Jonathan Chenoweth

Dr Jonathan Chenoweth

Senior Lecturer, Director of Learning and Teaching for Environment and Sustainability
BPD (Planning) Hons, Ph.D.
+44 (0)1483 689096
11 BA 02
Tuesdays from 2pm - 3 pm

Academic and research departments

Centre for Environment and Sustainability.


University roles and responsibilities

  • Programme Director of the MSc in Environmental Strategy
  • Programme Director of the MSc in Corporate Environmental Management
  • Programme Director of the MSc in Sustainable Development
  • Co-programme director on the MSc in Sustainable Tourism


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    My teaching

    My publications


    Chenoweth JL, Lopez-Aviles A, Morse S, Druckman A (2016) Water consumption and subjective wellbeing: An analysis of British households,Ecological Economics130pp. 186-194 Elsevier
    While having basic access to water resources is clearly critical for survival, the extent to which water consumption contributes to wellbeing once basic needs have been met is not clear. In this study the link between household water consumption and wellbeing is assessed via a household survey conducted in southern England and actual water consumption data for the same households received from their water supply company. While the study revealed a few correlations, in general no link was found between actual water use and wellbeing. This suggests that high wellbeing is attainable regardless of low water use (assuming basic needs are met). In fact, when assessed through individual rather than composite measures of wellbeing, a weak but statistically significant link was shown between higher water use and some indicators of low wellbeing. Our results also show that actual water use appears to be unlinked to environmental attitudes, attitudes to water use or willingness to adopt water saving measures. This suggests that seeking a sustained reduction in water consumption via attitudinal change alone is unlikely to be effective.
    Malcolm RN, Ayalew M, Chenoweth J, Pedley S, Okotto LG, Mulugetta Y (2014) Small Independent Water Providers: Their Position in the Regulatory Framework for the Supply of Water in Kenya and Ethiopia,Journal of Environmental Law2014(26 (1))pp. 105-128 Oxford University Press
    Hadjikakou M, Miller Graham, Chenoweth Jonathan, Druckman Angela, Zoumides C (2015) A comprehensive framework for comparing water use intensity across different tourist types,Journal of Sustainable Tourism23(10)pp. 1445-1467 Taylor & Francis
    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Tourism products vary in their direct and indirect (supply chain) water use, as well as in their economic contribution. Hence, water-scarce destinations require a method to estimate and compare water use intensity (water use in relation to economic output) for different kinds of tourist products in order to optimise their tourism offering. The present study develops an original framework that integrates segmentation with an environmentally extended input?output (EEIO) framework based on detailed tourism expenditure data and tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) in order to quantify the total (direct and indirect) economic impact and water use for multiple tourism segments. To demonstrate the rigour of the methodology, it is applied to the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The results show that cheaper forms of tourism tend to have a significantly lower total water use and, depending on the economic impact indicator of interest, may have above-average economic contribution per unit of expenditure. The proposed framework provides a significant step towards achieving sustainable water use through destination-specific estimates of water use intensity which take into consideration segment-specific attributes. It is envisaged that this could eventually lead to customised interventions for diverse tourism market segments.
    Hadjikakou M, Chenoweth Jonathan, Miller Graham (2013) Estimating the direct and indirect water use of tourism in the eastern Mediterranean,Journal of Environmental Management114pp. 548-556
    The impact of tourism activities on local water resources remains a largely understudied issue in environmental and sustainable tourism management. The aim of the paper is to present a simple methodology that allows an estimate of direct and indirect local water use associated with different holiday packages and to then discuss relevant management implications. This is explored through the creation of five illustrative examples of holidays to semi-arid eastern Mediterranean destinations: Cyprus (2), Turkey, Greece and Syria. Using available data on water use associated with different forms of travel, accommodation and tourist activities, indicative water footprints are calculated for each of the illustrative examples. Food consumption by tourists appears to have by far the most significant impact on the overall water footprint and this aspect of water use is explored in detail in the paper. The paper also suggests a way of employing the water footprint methodology along with import/export balance sheets of main food commodities to distinguish between the global and local pressure of tourism demand on water resources. Water resource use is likely to become an increasingly important issue in tourism management and must be considered alongside more established environmental concerns such as energy use, using methodologies that can capture direct as well as supply chain impacts.
    Lelieveld J, Hadjinicolaou P, Kostopoulou E, El Maayar M, Hannides C, Lange MA, Tanarhte M, Tyrlis E, Xoplaki E, Chenoweth J, Giannakopoulos C (2012) Climate change and impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, Climatic Change114(3-4)pp. 667-687
    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) are likely to be greatly affected by climate change, associated with increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts and hot weather conditions. Since the region is diverse and extreme climate conditions already common, the impacts will be disproportional. We have analyzed long-term meteorological datasets along with regional climate model projections for the 21st century, based on the intermediate IPCC SRES scenario A1B. This suggests a continual, gradual and relatively strong warming of about 3. 5-7°C between the 1961-1990 reference period and the period 2070-2099. Daytime maximum temperatures appear to increase most rapidly in the northern part of the region, i. e. the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. Hot summer conditions that rarely occurred in the reference period may become the norm by the middle and the end of the 21st century. Projected precipitation changes are quite variable. Annual precipitation is expected to decrease in the southern Europe - Turkey region and the Levant, whereas in the Arabian Gulf area it may increase. In the former region rainfall is actually expected to increase in winter, while decreasing in spring and summer, with a substantial increase of the number of days without rainfall. Anticipated regional impacts of climate change include heat stress, associated with poor air quality in the urban environment, and increasing scarcity of fresh water in the Levant. © 2012 The Author(s).
    Scenario analysis suggests that by 2050 the population of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip and Jordan will have grown from 17.2 million to between 21.1 and 38.5 million people. These population scenarios are compared to a range of water resource scenarios that consider the effect of climate change, a possible redistribution of the region's shared water resources as a result of a peace agreement, or the status quo. This scenario analysis shows that under all possible population-water scenarios combinations considered, the water resources of Jordan and Israel remain above the minimum threshold required for social and economic development. In the case of the West Bank, water resources may also remain sufficient for all population and climatic scenarios if the West Bank gains a greater portion of the shared water resources. In the Gaza Strip, however, desalination or water imports are required. Will the water resources of Israel, Palestine and Jordan remain sufficient to permit economic and social development for the foreseeable future? Jonathan Chenoweth -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ABSTRACT Scenario analysis suggests that by 2050 the population of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip and Jordan will have grown from 17.2 million to between 21.1 and 38.5 million people. These population scenarios are compared to a range of water resource scenarios that consider the effect of climate change, a possible redistribution of the region's shared water resources as a result of a peace agreement, or the status quo. This scenario analysis shows that under all possible population-water scenarios combinations considered, the water resources of Jordan and Israel remain above the minimum threshold required for social and economic development. In the case of the West Bank, water resources may also remain sufficient for all population and climatic scenarios if the West Bank gains a greater portion of the shared water resources. In the Gaza Strip, however, desalination or water imports are required.
    Chenoweth J, Barnett J, Capelos T, Fife-Schaw C, Kelay T (2010) Comparison of Consumer Attitudes Between Cyprus and Latvia: An Evaluation of Effect of Setting on Consumer Preferences in the Water Industry, WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT24(15)pp. 4339-4358 SPRINGER
    Chenoweth J, Hadjinicolaou P, Bruggeman A, Lelieveld J, Levin Z, Lange MA, Xoplaki E, Hadjikakou M (2011) Impact of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region: Modeled 21st century changes and implications, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH47ARTN W06506 AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION
    Norman G, Chenoweth J (2009) Appropriateness of low-cost sewerage for African cities: A questionnaire survey of expert opinion,Waterlines28(4)pp. 311-326 Practical Action Publishing
    A questionnaire survey was circulated via internet-based sanitation forums to assess prevailing expert opinion about the appropriateness of low-cost sewerage for African cities. The questionnaire explored opinions about low-cost, solids-free sewerage (settled sewerage), low-cost, solids-transporting sewerage (simplified sewerage, condominial sewerage), and conventional solids-transporting sewerage. A total of 61 valid responses were obtained: 83 per cent of respondents considered low-cost sewerage to be ?sometimes? or ?often? appropriate for lower-income districts of African cities, versus 17 per cent who considered it ?never? or ?very rarely? appropriate. In contrast, only 44 per cent of respondents considered conventional sewerage to be ?sometimes? or ?often? appropriate. Thus low-cost sewerage is widely viewed as an important option to be given serious consideration during urban sanitation planning in African contexts. However, most respondents consider it appropriate only in certain specific situations, and many express concern about costs and long-term maintainability. Respondents? comments concerning specific situations in which low-cost sewerage may be appropriate are discussed in detail
    Wehrmeyer W, Chenoweth J (2006) The role and effectiveness of continuing education training courses offered by higher education institutions in furthering the implementation of sustainable development, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education7(2)pp. 129-141
    Purpose - To investigate the effectiveness of one-off short continuing adult education courses for expanding the penetration of sustainable development education beyond current tertiary students. Design/methodology/approach - Pre- and post-course questionnaires are used to evaluate the effectiveness of a series of short training courses on environment and sustainability issues conducted by the Centre for Environmental Strategy for a UK government department. Findings - These short continuing education courses were effective at meeting their specific aims of increasing awareness and understanding of sustainability issues, with longer courses being more beneficial and providing qualitatively different experiences. Learning on sustainable development was maximised by overtly drawing on the collective past learning experiences and knowledge of participants though carefully facilitated discussion that encourages the sharing of and building upon this knowledge base. Practical implications - If the training effectiveness of short continuing education courses in sustainable development is to be effective then such courses need to exploit existing knowledge bases so that limited time resources are used for maximum benefit through teaching methodologies that promote a constructivist learning environment. Originality/value - This paper examines a significant means for maximising the effectiveness short continuing education courses in sustainability. Ensuring the effectiveness of such courses is critical to increasing the pe netration of sustainable development education in higher education. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
    Al Zadjali S, Morse S, Chenoweth J, Deadman M (2014) Factors determining pesticide use practices by farmers in the Sultanate of Oman.,Sci Total Environ476-477pp. 505-512
    In a study of pesticide use on farms in Oman, over 200 respondents were surveyed from amongst owners of and workers on farms that belonged to a Farmers' Association (FA) and those that did not belong to the FA. A questionnaire was used to gauge attitudes to pesticide use whilst inventories of active ingredients were taken for all farms. The age profiles of the respondents were broadly similar, as was the distribution of nationalities amongst the workers. Workers and owners of FA farms were better educated than respondents from non-member farms. A majority of non-FA farm workers reported that they always used pesticides, fewer FA member farm workers and non-FA farm owners reported this behaviour with FA owners showing the lowest proportion of respondents who always used pesticides. Responses amongst farm owners to questions about frequency of pesticide use suggested that this was unaffected by age or education status, but for farm workers younger or less well educated respondents were more likely to respond by indicating that pesticides were always used. When asked to rate pesticides on a scale of 1 (bad) to 10 (good), high responses were most frequent amongst non-FA farm workers followed by FA member farm workers and non-FA farm owners. On average FA farm owners had the lowest average response, and responses by all groups were unaffected by age or education status. Prohibited pesticide use was higher on non-FA farms (4.9% of all pesticides) than on FA farms (1.3%). Pesticide products observed on FA member farms generally contained newer classes of active ingredients and were most frequently from major manufacturing companies in Europe, North America and Japan. Older, off-patent active ingredient-containing products were frequently observed on non-FA farms, often from so-called 'me-too' producing companies in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa.
    Ashwood FE, Doick KJ, Atkinson GE, Chenoweth J (2014) Under-utilisation of organic wastes during brownfield regeneration to community woodland: Tackling the barriers,Waste Management and Research32(1)pp. 49-55
    The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams. © The Author(s) 2013.
    Hadjikakou M, Chenoweth Jonathan, Miller Graham, Druckman Angela, Li Gang (2014) Rethinking the Economic Contribution of Tourism: Case Study from a Mediterranean Island,Journal of Travel Research53(5)pp. 610-624 SAGE
    The article introduces an integrated market-segmentation and tourism yield estimation framework for inbound tourism. Conventional approaches to yield estimation based on country of origin segmentation and total expenditure comparisons do not provide sufficient detail, especially for mature destinations dominated by large single-country source markets. By employing different segmentation approaches along with Tourism Satellite Accounts and various yield estimates, this article estimates direct economic contribution for subsegments of the UK market on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Overall expenditure across segments varies greatly, as do the spending ratios in different categories. In the case of Cyprus, the most potential for improving economic contribution currently lies in increasing spending on ?food and beverages? and ?culture and recreation.? Mass tourism therefore appears to offer the best return per monetary unit spent. Conducting similar studies in other destinations could identify priority spending sectors and enable different segments to be targeted appropriately.
    Chenoweth J (2006) Setting sustainable goals for environmental remediation: The case of river remediation in Israel, Ecological Restoration24(3)pp. 158-164
    People who undertake river remediation projects have a variety of goals, both ecological and social, that they seek to fulfill. Practical examples of river remediation projects implemented in Israel in recent years illustrate how conflicting goals can be balanced in the actual implementation of such projects. While restoration, in terms of rehabilitating riparian landscapes and ecosystems, was one of the key aims of Israel's river remediation program, it has not been the dominant outcome in individual river basins. Instead the program has produced a variety of environmental conditions depending on the situation at hand. While these environmental conditions may or may not have the same ecological value as the original river environments prior to significant human impacts, the anthropocentric value of these remediated environments is now undoubtedly many times greater than it was prior to the remediation program. The pragmatic approach taken by the Israelis in effect acknowledged that the full restoration of past riparian environments was impossible and that a balance between ecological and human goals needed to be struck to achieve a sustainable outcome. ©2006 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
    Chenoweth J (2008) A re-assessment of indicators of national water scarcity,Water International33(1)pp. 5-18 Routledge - Taylor and Francis
    The indicator of naturally available water resources per capita has become the standard index for measuring the degree to which a country is facing water scarcity and is often used to show a growing global water crisis. By simultaneously analysing the national development related data provided by the UNDP, and the water resources related data provided by the FAO, it is possible to test the validity of this index, its definitions of water scarcity, and the correlation of water scarcity with national development. This analysis suggests that the naturally available water resources of a country do not have a significant effect on the ability of that country to meet the basic needs of its population.
    Kleemann R, Chenoweth J, Clift R, Morse S, Pearce P, Saroj D (2015) Evaluation of local and national effects of recovering phosphorus at wastewater treatment plants: Lessons learned from the UK,RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING105pp. 347-359 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
    Pediaditi K, Wehrmeyer W, Chenoweth J (2006) Sustainability evaluation for brownfield redevelopment, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability159(1)pp. 3-10
    Redevelopment of brownfield land has been identified as an essential component to the achievement of sustainable urban regeneration. However, in some cases, brownfield redevelopment has been characterised by a lack of long-term consideration of impacts, as well as the failure to holistically examine the environmental, economic and social issues, which form the basis of sustainability. It is therefore important to develop and implement a new approach that can be used to address and monitor sustainability throughout the life cycle of land-use, thus addressing the intergenerational principle of sustainable development. This paper describes a new Redevelopment Assessment Framework that will enable the use of sustainability indicators to monitor holistically the long-term sustainability of brownfield redevelopments. The framework's key characteristics are that it is dynamic in nature, allowing for sustainability monitoring through the land-use life cycle of a brownfield project, as well as being participatory and transparent as a process. The framework incorporates consideration of the risk perception and risk communication issues that are typical of brownfield projects. By design, the new framework is aimed at developing site-specific indicators within the overall context of the existing monitoring and planning processes that brownfield redevelopment projects are required to undergo.
    Okurut K, Kulabako RN, Chenoweth J, Charles K (2015) Assessing demand for improved sustainable sanitation in low-income informal settlements of urban areas: A critical review, International Journal of Environmental Health Research25(1)pp. 81-95
    © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.Sanitation improvement is crucial in saving lives that are lost due to water contamination. Progress towards achieving full sanitation coverage is still slow in low-income informal settlements in most developing countries. Furthermore, resources are being wasted on installing facilities that are later misused or never used because they do not meet the local demand. Understanding demand for improved sanitation in the local context is critical if facilities are to be continually used. Various approaches that attempt to change peoples behaviours or create demand have been reviewed to identify what they are designed to address. A multi-disciplinary research team using mixed methods is re-emphasised as a comprehensive approach for assessing demand for improved sanitation in low-income informal settlements, where the sanitation situation is more challenging than in other areas. Further research involving a multi-disciplinary research team and use of mixed methods to assess sanitation demand in informal settlements is needed.
    Chenoweth J, Durham B, Job L (2007) Valeur économique de l'eau usée traitée,Techniques - Sciences - Methodes(12)pp. 95-109 Association générale des hygiénistes et techniciens municipaux
    Les gouvernements et les agences de l'eau prennent de plus en plus conscience du fait que dans un pays sec, les effluents d'eaux usées, les eaux d'orage et les eaux de pluie sont des ressources supplémentaires et complémentaires plutôt que des problèmes à éliminer [RADCLIFFE et al., 2004]. Le traitement de nos eaux usées et leur retour dans l'environnement (rivières et mers) est une étape clé du cycle de l'eau, qui protège la vie au sein des rivières et permet de s'assurer que les sources d'eau restent pures et facilement utilisables pour l'approvisionnement public [Wtaer UK, 2006]. La gestion des eaux usées ne devrait-elle pas être considérée comme la production d'une ressource précieuses à partir d'eaux urbaines usées tout en protégeant la santé publique et l'environnement, plutôt que comme un processus d'élimination de déchet ? Cet article s'intéresse au problème de la détermination de la valeur économique de l'eau ainsi traitée. Il tentera de répondre à cette question en étudiant brièvement les différences cruciales entre coût, prix et bénéfice économique résultant de la disponibilité de l'eau traitée. Il examine ensuite les différentes approches permettant de déterminer la valeur économique de l'eau usée traitée ou recyclée, puis propose des axes de recherche pour développer une méthodologie. Les bénéfices économiques du traitement des eaux usées devraient être mesurés de la même manière que Nicolas STERN a souligné l'impact économique du changement climatique en termes de PIB.
    Fife-Schaw C, Barnett J, Chenoweth J, Morrison GM, Lundéhn C (2008) Consumer trust and confidence: Some recent ideas in the literature,Water Science and Technology: Water Supply8(1)pp. 43-48 IWA Publishing
    Chenoweth JL, Lopez-Aviles A, Morse S, Druckman A SPREE project Water Use and Wellbeing Survey in SE England, University of Surrey
    Al Zadjali S, Morse S, Chenoweth J, Deadman M (2013) Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT463pp. 237-242 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
    Al Zadjali S, Morse S, Chenoweth J, Deadman M (2014) Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.,Sci Total Environ502pp. 457-461
    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman.
    Chenoweth J (2009) Is tourism with a low impact on climate possible?, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes1(3)pp. 274-287
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbon-dioxide emissions resulting from international vacations, breaking down emissions categories into those resulting from transport, accommodation and recreation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses summary data to review a range of possible vacation scenarios and examines their relative carbon-dioxide emissions in order to compare the relative climatic impact of different forms of tourism and vacation options. Findings: The paper concludes that intercontinental flights and cruise ship travel are particularly carbon-intensive, which suggests that these two forms of tourism will be particularly vulnerable to any policy initiative to curb or price carbon emissions. Ends by considering whether climatically responsible international tourism is possible, and outlines some low-carbon options. Originality/value: The paper relates data on carbon emissions to the implications for tourism arising from climate change. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
    Tsinda A, Abbott P, Pedley S, Charles K, Adogo J, Okurut K, Chenoweth J (2013) Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda,International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health10(12)pp. 6939-6954
    Kleemann R, Chenoweth Jonathan, Clift Roland, Morse Stephen, Pearce P, Saroj Devendra (2016) Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC),Waste Management60pp. 201-210 Elsevier
    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2?7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30 min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.
    Chenoweth J (2012) Key issues and trends in the water policy literature,WATER POLICY14(6)pp. 1047-1059 IWA PUBLISHING
    Chenoweth JL (2008) Minimum water requirement for social and economic development,Desalination229(1-3)pp. 245-256 Elsevier
    There is no common understanding of the minimum per capita fresh water requirement for human health and economic and social development. Existing estimates vary between 20 litres and 4,654 litres per capita per day, however, these estimates are methodologically problematic as they consider only human consumptive and hygiene needs, or they consider economic needs but not the effects of trade. Reconsidering the components of a minimum water requirement estimate for human health and for economic and social development suggests that a country requires a minimum of 135 litres per person per day. With all countries except Kuwait having much greater water resources than this, water scarcity alone need not hinder development. Given the steadily decreasing cost of desalination together with the relatively small amount of water required per capita to permit social and economic development, desalination should be affordable where necessary for all but the very least economically developed countries where local naturally occurring freshwater resources are insufficient and saline water is available.
    Pedley S, Cronin AA, Okotto-Okotto J, Oginga JO, Chenoweth J (2006) Degradation of groundwater resources under African cities: Technical and Socio-economic challenges., In: Xu Y, Usher B (eds.), Groundwater pollution in Africa8pp. 89-100 Taylor & Francis Group
    1 Issues of groundwater pollution in Africa Y. Xu Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa BH Usher Institute ...
    Capelos T, Provost C, Parouti M, Barnett J, Chenoweth J, Fife-Schaw C, Kelay T (2015) Ingredients of institutional reputations and citizen engagement with regulators, Regulation and Governance
    © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.The purpose of this study is to examine the link between the reputational components of efficacy and moral reliability of institutions, and citizens' compliance with institutional recommendations. Research on bureaucratic reputations highlights the significance of positive political reputations based on credibility and legitimacy, but the impact of these components is not systematically isolated and studied. We draw insights from political psychology to move beyond a positive-negative valence-based approach of reputation, and highlight the different effect of efficacy and moral reliability components of reputation on citizens' cooperation, engagement in water saving activities, and levels of complaints. We use the Cypriot Water Authority as a case study and inquire how its institutional reputation influences Cypriot citizens' behavior regarding water use. Our data was collected via a representative national survey administered to a random sample of 800 Cypriots in the spring of 2009 and show that favorable perceptions of particular components of institutional reputation shape the levels of satisfaction with specific organizational outputs.
    Lopez-Aviles A, Chenoweth J, Druckman A, Morse S, Kauffmann D, Hayoon L, Pereira A, Vence X, Carballo A, González M, Turne A, Feitelson E, Givoni M (2015) Servicizing Policy Packages for the Water sector, SPREE
    A policy package is a combination of policy instruments1 (PIs) designed to address one or more policy objectives, created in order to improve the effectiveness of the individual policy instruments, and implemented while minimizing possible unintended effects, and/or facilitating interventions? legitimacy and feasibility in order to increase efficiency. The Water sector is one of the three sectors for which the options and contribution of servicizing to absolute decoupling2 were examined (the other two sectors are Mobility and Agri-food). Specifically, servicizing the introduction of greywater recycling (GWR) and rainwater harvesting (RWH) were analyzed. Examining the potential in the UK indicates that servicizing the introduction of GWR and RWH does have the potential to contribute to decoupling, both in terms of GHG emissions and in terms of water that needs to be delivered in mains. The decoupling indicator chosen for the mobility sector in this project was chosen to be the ratio between the economic cost and environmental impact (emissions/mains water use) of abstracting, treating, delivering and disposing of water in the servicizing options (GWR&RWH solutions). However, the extent to which such decoupling will materialize is a function of the degree to which such systems are indeed adopted. To facilitate the adoption of GWR and RWH systems a policy packaging approach is used, whereby different policy instruments (PI) are combined so they will have synergetic effects, and potential contradictions among them are addressed. The Policy Packages are designed in several steps. First all the PIs that are likely to advance GWR and RWH are identified. Then the potential contribution of each, and the likely cost of implementing it are assessed, in order to identify the most effective PIs ? those PIs with the highest potential to both advance decoupling and the implementation of which does not incur excessive cost. Then the preconditions for implementing these most promising, ?low hanging fruits? are identified, as well as instruments that may facilitate decoupling if enacted with these primary PIs and PIs that have synergetic relations with the primary PIs. On this basis basic packages are formed. In the case of GWR and RWH in the UK, the leading country in this sector study, three basic packages were originally identified, based on the primary tools they use. Then, by using agent-based modeling simulation results and causal mapping an Effective Package is forme
    Chenoweth J, Hadjikakou M, Zoumides C (2014) Quantifying the human impact on water resources: A critical review of the water footprint concept,Hydrology and Earth System Sciences18(6)pp. 2325-2342
    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it. © Author(s) 2014.
    Chenoweth J (2004) Changing ownership structures in the water supply and sanitation sector,WATER INTERNATIONAL29(2)pp. 138-147 INT WATER RESOURCES ASSOC
    The development over time of the water supply and sanitation sectors in four countries is analyzed to reveal the changing role of the private sector. In some cases, local, small-scale private water supply and sanitation systems have been able to develop progressively into large-scale official systems, which may later be privatized. In other cases, foreign capital has been more significant in the development of modern water supply and sanitation systems, particularly where privatization has occurred much earlier in the national development process. In much of the developing world, domestic water supply and sanitation is dominated not by the official water supply and sanitation companies but by independent operators who function without subsidies but with enormous variability in terms of quality of service and prices offered. However, they are constrained generally by the absence of appropriate institutional and legal frameworks, including the lack of independent regulatory authorities. There is a need, where appropriate, to continue to encourage large-scale private sector involvement in the official water supply sectors of the developing world. At the same time though, it is only by promoting policies that also further the development (where appropriate) of the independent water supply and sanitation providers that access to water supply and sanitation services can be maximized since better use of local resources in many developing countries, both local human resources and capital, provide a key means for improving access to water supply and sanitation.
    Chenoweth J, Malcolm R, Kaime T, Pedley S (2013) Household water security and the human right to water and sanitation, Water Security: Principles, Perspectives, and Practicespp. 307-318
    The purpose of this book is to present an overview of the latest research, policy, practitioner, academic and international thinking on water security?an issue that, like water governance a few years ago, has developed much policy awareness and momentum with a wide range of stakeholders. As a concept it is open to multiple interpretations, and the authors here set out the various approaches to the topic from different perspectives. Key themes addressed include: Water security as a foreign policy issue The interconnected variables of water, food, and human security Dimensions other than military and international relations concerns around water security Water security theory and methods, tools and audits. The book is loosely based on a masters level degree plus a short professional course on water security both given at the University of East Anglia, delivered by international authorities on their subjects. It should serve as an introductory textbook as well as be of value to professionals, NGOs, and policy-makers.
    Mila i Canals L, Chenoweth J, Chapagain A, Orr S, Anton A, Clift R (2009) Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA: Part I-inventory modelling and characterisation factors for the main impact pathways,INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT14(1)pp. 28-42 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
    Tsinda A, Abbott P, Chenoweth J (2015) Sanitation markets in urban informal settlements of East Africa, Habitat International49pp. 21-29
    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.This article analyses sanitation markets in the informal settlements of three case study cities, namely Kigali (Rwanda), Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya), to identify how sanitation markets in East Africa can be made to function more effectively. It is based on a mixed method approach where 1794 households from Kigali, 1666 households from Kampala and 1927 households from Kisumu were surveyed. This was complemented by qualitative research involving 83 focus group discussions, 99 interviews and 3 deliberative forums. Findings reveal similarities and strong differences between the cities in terms of sanitation markets. While construction and emptying services are more available in Kampala and to lesser extent in Kisumu, organic solutions are mostly available in Kigali. However, the purchase of products and services is generally low. One of the reasons is that households are provided with products they do not want to buy. The sanitation intervention should be focused on the households rather than the suppliers of sanitary products. This involves understanding consumers' needs, desires, habits and the circumstances required for a facility to be acceptable and meet the needs of users rather than what fits the supplier.
    Malcolm R, Okotto L, Chenoweth J, Mulugetta Y, Pedley S, Ayalew MM (2010) The regulatory implications of the right to water: small-scale and independent water providers in Ethiopia and Kenya,OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development1(8)pp. 43-63
    Small-scale and independent water providers serve up to fifty percent of the population in urban centers in many of the developing and less developed countries. However, they remain largely unrecognized and unregulated. This article argues, based on the public interest theory and two case studies of the price and quality of water by small-scale providers, that there is a compelling case for regulation of small-scale water provision. The human right to water imposes an obligation on states to regulate small-scale water supply market. It also means that governments should avoid regulation which does not have support in public interest theory and empirical facts as this might constitute violation of the right to water.
    Pediaditi K, Wehrmeyer W, Chenoweth J (2005) Brownfield redevelopment, integrating sustainability and risk management,Environmental Health Risk III9pp. 21-30 WIT PRESS
    Chenoweth JL, Wehrmeyer W (2006) Scenario development for 2050 for the Israeli/Palestinian water sector,Population and Environment27(3)pp. 245-261 SPRINGER
    Scenario analysis suggests that by 2050 the population of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza will grow from its current 10 million to between 14 and 28 million. The scenarios developed are compared to available water resources and assessed for their viability. With all scenarios, except very high population growth in the context of inadequate co-operation between Israel and Palestine, the water resource needs of the entire population can be met. The analysis suggests that water need not be an obstacle to peace or economic development in the region.
    Chenoweth J, Lopez-Aviles A, Morse S, Druckman A, Plepys A, Nebelius A, Mont O, Kaufman D (2013) SPREE Water Sector Report Deliverable 5.1, SPREE
    Executive Summary The SPREE Water Research (Work Package 4) objectives are: - To develop sector-specific methodological tools in the water sector to measure the impacts derived from the shift towards servicizing; - To broader the understanding why previous policies in the water sector haven't led to absolute decoupling; - To explore existing examples and best practices (if exist) in servicizing systems within the water sector and to identify additional potential servicizing systems opportunities; - To understand the role of ICT and eco-innovation in servicizing in the water sector; - To build a conceptual framework for assessing social aspects of servicizing systems in the water sector, in particular, the links between water and wellbeing; - To identify potential servicizing policy paradigms that can lead to an absolute decoupling in the water sector; - To collect relevant data for the servicizing system and servicizing policy in the sector, according to the general methodologies developed in WP3 (?Methodology development?) and the sectorspecific methodologies developed in WP4. Following pre-defined tasks set out under WP4, the aim of this deliverable is twofold: (1) It sets out the conceptual and methodological frameworks of servicizing in the water sector, and (2) It serves to identify the specific water system to be investigated in the project and presents the appropriate methodologies to be employed for researching this system in the SPREE water sector countries (UK, Spain and Israel). Exploring the key elements and aspects of servicizing in the water sector seeks to clarify also the links between water and well-being and the role of servicizing in decoupling water and well-being.
    Okurut K, Kulabako RN, Chenoweth J, Charles K (2014) Assessing demand for improved sustainable sanitation in low-income informal settlements of urban areas: a critical review.,Int J Environ Health Res25(1)pp. 81-95
    Sanitation improvement is crucial in saving lives that are lost due to water contamination. Progress towards achieving full sanitation coverage is still slow in low-income informal settlements in most developing countries. Furthermore, resources are being wasted on installing facilities that are later misused or never used because they do not meet the local demand. Understanding demand for improved sanitation in the local context is critical if facilities are to be continually used. Various approaches that attempt to change peoples' behaviours or create demand have been reviewed to identify what they are designed to address. A multi-disciplinary research team using mixed methods is re-emphasised as a comprehensive approach for assessing demand for improved sanitation in low-income informal settlements, where the sanitation situation is more challenging than in other areas. Further research involving a multi-disciplinary research team and use of mixed methods to assess sanitation demand in informal settlements is needed.
    Pediaditi K, Wehrmeyer W, Chenoweth J (2005) Monitoring the sustainability of brownfield redevelopment projects: The Redevelopment Assessment Framework, Land Contamination and Reclamation13(2)pp. 173-183
    Redevelopment of brownfield land is regarded as an essential component of the achievement of a sustainable urban regeneration, and is thus enshrined in a number of key urban policy frameworks (DETR 2000; ODPM 2004a). Brownfield redevelopment is considered to be de facto sustainable and presented as a headline sustainability indicator (DETR 1999). However, many examples exist where redevelopment of brownfield sites has not been sustainable, as it failed to assess the environmental, social, economic and physical impacts holistically, as well as to consider the long-term impacts of brownfield redevelopment projects (BRPs) in general. It is therefore important to develop and implement a Redevelopment Assessment Framework (RAF), that addresses sustainability throughout a site's life cycle of land use. Such a framework has been developed, and is discussed here. The RAF utilises sustainability indicators, while taking into account relevant existing UK planning evaluation processes and other sources of information, thus making it applicable in practice. The RAF embodies a participatory approach which offers greater communication and understanding between relevant stakeholders, and therefore also offers educational and communications benefits. A description of the RAF, a ctitical analysis of its intended use, and a discussion of benefits and potential barriers, are provided below. © 2005 EPP Publications Ltd.
    Chenoweth J, Wehrmeyer W, Lipchin C, Smith J, Gazit T (2007) A comparison of environmental visions of university students in Israel and Palestine,FUTURES39(6)pp. 685-703 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
    Assayed A, Chenoweth J, Pedley S (2014) Drawer compacted sand filter: a new and innovative method for on-site grey water treatment,ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY35(19)pp. 2435-2446 TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
    Okurut K, Kulabako RN, Abbott P, Adogo JM, Chenoweth J, Pedley S, Tsinda A, Charles K (2015) Access to improved sanitation facilities in low-income informal settlements of East African cities, JOURNAL OF WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE FOR DEVELOPMENT5(1)pp. 89-99 IWA PUBLISHING
    Chenoweth J (2008) Water, water everywhere, NEW SCI199(2670)pp. 28-32 REED BUSINESS INFORMATION LTD
    Lopez-Aviles A, Chenoweth J, Druckman A, Morse S (2015) SPREE Country Feasibility Study Report: Water Sector in the UK, SPREE
    The SPREE Country Feasibility Study is the key deliverable for Work Package (WP) 7. The objectives of WP7 are: " To test the identified Servicizing systems1 and their impacts on achieving absolute decoupling and social benefits using three sector specific models with local country conditions; " To assess the feasibility of pursuing Servicizing opportunities and anticipated policy outcomes for the different partner countries; " To set the ground for the preparation of the more general Policy Packages using the insights from qualitative assessment, models simulations, and sensitivity analysis.
    Charles KJ, Okurut K, Tsinda A, Adogo JM, Abbott P, Okotto L, Kulabako R, Kaime T, Chenoweth J, Malcolm R, Pedley S (2013) Sanitation in informal settlements in East Africa (3ksan), 36th WEDC International Conference: Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment
    Improving access to sanitation in slums in East Africa is a challenge. The 3ksan project has been working to identify the barriers and catalysts to sanitation in Kigali, Kampala and Kisumu. Household surveys in the informal settlements in these three cities have provided insight into the different levels of service provision and demand, access to financial services, and perceptions of enforcement of the regulations. This paper presents key results from the household survey, highlighting the different challenges in the three cities.
    Mila i Canals L, Chapagain A, Orr S, Chenoweth J, Anton A, Clift R (2010) Assessing freshwater use impacts in LCA, part 2: case study of broccoli production in the UK and Spain,INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT15(6)pp. 598-607 SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
    Clift R, Sim S, King H, Chenoweth JL, Christie IP, Clavreul J, Mueller C, Posthuma L, Boulay A, Chaplin-Kramer R, Chatterton J, DeClerck F, Druckman A, France CM, Franco A, Gerten D, Goedkoop M, Hauschild M, Huijbregts M, Koellner T, Lambin E, Lee J, Mair SJ, Marshall S, McLachlan M, Milà i Canals L, Mitchell C, Price E, Rockström J, Suckling JR, Murphy RJ (2017) The Challenges of Applying Planetary Boundaries as a Basis for Strategic Decision-Making in Companies with Global Supply Chains,Sustainability9(2) MDPI
    The Planetary Boundaries (PB) framework represents a significant advance in specifying the ecological constraints on human development. However, to enable decision-makers in business and public policy to respect these constraints in strategic planning, the PB framework needs to be developed to generate practical tools. With this objective in mind, we analyse the recent literature and highlight three major scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the PB approach in decision-making: first, identification of thresholds or boundaries with associated metrics for different geographical scales; second, the need to frame approaches to allocate fair shares in the ?safe operating space? bounded by the PBs across the value chain and; third, the need for international bodies to co-ordinate the implementation of the measures needed to respect the Planetary Boundaries. For the first two of these challenges, we consider how they might be addressed for four PBs: climate change, freshwater use, biosphere integrity and chemical pollution and other novel entities. Four key opportunities are identified: (1) development of a common system of metrics that can be applied consistently at and across different scales; (2) setting ?distance from boundary? measures that can be applied at different scales; (3) development of global, preferably open-source, databases and models; and (4) advancing understanding of the interactions between the different PBs. Addressing the scientific and technical challenges in operationalizing the planetary boundaries needs be complemented with progress in addressing the equity and ethical issues in allocating the safe operating space between companies and sectors.
    Bratanova B, Morrison G, Fife-Schaw CR, Chenoweth JL, Mangold M (2013) Restoring drinking water acceptance following a waterborne disease outbreak: The role of trust, risk perception, and communication,Journal of Applied Social Psychology43(9)pp. 1761-1770 Wiley
    Although research shows that acceptance, trust, and risk perception are often related, little is known about the underlying patterns of causality among the three constructs. In the context of a waterborne disease outbreak, we explored via zero-order/partial correlation analysis whether acceptance predicts both trust and risk perception (associationist model), or whether trust influences risk perception and acceptance (causal chain model). The results supported the causal chain model suggesting a causal role for trust. A subsequent path analysis confirmed that the effect of trust on acceptance is fully mediated by risk perception. It also revealed that trust is positively predicted by prior institutional trust and communication with the public. Implications of the findings for response strategies to contamination events are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Chenoweth Jonathan, Anderson A, Kumar Prashant, Hunt W, Chimbwandira S, Moore T (2018) The interrelationship of green infrastructure and natural capital,Land Use Policy75pp. 137-144 Elsevier
    The terms green infrastructure and natural capital are interrelated. Natural capital as a concept is focused upon environmental assets which can provide services, either directly or indirectly to humans; it emphasizes the benefits humans obtain from the natural environment. Green infrastructure is a concept with a wide range of definitions. The term is sometimes applied to networks of green open spaces found in or around urban areas. In other contexts green infrastructure can describe alternative engineering approaches for storm water management, with co-benefits of temperature control, air quality management, wildlife habitats and/or recreation and amenity space. No environments are completely free of human influence and therefore no environments are entirely natural. Rather, there is a spectrum of degrees of ?naturalness? ranging from environments with minimal human influence through to built environments. A trio of case studies presented herein illustrates how green infrastructure projects are a practical application of the natural capital concept in that they seek to preserve and enhance natural capital via a management approach which emphasizes the importance of environmental systems and networks for the direct provision of ecosystem services to human populations. Natural capital forms critical components of all green infrastructure projects.
    Phosphorus (P) is an essential non-substitutable nutrient for all living organisms, but it is also a dwindling non-renewable resource. Approximately two-thirds of the world?s supply of phosphate rock is located in China, Morocco, and the USA. Phosphate rock is included in the EU list of ?critical raw materials? and is ranked 20th in an index of commodity price volatility. P recovery from waste water can help alleviate reliance on imported phosphate and reduce vulnerability to fluctuating prices. This project explored the options for P recovery from wastes produced across Thames Water?s waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), the main foci being sludge dewatering liquors and incineration/pyrolysis residues. The research focussed specifically on the Slough WWTP and the operation of a newly installed Ostara system for recovery of P as struvite from dewatering liquors. The Ostara process is designed to operate with centrate PO4-P concentrations above 100 mg/l; to obtain these concentrations chemical coagulant dosing in the enhanced biological nutrient removal process must be reduced. Centrate monitoring following this change showed that Fe concentrations must measure consistently below 1.5 mg/l for PO4-P concentrations to remain steadily above 100mg/l. Following these changes onsite, operational savings and revenue can be produced onsite. Significant operational and maintenance savings totalling to £113K can be made in the first year of operation of the P recovery system in Slough WWTP. Sale of P rich struvite fertiliser produces annual revenue of £20K. Moving beyond the local benefits of P recovery, national benefits of P recovery were quantified. In a national context, a total of 28±1 kt P/year can be recovered from all WWTP waste streams, reducing P fertiliser imports by 36±1%. P recovery from WWTP influent and incinerated sewage sludge ash would reduce P losses to water bodies by 22±2%. Sewage sludge may be incinerated, producing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), or alternatively pyrolysed to produce sewage sludge char (PSSC). The possibility of recovering P from these residual solids was also investigated. PSSC samples contained significantly more nitrogen and lower heavy metal concentrations than ISSA samples due to the process conditions. The % P extractions from both ISSA and PSSC plateaus at 0.6M and 0.8M H2SO4 acid concentrations, respectively, due to the formation of gypsum on the particles, so that further increase in acid concentrations does not increase P recovery. The knowledge gained through this research has been used to improve the understanding and efficiency of the P recovery system at Slough WWTP. The information learned about pyrolysis residues will be used by Thames Water to develop a novel P recovery process from PSSC. Combined, these findings can impact the industry by creating incentives and inform policies regarding P recovery.
    Al-Masri Raya A., Chenoweth Jonathan, Murphy Richard J. (2019) Exploring the Status Quo of Water-Energy Nexus Policies and Governance in Jordan,Environmental Science & Policy Elsevier
    The Water-Energy Nexus (WEN) is broadly defined as an integrated paradigm for efficiently managing water and energy resources. While several studies have investigated WEN from a resource efficiency perspective, little research has focused on governance and policy integration aspects. In this study, the level of understanding of WEN in Jordan is examined for the first time from the perspective of governance and public policy development. We explored institutional and policy integration gaps between the two sectors by mapping the water and energy policies in Jordan, and holding semi-structured interviews with the key policymakers and stakeholders. While the awareness of the nexus paradigm by officials is increasing, the level of knowledge about WEN varies across the sectors. As water and energy policies are formulated independently, there are no formal mechanisms for collaboration in the policy formulation and implementation processes, nor formal mechanisms for collaboration to guarantee policy effectiveness. Factors such as acknowledging shared understandings between different actors, setting flexible policy boundaries, and introducing specific capacity building plans at the institutional level are identified as critical to enable better WEN governance. Proposals from this study recommend adopting collaboration arrangements tailored to each sector?s needs and existing structures, and supported by effective enforcements to ensure an incremental and steady change toward inter-institutional coordination. A ?multi-layer approach? involving appropriate legal and policy frameworks, and adequate human and financial resources; essentially from private sector is suggested. Proposals from this study can help policymakers to effectively plan for joint water-energy investments for a more sustainable future.
    Tsinda Aime, Chenoweth Jonathan, Abbott Pamela (2020) Strengthening interlinked marketing exchange systems to improve water and sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda,International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development Taylor and Francis
    Inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is a significant health burden in Rwanda. Although current approaches for improving water and sanitation provision to enhance health outcomes are often narrowly associated with monetary exchange, analysis of two informal settlements in Kigali (Gitega and Kimisagara) shows that households attempt to meet their water and sanitation needs through four interlinked exchange systems (market-based, command-based, culturally determined and non-market-based exchange systems). By focusing on existing social relations and exchange systems, sanitation practitioners may be able to foster and strengthen these interlinked water and sanitation marketing exchange systems embedding in the local context and local capabilities, and as a consequence improve the lives of the low-income communities of informal settlements.