between FBMs and firm innovativeness. Contrary to expectations, FBMs from less innovative countries than the countries of their host companies are more often associated with innovative firms than are FBMs from more innovative countries.
Research implications: This study provides empirical support for propositions, drawn from resource dependency theory and group effectiveness/diversity theories, that diverse boards of directors can lead to greater firm-level creativity and innovativeness. It also outlines a detailed research agenda for future studies to build on the tentative findings presented in this paper.
Practical implications: The findings suggest that greater national diversity in the board of directors can enhance innovation.
Originality: Earlier studies on board diversity have not analysed empirically the issue of national diversity. The originality of this paper lies in its attempt to address this gap in the corporate governance literature.
and policy implications-INNOVATE?. The project aims to deepen understanding of the different stages of the innovation
journey followed by entrepreneurs in tourism to contribute to the design of more effective innovation policies. This project
has received funding from the European Union?s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie
SkBodowska-Curie grant agreement Nº 700893. This briefing is based on more than 70 interviews with tourism innovative
entrepreneurs (both successful and unsuccessful).
From this perspective, the research involves examination of secondary data (e.g. TDCs` websites) and initial semi-structured interviews with professional participants in the tourism development industry in order to map the framework of TDC project ecologies in China. However, the core of the methodology is multiple case studies conducted in three contrasting TDCs over a period of 10 months. Data were collected through participant observation and informal interview during the case study process, focusing on how knowledge is managed within the project ecologies.
This research provides a relatively detailed description about the entities, and their interrelationships, involved in the project ecology of TDP. Building on the multilevel nature of project ecology, this research discusses the effects of various factors on KM at four different contextual levels (i.e. the individual level, the team level, the organizational level, and the external environment level). Four key findings serve to synthesize the roles of the factors in the four levels respectively: (1) the diverse and intrinsic effects of individual level factors on the individuals` performance in KM-related activities; (2) the aligning functions of the team level factors in configuring individuals` project work and their corresponding KM-related activities; (3) the organizational level factors which exert relatively more ongoing and sustained influences on KM activities despite the varied features of the various projects;(4)the characteristics of the external environment which can also exert latently ongoing, and sometimes notable influences on the interactions and dynamics of these relevant entities in terms of their performance in project and KM-related issues.
As well as bringing a new theoretical perspective to knowledge management in tourism, this research exhibits the ways in which the project ecology of TDPs in China are different from previous models of project ecologies developed in the literature. It does represent a substantial analysis of this topic within the field of tourism. Furthermore, it is intended that the research will also contribute to enhancing the performance of the case study firms, as well as the TDC sector generally.
The findings reveal that staff innovations have the strongest direct impact on performance, along with product innovations and two external factors. Staff innovations mediate partially the effects of these factors, and fully the influence of management innovations and internal factors, on performance. Therefore, the model provides evidence of the complexity of the relationships between hotel performance factors and types of innovation, as well as insights into the key role that staff-related innovations play in realising performance improvements.
exploratory study is to provide insights into this underdeveloped area in the tourism
innovation literature. A qualitative approach is adopted to understand the resistance
experienced by 57 entrepreneurs when introducing their innovations into the market, the
causes and the actions taken to minimise resistance. Findings indicate that most
entrepreneurs often encounter resistance from sceptical customers, satisfied with their
status quo and with no or low appetites for innovation. The analysis reveals two main
sources of resistance: the association of the innovations with particular risks, and the
customers' lack of understanding of the innovation value. Communication strategies are
crucial to decrease the associated risks and for trust building. The paper provides a critical
perspective on the challenges faced by innovators, challenges which are often overlooked
given the near-iconic status of innovation in studies of economic development.
íková K., Chran
oková M. (2019) What Competences, Which migrants? Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Acquired via Migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Taylor and Francis
T Makkonen, Allan M. Williams, A Habersetzer, (2018) "Foreign board members and firm innovativeness: an exploratory analysis for setting a research agenda", Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, https://doi.org/10.1108/CG-12-2017-0301
King R and Williams A M (2018) Editorial Introduction: New European Youth Mobilities, Population, Space and Place
Williams, A, Jephcote, C, Janta, H and Li G (2018), The Migration Intentions of Young Adults in Europe: A Comparative Multi-Level Analysis, Population Space and Place
Baláž V, Williams AM (2018). Migration decisions in the face of upheaval: An experimental approach. Population Space Place (2018)
Makkonen, T. And Williams A M (2018) Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity, Geografisk Tiddskrift 118(1): 114-121
Makkonen, T.. Williams, A. M., Weidenfeld, A. and Kaisto, V. (2018) Cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation in the European neighbourhood: Tourism cooperation at the Finnish-Russian border, Tourism Management 68: 140-151
Rodriguez-Sanchez, I, Williams, A M. and Brotons, M (2017) The innovation journey of new-to-tourism entrepreneurs Current Issues in Tourism
Balaz, V., Williams A M, and Chrančoková, M (2017) Connectivity as the facilitator of European student migration, Population Space and Place
Park, S., Yaduma N, Lockwood, A J and Williams A M (2016), Demand Fluctuations, Labour Flexibility and Productivity, Annals of Tourism Research v59 pp 93-112
Baláž, V., Williams, A. M. and Fifeková, E. (2016), Migration Decision Making as Complex Choice: Eliciting Decision Weights Under Conditions of Imperfect and Complex Information Through Experimental Methods. Population Space and Place. V22 (1), pp 36-53
Baláž, V. and Williams, A. M. (2017) Experimental research methods in migration: from natural to true experiments, Population Space and Place. V23(1) DOI: 10.1002/psp.1974
Weidenfeld, A, Bjork P, and Williams A M (2016 online) ‘Cognitive and cultural proximity between service managers and customers in cross border regions: knowledge transfer implications’, Scandinavian Journal of Tourism and Hospitality v 16 , Iss. Sup1,2016, pp 66-86.
Makkonen, T. and Williams A. M (2016) Border region studies: The structure of an ‘offbeat’ field of regional studies, Regional Studies, Regional Science v3(1): pp 356-368
Makkonen, T, Weidenfeld, A and Williams A M (2016) , "Cross-border regional innovation system integration: An analytical framework’, Tijdschrift voorEconomische en Sociale Geografie doi:10.1111/tesg.12223
Williams A M and V Balaz, Tourism, risk and uncertainty: theoretical reflections, Journal of Travel Research 54(3): 271-287
Janta, H, Cohen, S and Williams A M (2015) Reconceptualizing VFR mobilities, Population Space and Place 21(7), pp.585–598.
Yaduma, N., Williams, A. M., Park, S. and Lockwood, A. (2015), Performance, Labour Flexibility and Migrant Workers in Hotels: An Establishment and Departmental Level Analysis, International Journal of Hospitality Management v50, pp 94-104
Williams A M & Baláž V , (2013): Mobility, risk tolerance and competence to manage risks, Journal of Risk Research, 17(8): 1061-88
A Weidenfeld, A M Williams and R Butler (2014), Spatial competition and agglomeration in the visitor attraction sector’, Service Industries Journal 34(3)
Rodrigues, I., Williams, A M, and Hall, C M (2014), Tourism innovation policies: implementation and outcomes, Annals of Tourism Research 49: 76-93
Williams, A. M. (2013) Mobilities and sutainable tourism: path-dependent or path-creating relationships? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(4): 511-513
Williams, A M and Balaz V (2013), Tourism, risk tolerance and competence: travel organization and tourism hazards, Tourism Management 35(April): 209-221
E Markova, A Paraskevopolou, A Williams and G Shaw (2013), ‘Migrant Workers in Small London Hotels: Employment, Recruitment and Distribution’, European Journal of Urban and Regional Research
A M Williams and V Baláž (2012) ‘Migration, risk and uncertainty: theoretical perspectives’, Population, Space and Place 18(2): 167-80
V Baláž and A M Williams (2012) ‘Diffusion and competition of voice communication technologies in the Czech and Slovak Republics, 1948-2009", Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 79(2): 393-404
Williams, A., Ford, J and Mooney, J. (2012), ‘Human mobility in functional urban regions: understanding the diversity of mobilities’, International Review of Sociology 22(2): 191-209
A Paraskevopoulou, E Markova, A Williams, and G Shaw (2012) ‘Migration and Innovation at the Bottom End: Understanding the Role of Migrant Managers in Small Hotels in the Global City ’, Mobilities 7(3): 389-414
Lowe, M., Williams, A. M., Shaw, G. & Cudworth, K. (2012) ‘Self-organising innovation networks, mobile knowledge carriers and diasporas: Insights from a pioneering boutique hotel chain’, Journal of Economic Geography 12: 1113–1138
G Shaw, A Bailey and A M Williams (2011), ‘Service dominant logic and its implications for tourism management: the co-production of innovation in the hotel industry’, Tourism Management 32(2): 207-214
A M Williams and G Shaw (2011), ‘Internationalization and innovation in tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research 38(1): 27-51
A M Williams, N Chaban and M Holland (2011), ‘International migration and return: the articulation of place through work, family and community’, Mobilities 6(1): 125-147
N Chaban, A M Williams and M Holland (2011), ‘Crossing cultures: Analysing the experiences of NZ returnees from the EU (UK vs. non-UK), International Journal of Intercultural Relations 35: 776-90
V Baláž and A M Williams (2011) ‘Risk attitudes and migration experience’, Journal of Risk Research 14:5: 583-596
Weidenfeld, R Butler and A M Williams (2011), ‘The role of clustering, cooperation and complementarities in the visitor attraction sector’ Current Issues in Tourism 14(7): 595-62
A Weidenfeld, A M Williams, and R Butler (2010), ‘Knowledge transfers and innovations amongst attractions’. Annals of Tourism Research 37(3): 604-626
S Salis and A M Williams (2010), 'Knowledge Sharing through Face-To-Face Communication and Labour Productivity: Evidence from British Workplaces,' British Journal of Industrial Relations V48(2): 436-459
D A Higon, O Deniz, J Clegg, I Grugulis, S Salis, N Vasilakos and A M Williams (2010), ‘The determinants of retail productivity: a critical review of the evidence’, International Journal of Management Reviews, V12(2): 201 – 217
A M Williams (2010), ‘Mass tourism, culture and the historic city: theoretical perspectives’, Revista del Scienze del Turismo 1(2): 9-29
A M Williams and V Balaz (2009), ‘Low cost carriers, economies of flows, and regional externalities’, Regional Studies 43(5): 677 - 691
G Shaw and A M Williams (2009), ‘Knowledge Transfer and Management in Tourism Organisations: an emerging research agenda’, Tourism Management 30 (3) 325–335
Williams, A. M. (2009), ‘International migration, uneven development and polarisation: an introduction’, European Urban and Regional Studies 16(3): 309-322
Williams, A M and Shaw, G. (2009), ‘Future play: tourism, recreation and land use – a Foresight review’, Land Use Policy 12 Supplement 1: S326-335
A Weidenfeld, R W Butler, and A M Williams (2009) ‘Clustering and compatibility between tourism attractions’, International Journal of Tourism Research 12 (1): 1-16
A M Williams and V Balaz (2008), International mobility, learning and knowledge transfer: a case study of Slovak doctors, Social Science and Medicine, 67: 1924-33
V Balaz and A M Williams (2007), ‘Path dependency and path creation perspectives on migration trajectories: the economic experiences of Vietnamese migrants in Slovakia’, International Migration 45(2): 37-67
A M Williams (2007), ‘International labour migration and tacit knowledge transactions: a multi-level perspective’, Global Networks 7(1): 1-22
A M Williams (2007), ‘Listen to me, learn with me: International migration and knowledge’, British Journal of Industrial Relations 45(2): 361-82
A M Williams (2006), ‘Lost in translation: International migration, learning and knowledge’, Progress in Human Geography 30(5) 588-607
A Warnes and A M Williams (2006), ‘Older migrants in Europe: an innovative focus for migration studies’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies v32(8): 1257-81
A M Williams and V Balaz (2005), ‘What human capital, which migrants? Returned skilled migration to Slovakia from the UK’, International Migration Review v39(2): 439-468
A M Williams and V Balaz (2005), ‘Winning then loosing the battle with globalization: Vietnamese petty traders in Slovakia’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29(3): 533-549
A M Williams and Baláž, V. (2005): ‘Vietnamese community in Slovakia’, Sociológia, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 249-274
Balaz, V. and A M Williams (2005), 'International tourism as bricolage: an analysis of central Europe on the brink of European Union membership', International Journal of Tourism Research 7(2): 79-93
D Sadler, A M Williams and R Hudson (2004), Editorial: 10 Years of European Urban and Regional Studies, European Urban and Regional Studies 11(1) 5-7
V Balaz and A M Williams (2004), ‘Been there, done that’: international student migration and human capital transfers from the UK to Slovakia’, Population, Space and Place 10 217-237
R Hudson and A M Williams (2004), European voices: towards the internationalisation of academic discourse’, European Urban and Regional Studies 11(4): 355-356
A M Williams and V Balaz (2004), ‘From private to public sphere, the commodification of the au pair experience? Returned migrants from Slovakia to the UK’, Environment and Planning A 36(10): 1813-1833.
V Balaz, A M Williams and D Kollar (2004), ‘Temporary versus permanent youth brain drain: economic implications’, International Migration 42(4): 3-34
A M. Williams, Balaz, V. and Wallace, C. (2003), ‘International labour mobility and uneven regional development in Europe: human capital, knowledge and entrepreneurship’, European Urban and Regional Studies 11(1): 27-46
A.M.Williams and V. Balaz (2002), ‘The Czech and Slovak Republics: conceptual issues in the economic analysis of tourism in transition’, Tourism Management v23 (1): 37-45
G Lazaridis and A M Williams (2002), ‘European migration: flows, structures and regulation’, International Journal of Population Geography 8(2): 83-87
A M Williams and V Balaz (2002), ‘La movilidad internacional en Europa Central: turistas, comerciantes y migrantes’, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales 18(1): 37-66
A.M.Williams and V. Balaz (2002), ‘International petty trading: changing practices in trans-Carpathian Ukraine’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 26(2): 323-344
A. M. Williams and V. Balaz (2002) ‘Trans-border population mobility at a European crossroads: Slovakia in the shadow of EU accession’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies,28(4): 647-664
A.M.Williams and V. Balaz (2001), ‘From collective provision to commodification of tourism?’, Annals of Tourism Research 2001 vol 28(1): 27-49
A.M.Williams, V. Balaz and D. Kollar (2001), ‘Coming and going in Slovakia: Labour migration in the Central European ‘buffer zone’, Environment and Planning A v33: 1101-1123
Vladimir Balaz and A M Williams (2001), ‘Capital mobility in transition countries of central Europe: macroeconomic performance factors and structural policies'’ Ekonomicky Casopis v49(2): 242-271
Williams, A.M. and Baláž, V. (2001): Patterns of internal migration, regional polarisation and market reforms in Central Europe’ Ekonomický časopis, v49(4): 663-700
A.M.Williams, V. Balaz and B. Bodnarova (2001), ‘Border regions and trans-border mobility: Slovakia in economic transition’, Regional Studies, v35(9): 831-46
A.Warnes, R. King, A.M.Williams and G.Patterson (2000), ‘The well being of British expatriates resident in southern Europe’, Ageing and Society vol 19(6): 717-740
A.M.Williams and M.Hall (2000), ‘Tourism and migration: new relationships between production and consumption’, Tourism Geographies v2(1): 5-27
A.M.Williams, R. King, A. Warnes, and G. Patterson (2000), ‘Tourism and international retirement migration; new forms of an old relationship in southern Europe’, Tourism Geographies, v2(1): 28-49
A.M.Williams and V. Balaz (2000), ‘Privatisation and the development of tourism in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: property rights, firm performance and recombinant property’, Environment and Planning A, v32: 715-34
S. Agarwall, R. Ball, G. Shaw and A.M.Williams (2000), ‘The geography of tourism production: uneven development and neglect’, Tourism Geographies, v2(3): 241-63
A.M.Williams and G. Shaw (2000), ‘Guest editorial: tourism geography in a changing world, Tourism Geographies v2(3): 239-40
Williams and A. Montanari (1999) ‘Limits to Self-regulation’, in Tourism Geographies 1, 1999, pp 26-40
A.Williams and V. Balaz (1999), ‘Privatisation in Central Europe: different methods, legacies and implications’, Environment and Planning : Government and Policy v17(6): 731-52
G. Shaw and A. Williams (1999(, ‘Tourism entrepreneurship: the role of small business in British coastal tourism’, Munstersche Geographische Arbeiten vol 42, 25-32
A M. Williams , V. Balaz and S. Zujac (1998), ‘The EU and Central Europe: the reinternationalisation of economic relationships’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie v89(2) pp 131-49
A.M. Williams and G. Patterson (1998), ‘An empire lost but a province gained: a cohort analysis of British international retirement in the Algarve’, International Journal of Population Geography, v.4 pp 135-56
R. King, A. Warnes and A.M. Williams (1998), ‘International retirement migration in Europe’, International Journal of Population Geography, v4, pp 91-111
A.M. Williams, R.King and A.Warnes (1997), ‘A place in the sun: international retirement migration from the UK to Southern Europe’, European Urban and Regional Studies, vol 4, no2, pp. 115-34
P. Thornton, A.M. Williams and G.Shaw (1997), ‘Revisiting time space diaries: an exploratory case study of tourist behaviour in Cornwall, England’, Environment and Planning A vol 29 pp. 1847-1867
P.Thornton, G.Shaw, A.M. Williams (1997), ‘Tourist group decision making and behaviour: the influence of children’, Tourism Management 18(5) 287-297
A Williams (1995(, 'Recent development in UK tourism research', Estudios Turisticos, vol 25
A M Williams and G Shaw (1995), 'Tourism and regional development: polarisation and new forms of production in the UK', Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, vol 86, pp. 50-63
A Williams and A Montanari (1995), 'Tourism regions and spaces in a changing social framework’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Social Geographie, vol 69, pp. 3-1
A Williams and J Lewis (1994), 'Regional autonomies and the European Communities: the view from Portugal’s Atlantic islands, Regional Policy and Politics, Vol 4, No 2,pp 67-85
A Williams, G Shaw and M Huber (1994), 'Culture industries and local economic development', Regional Studies, vol 32
A Williams (1992), 'Globality and Community in Culture and Development', World Futures, 1990, Vol 33, No 1, pp 1-24
A Williams (1992) 'Economic and Non-Economic Models of Entrepreneurship in the UK', World Futures, Vol 33, No 1, pp 25-34
A Williams (1992), 'Cultural contingencies and economic behaviour: return migration', World Futures, Vol 33, No 1, pp 155-164
A Griffiths and A Williams (1992), 'Culture, regional image and economic development in the UK', World Futures, Vol 33, No 1, pp 105-120
A Williams and G Shaw (1992), 'Tourism Research: a Perspective', American Behavioral Scientist, Vol 36, No 2, pp 133-143
G Shaw and A William (1992), 'Tourism and tourist cultures', American Behavioral Scientist, Vol 36, No 2, pp 155-171
A Williams (1992), 'The Portuguese economy in transition', Journal of the Association for Contemporary Iberian Studies, Vol 5, No 2, pp 30-39
G Shaw and AWilliams (1991), 'From bathing hut to theme park', Journal of Regional and Local Studies, pp. 16-32
J Greenwood, A Williams and G Shaw (1990), 'Policy implementation and tourism in the UK - implications from recent tourism research in Cornwall', Tourism Management, Vol 11, No 1, pp 53-62
G Shaw, A Williams and J Greenwood (1990), 'UK Visitor Surveys', Tourism Management, Vol 11, No 3, pp. 247-250
A MWilliams, G Shaw and J Greenwood (1989) 'From tourist to entrepreneur, from consumption to production: evidence for Cornwall, England', Environment and Planning, Vol 21, No 12, pp 1639-1654
G Shaw and A Williams, (1988) 'Tourism and employment: reflections on a pilot study of Looe, Cornwall', Area, Vol 20, No 1, pp 23-34
G Shaw, A Williams and J Greenwood (1988) 'Comparative studies in local economies: the Cornish cases', Built Environment, Vol 13, No 2, pp 73-84
A Williams and G Shaw (1988), 'Tourism: candyfloss industry or job generator', Town Planning Review, Vol 59, pp 81-104
G Shaw, A Williams and J Greenwood (1988), 'The economic role of tourism: policy implications of Cornish research', Planning Practice & Research, v5, pp 5-11
J Lewis and A Williams (1987), 'Factories, farms and families: the impacts of industrial growth in rural Central Portugal', Sociologia Ruralis, Vol 26, No 3/4, pp 320-344
J Lewis and A Williams (1987), 'Productive decentralisation of indigenous growth in Portugal', Regional Studies, July, Vol 21, no 5, pp 343-361
G Shaw and A Williams, (1987) 'Firm formation and operating characteristics in the Cornish tourist industry - the case of Looe', Tourism Management, Vol 9, pp 344-348
J Lewis and A Williams (1987), 'Descentralization de la Produccion o desarrollo endogeno?', Estudios Territoriales, Vol 27, pp 95-122
A Pratt, G Shaw and A Williams (1986), 'The changing role of industrial estates in the Cornish economy’, Cornish Studies, 12, pp 31-46
A Williams (1986), 'Economic landscapes of the Mediterranean; Landscape Research, v11, pp 8-10
A M Williams (1986), 'Tendències recentis en la geografia humana Britànica: inicis, fragmentacio i reunificacio', Revista Catalana de Geografia, No 2, pp 41-52
J Lewis and A Williams (1985), 'Portugal: decade of return', Geography, v 70, pp178-182
J Lewis and A Williams (1985) 'The Sines project: Portugal's growth centre or white elephant', Town Planning Review, Vol 56, pp 339-366
J Lewis and A Williams (1985), 'Portugal's retornados: reintegration or rejection?', Iberian Studies, Vol 14, pp 11-23
J Lewis and A Williams (1984), 'International labour migration and uneven regional development in contemporary Portugal', City and Region, Vol 11, pp 287-301
J Lewis and A Williams (1984), 'Social cleavages and electoral performances: the social basis of Portuguese political parties, 1976-83', West European Politics, Vol 7, pp 119-137. Reprinted in G Pridham The New Mediterranean Democracies, Frank Cass, London
D Phillips and A Williams (1984), 'The social implications of rural housing policy: a review of developments in the past decade' Countryside Planning Yearbook, Vol 4, pp 77-102
A Williams (1983), ‘Lisbon’, Cities, Vol 1, No 1, pp 10-16
D Phillips and A Williams (1983), ‘Rural settlement policies and local authority housing: observations from a case study of South Hams, Devon’, Environment and Planning A, 15, pp 501-513
J Lewis and A Williams (1982), ‘O impacto regional de adessão CEE’, Desenvolvimento Regional, 14/15, pp 79-139
G Shaw and A Williams (1982), ‘A comparative analysis of Structure Plans’, Planning and Administration, 9, pp 74-84
D Phillips and A Williams (1982), ‘Local authority housing and accessibility: evidence from the South Hams, Devon’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 7, pp 304-320
D Phillips and A Williams (1982), ‘A positive approach to transfer management’, Housing Review, 31,No 1, pp 13-19
D Phillips and A Williams (1982), ‘The need for rural council houses’, Housing, 18, No 4, 16-19
A M Williams (1981), ‘Bairros clandestinos: illegal housing settlements in Portugal’, Geografische Tijdschrift, XV, pp 24-34
J Lewis and A Williams (1981), ‘Regional uneven development on the European periphery: the case of Portugal 1950-78’, Tijdschrift voor Economishe en Sociale Geografia 72, pp 81-98
A Williams (1981), ‘Portugal's illegal housing’, Planning Outlook, 23, pp 110-114
G Shaw and A Williams (1981), ‘The regional structure of Structure Plans’, Planning Outlook, 23, pp 2-7
A Williams (1980) ‘Conservation planning in Oporto: an integrated approach in the Ribeira-Barredo’, Town Planning Review, 51, pp 177-194
G Shaw and A Williams (1980), 'Structure planning and retailing', Retail Distribution and Management, 8, pp 34-43
A Williams (1979) ‘Migration and residential patterns in mid-nineteenth century Cardiff’, Cambria 6, pp 1-27
A Wedienfeld, R Butler, A M Williams (2016), Visitor Attractions and Events: Locations and Linkages, London: Routledge
A L Lew, C M Hall and A M Williams (eds)(2014), The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Tourism, Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 650pp
A M Williams and V Balaz (2014), Migration, Risk and Uncertainty, London: Routledge, 240 pp
A M Williams (ed)(2012) Human Mobility in Coastal Regions: The Impact of Migration and Temporary Mobilities on Urbanization, Rome: Sapienza Università Editrice, Vol. II, September 2012 , 490 pp
C M Hall and A M Williams (2008), Tourism and Innovation, London: Routledge,
A M Williams and V Balaz,(2008) International Migration and Knowledge, London: Routledge
G. Shaw and A.M. Williams (2004), Tourism and Tourism Spaces (Sage, 2004)
A. Lew, M. Hall and A. M. Williams (eds.)(2004), A Companion to Tourism Oxford: Blackwells,
C. M. Hall and A.M.Williams (eds)(2002), Tourism and Migration: New Relationships between Production and Consumption (Kleuwer, 200
A.M.Williams and V.Balaz (2000), Tourism in Transition: Economic Change in Central Europe, (London: I.B.Tauris)
R. King, A.M.Warnes and A.M.Williams (2000) Sunset Lives: European retirement migration, (Oxford: Berg)
R.Hudson and A.Williams (eds.)(1999), Divided Europe: Society and Territory, London: Sage
G. Shaw and A Williams (eds)(1997), The Rise and Fall of British Coastal Resorts: Cultural and Economic Perspectives, Mansell,
A Montanari and A Williams (eds)(1995) European Tourism: Regions, Spaces and Restructuring, Wileys,
G Shaw & A Williams (1994), Critical Issues in Tourism, Oxford: Blackwells, Second edition 2002,
C Balkir and A Williams, (eds),(1993) Turkey and Europe, London: Belhaven,
M Blacksell and A Williams, (eds) (1993), The European Challenge: Geography and Development, Oxford: Oxford UP
A Williams and J Gaspar,(1992) Southern Portugal in the 1990s, London: Economist Intelligence Unit
J Gaspar and A Williams (1992), Northern Portugal in the 1990s, London: Economist Intelligence Unit,
A Williams (1991),The European Community: The Contradictions of Integration, Oxford: Blackwell, IBG series, 2nd edition 1994.
Gallagher and A Williams, (Editors) (1989) Southern European Socialism: Parties, Elections and the Challenge of Government, Manchester: Manchester University Press
R Hudson and A Williams (1989), Divided Britain, London: Belhaven Press, 1989,2nd edition 1995
A Williams and G Shaw, (editors) (1988) Tourism and Development: Western European Perspectives, London: Frances Pinter, 3rd edition 1995
A Williams (1987), The Western European Economy: A Geography of Post-War Development, Hutchinson, London
R Hudson and A Williams (1986), The United Kingdom, Harper & Row, London
A Williams, Editor, (1984) Southern Europe Transformed, Harper & Row, London
D Phillips and A Williams (1984), Rural Britain: A Social Geography, Basil Blackwell, Oxford
N Spence, A Gillespie, J Goddard, S Kennett and S Pinch and A Williams (`1982) British Cities: An Analysis of Urban Change, Pergamon, Oxford
D Phillips and A Williams (1981), Rural Housing and the Public Sector, Gower Press, Farnborough