Areas of specialism

Nutrition in early life; Dietary assessment; Vitamin D; Bariatric surgery

University roles and responsibilities

  • Level 4 co-ordinator
  • Personal tutor across all UG and PGT levels
  • Academic representative on Dietetic Stakeholder Committee
  • Chair of Student Staff Liaison Committee

    My qualifications

    Advanced Nutrition Leadership
    European Nutrition Leadership Platform
    Diploma in Advanced Dietetic Practice
    British Dietetic Association
    Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice
    University of Surrey
    PhD (Nutrition)
    University of Surrey
    BSc (Hons) Nutrition & Dietetics
    University of Surrey

    Affiliations and memberships

    British Dietetic Association
    Full member
    Member of the Paediatric and Freelance Specialist groups
    Health and Care Professions Council
    Registered Dietitian
    Nutrition Society
    Full member
    Member of the Training and Education Committee

    Academic networks


      Research projects

      Research collaborations


      Postgraduate research supervision




      Tripkovic L, Wilson LR, Hart K, Johnsen S, de Lusignan S, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, Chope G, Elliott R, Hyppönen E, Berry JL, Lanham-New SA (2017) Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. Am J Clin Nutr. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138693.

      Smith TJ. Tripkovic L, Damsgaard CT, Mølgaard C, Ritz C, Wilson-Barnes SL, Hart KH (2016) Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 years: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 104(5), 1301-1309.

      Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, Chope G, Hyppönen E, Berry J, Vieth R, Lanham-New S (2012) Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr;95(6):1357-64.

      Katie Nicol, Anne P. Nugent, Jayne V. Woodside, Kathryn H. Hart, Sarah C. Bath (2023)Iodine and plant-based diets: a narrative review and calculation of iodine content, In: British Journal of Nutrition131(2)pp. 265-275 Cambridge University Press

      An increasing number of food-based recommendations promote a plant-based diet to address health concerns and environmental sustainability in global food systems. As the main sources of iodine in many countries are fish, eggs and dairy products, it is unclear whether plant-based diets, such as the EAT-Lancet reference diet, would provide sufficient iodine. This is important as iodine, through the thyroid hormones, is required for growth and brain development; adequate iodine intake is especially important before, and during, pregnancy. In this narrative review, we evaluated the current literature and estimated iodine provision from the EAT-Lancet reference diet. There is evidence that those following a strict plant-based diet, such as vegans, cannot reach the recommended iodine intake from food alone and are reliant on iodine supplements. Using the EAT-Lancet reference diet intake recommendations in combination with iodine values from UK food tables, we calculated that the diet would provide 128 μg/d (85 % of the adult recommendation of 150 μg/d and 51–64 % of the pregnancy recommendation of 200–250 μg/d). However, if milk is replaced with unfortified plant-based alternatives, total iodine provision would be just 54 μg/d (34 % and 22–27 % of the recommendations for adults and pregnancy, respectively). Plant-based dietary recommendations might place consumers at risk of iodine deficiency in countries without a fortification programme and where animal products provide the majority of iodine intake, such as the UK and Norway. It is essential that those following a predominantly plant-based diet are given appropriate dietary advice to ensure adequate iodine intake.

      Louise R Durrant, Giselda Bucca, Andrew Hesketh, Carla Möller-Levet, Laura Tripkovic, Huihai Wu, Kathryn H Hart, John C Mathers, Ruan M Elliott, Susan A Lanham-New, Colin P Smith (2022)Vitamins D2 and D3 Have Overlapping But Different Effects on the Human Immune System Revealed Through Analysis of the Blood Transcriptome, In: Frontiers in immunology13790444

      Vitamin D is best known for its role in maintaining bone health and calcium homeostasis. However, it also exerts a broad range of extra-skeletal effects on cellular physiology and on the immune system. Vitamins D and D share a high degree of structural similarity. Functional equivalence in their vitamin D-dependent effects on human physiology is usually assumed but has in fact not been well defined experimentally. In this study we seek to redress the gap in knowledge by undertaking an in-depth examination of changes in the human blood transcriptome following supplementation with physiological doses of vitamin D and D . Our work extends a previously published randomized placebo-controlled trial that recruited healthy white European and South Asian women who were given 15 µg of vitamin D or D daily over 12 weeks in wintertime in the UK (Nov-Mar) by additionally determining changes in the blood transcriptome over the intervention period using microarrays. An integrated comparison of the results defines both the effect of vitamin D or D on gene expression, and any influence of ethnic background. An important aspect of this analysis was the focus on the changes in expression from baseline to the 12-week endpoint of treatment each individual, harnessing the longitudinal design of the study. Whilst overlap in the repertoire of differentially expressed genes was present in the D or D -dependent effects identified, most changes were specific to either one vitamin or the other. The data also pointed to the possibility of ethnic differences in the responses. Notably, following vitamin D supplementation, the majority of changes in gene expression reflected a down-regulation in the activity of genes, many encoding pathways of the innate and adaptive immune systems, potentially shifting the immune system to a more tolerogenic status. Surprisingly, gene expression associated with type I and type II interferon activity, critical to the innate response to bacterial and viral infections, differed following supplementation with either vitamin D or vitamin D , with only vitamin D having a stimulatory effect. This study suggests that further investigation of the respective physiological roles of vitamin D and vitamin D is warranted.

      Katie Nicol, Anne P. Nugent, Jayne V. Woodside, Kathryn Hayley Hart, Sarah C Bath (2024)The impact of replacing milk with plant-based alternatives on iodine intake: a dietary modelling study, In: European Journal of Nutrition63pp. 599-611 Springer

      Purpose Cow’s milk is the primary source of iodine in the UK, but consumption of plant-based milk alternatives (PBMA) is increasing and these products are often not fortified with iodine. We evaluated the impact that replacing current milk consumption with PBMA would have on iodine intake. Methods We used data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2016–2019) for children (1.5–10 years), girls 11–18 years, and women of reproductive age (WRA). We used a dietary modelling approach with scenarios using brand-level iodine-fortification data (0, 13, 22.5, 27.4 and 45 µg/100 mL). Relative to usual diet, we calculated change in iodine intake, and the proportion with intake below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) or above the upper limit. Results For all groups, replacement with PBMA, either unfortified or fortified at the lowest concentration, resulted in a meaningful decrease in iodine intake, and increased the proportion with intake 

      Marcela Mendes, Kathryn Hart, Patrícia Botelho, Susan Lanham-New (2020)Response to vitamin D supplementation in different latitudes: results from two parallel placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society79(OCE2)E170 Cambridge University Press

      Vitamin D is vital to bone health and prolonged severe deficiency can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia/osteoporosis in adults. Vitamin D is an exceptional nutrient in that its main source is exposure of the skin to UV rays, whilst it can also be ingested through diet. This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of vitamin D supplementation and individual sunlight exposure in raising vitamin D levels, throughout winter, in ethnically identical adult women living in opposite latitudes. Within two parallel placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCT), with identical study designs, 135 Brazilian women, (England, n = 56, 51˚N; Brazil, n = 79, 16˚S), were randomized to receive daily 15 μg vitamin D3 supplements or placebo, for 12 weeks. Oral vitamin D supplementation of 15 μg daily was effective at raising 25-hydroxivitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations over winter, regardless of latitude, and the response was dependent on baseline vitamin D status. In both latitudes, supplementation prevented the seasonal concomitant increase in plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Additionally, the individual UV radiation level was strongly correlated with 25(OH)D concentrations. The research also showed: 1) an optimal vitamin D status for bone health around 70–80 nmol/l; 2) the required UV radiation to achieve this status was 1.5 SED; 3) the vitamin D dietary intakes required to achieve these serum levels were 4.5 μg/d at a low latitude (16˚S) and 37 μg/d at high latitude (51˚N). The strength of these results is the novel analysis that directly links human in vivo individual sunlight radiation, increased vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D status, within two parallel RCTs in opposite latitudes. This study demonstrated that a daily supplement of 15 μg vitamin D3 was an effective strategy to significantly raise vitamin D status throughout the winter months in adult females, with important implications for bone health through the simultaneous lowering of PTH, regardless of latitude. Our data gives a two-fold contribution to the vitamin D field: firstly it will help raise awareness of the risk for vitamin D deficiency in low latitude regions such as most countries in South America as well as amongst South-Americans living in higher latitudes, particularly in the UK; secondly it provides key data for setting appropriate vitamin D recommendations for Brazil (which currently follows US recommendations) as well as for similar latitudes.

      Mary Phillips, Denise Robertson, Kathryn Hart, Rajesh Kumar, Nariman Karanjia (2021)P-P28 Long term follow-up after pancreatico-duodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis; are we compliant with NICE guidelines, In: British Journal of Surgery108(Supplement_9) Oxford University Press

      Background Patients with chronic pancreatitis experience malnutrition, osteoporosis, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and have a 80% lifetime risk of diabetes (1). These are progressive consequences and require proactive surveillance for detection and optimisation of treatment. The NICE pancreatitis guidelines recommend long-term follow up for patients with chronic pancreatitis (1). European guidelines recommend regular assessment of bone density, biochemical assessment of micronutrient status and a comprehensive nutritional assessment (2). The aim of this survey was to assess compliance with the NICE guidelines by analysing current practice in patients with chronic pancreatitis after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods A UK wide electronic survey was developed using Qualtrics® software (SAP America Inc. USA) to capture all the nutritional aspects of follow-up thought to be relevant in the long term. Markers of endocrine failure and malnutrition (weight, nutritional assessment and biochemical, vitamin and mineral screens), smoking and alcohol cessation advice and the use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were included. The survey was piloted on 5 staff locally prior to being circulated through a professional network – the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (PSGBI). Data were analysed using Chi-Square tests in SPSS (Version 26). Results One hundred and one (23% response rate) clinicians completed the survey, with 83 useable data sets. Eighty eight percent worked in tertiary centres. Lifelong follow up was only offered in tertiary centres (n = 12) and was only provided by surgeons or dietitians (p = 0.03). The duration of follow up did not vary by region (p = 0.463). Patients in the South of England were more likely to undergo a micronutrient screen (p = 0.027). Only 26% of all patients were offered a DEXA scan. Clinicians with more than 10-years’ experience were more likely to assess weight (p = 0.039), glucose and HbA1c (p = 0.035) and assess symptoms (p = 0.031). Conclusions This survey demonstrated a need to improve the provision of long-term follow up for patients with chronic pancreatitis. Lack of clarity on the format and who within the clinical team should take responsibility may explain the lack of structured follow-up in this patient group. The importance of long-term assessment needs to be included in training programmes for junior clinicians, to standardise management, improve nutritional screening and improve access to bone mineral density scanning and diabetes screening. Responsibility for follow up should be agreed between primary, secondary and tertiary care.

      Mary Phillips, Denise Robertson, Kathryn Hart, Rajesh Kumar, Nariman Karanjia (2021)P-P27 Long term follow-up after pancreatico-duodenectomy: A UK wide survey, In: British journal of surgery108(Supplement_9) Oxford University Press

      Background Pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) results in major anatomical changes that have an impact on nutritional status and quality of life. Issues such as pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), diabetes mellitus (DM), malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency, osteoporosis and other gastrointestinal diseases are common in the post-operative setting (1, 2). Appropriate treatment of these surgical consequences is associated with improved survival (3, 4), and should improve quality of life. The aim of this survey was to assess current practice and identify which disciplines were reviewing patients following PD, what format that review takes and the duration of follow up. Methods A UK wide electronic survey was developed using Qualtrics® software (SAP America Inc. USA) to capture all the nutritional aspects of follow up thought to be relevant in the long term. Markers of endocrine failure and malnutrition (weight, nutritional assessment and biochemical vitamin and mineral screens), smoking and alcohol cessation advice and the use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were included. The survey was piloted on 5 staff locally prior to being circulated through a professional network – the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (PSGBI). Data were analysed using Chi-Square tests in SPSS (Version 26). Results One hundred and one (23% response rate) clinicians completed the survey, with 83 useable data sets. Surgeons and dietitians were most likely to reply to the questionnaire, 88% of respondents worked in tertiary centres, half (55%) had more than 10 years’ experience. There were highly significant variations in practice according to clinician experience, underlying pathology, and institution (p 

      K.H. Hart, S. Wilson-Barnes, K. Stefanidis, D. Tsatsou, L. Gynopoulos, K. Dimitropoulos, K. Rouskas, N. Argiriou, R. Leoni, D. Russell, J. Konstantinova, N. Merry, E. Lalama, A. Pfeiffer, M. Hassapidou, I. Pagkalos, E. Patra, R. Buys, V. Cornelissen, S. Balula Dias, A. Batista, E. Mantovani, B. Brkic, S. Lanham-New (2022)The suitability of dietary recommendations suggested By artificial intelligence technology via a novel personalised nutrition mobile application, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society81(OCE1)E37 Cambridge University Press

      A healthy lifestyle is essential to prevent non-communicable diseases(Reference Ezzati and Riboli1) and new advances in information computer technology and artificial intelligence (AI) offer the possibility to create personalised tools to better support healthy living. This analysis aims to assess the appropriateness of AI recommended dietary goals as part of the EU PROTEIN project(Reference Wilson-Barnes, Gymnopoulos and Dimitropoulos2), which combines the latest AI technology with expertise in nutrition to develop an advanced and dynamic personalisation tool.

      Kiriakos Stefanidis, Saskia Wilson-Barnes, Dorothea Tsatsou, Kathryn Hart, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Lazaros Gymnopoulos, Petros Daras, Veronique Cornelissen, Elise Decorte, Elena Lalama, Andreas Pfeiffer, Maria Hassapidou, Ioannis Pagkalos, Anagnostis Argiriou, Konstantinos Rouskas, Stelios Hadjidimitriou, Vasileios Charisis, Sofia Balula Dias, Jose Alves Diniz, Goncalo Telo, Hugo Silva, Alex Bensenousi, Kosmas Dimitropoulos (2022)PROTEIN AI Advisor: A Knowledge-Based Recommendation Framework Using Expert-Validated Meals for Healthy Diets, In: Nutrients14(20)4435 MDPI

      AI-based software applications for personalized nutrition have recently gained increasing attention to help users follow a healthy lifestyle. In this paper, we present a knowledge-based recommendation framework that exploits an explicit dataset of expert-validated meals to offer highly accurate diet plans spanning across ten user groups of both healthy subjects and participants with health conditions. The proposed advisor is built on a novel architecture that includes (a) a qualitative layer for verifying ingredient appropriateness, and (b) a quantitative layer for synthesizing meal plans. The first layer is implemented as an expert system for fuzzy inference relying on an ontology of rules acquired by experts in Nutrition, while the second layer as an optimization method for generating daily meal plans based on target nutrient values and ranges. The system's effectiveness is evaluated through extensive experiments for establishing meal and meal plan appropriateness, meal variety, as well as system capacity for recommending meal plans. Evaluations involved synthetic data, including the generation of 3000 virtual user profiles and their weekly meal plans. Results reveal a high precision and recall for recommending appropriate ingredients in most user categories, while the meal plan generator achieved a total recommendation accuracy of 92% for all nutrient recommendations.

      Deirdre Ní Fhloinn, Ciara Wright, Sara Naimimohasses, Stephen Finn, Suzanne Norris, Kath H. Hart, J. Bernadette Moore (2020)A 12-week multi-component dietary intervention improves markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Irish patients in tertiary care, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society79(OCE2)E505 Cambridge University Press

      Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant public health concern closely linked to obesity, affecting an estimated 25% of adults in Europe. Understudied in Ireland, the aim of this research was to examine the effects of a 12-week multi-component dietary intervention on weight loss and markers of liver injury in Irish NAFLD patients in tertiary care. Biopsy confirmed NAFLD patients (n = 27) were recruited from St James’ Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Consenting participants underwent a 12-week moderate-intensity intervention incorporating weekly group nutritional education, behavioural change and group support, as well as individualised advice and weigh-ins from a trained nutritionist. Control group participants were given routine clinical care. All participants were clinically reviewed before, immediately after, and 3 months post intervention. Individuals (n = 12) with histological evidence of steatohepatitis underwent a repeat liver biopsy on completion of the intervention. Detailed dietary assessment was performed using both a 4-day diet diary (4DDD) and a novel, recently validated, short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) designed specifically to assess habitual intakes of food items related to NAFLD. Nutrient intakes were analysed using myFood24 TM dietary analysis software, and the Mediterranean diet quality score (MDQS) was used to assess the overall change in dietary patterns. Of the 15 participants who completed the intervention, 80% (n = 12) achieved a weight loss exceeding 5%, with 47% (n = 7) achieving > 7%. There were significant improvements from baseline to week 12 in the intervention group for the majority of clinical parameters including HbA1c (p = 0.0054), liver enzymes (ALT, p = 0.0108; GGT, p = 0.0001) and transient elastography (kPA, p = 0.0308; CAP, p = 0.0081). However, these results failed to maintain significance when analysed compared to controls. The overall dietary pattern was significantly improved after 12 weeks as assessed by the MDQS (p = 0.03), with no apparent compromise in micronutrient intake despite the energy reduction. Reductions in energy, saturated fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes at 12 weeks, were maintained at three months follow up. Analysis of pre- and post-intervention liver biopsies in the intervention group demonstrated a clinically significant improvement in NAS score (p = 0.0273), attributable to reductions in hepatic steatosis (p = 0.0078). A significant correlation was observed between improvement in liver histology and change in sugar intake (r = 0.7534, p = 0.0093). Although results were somewhat limited by small sample size, nutritional education achieved beneficial dietary changes that persisted after the intervention ceased. Notably, achieving reductions in sugar intakes may be particularly beneficial in reducing the severity of hepatic steatosis in Irish adults with NAFLD.

      Nadine B. Page, Anna M. Brown, Erin Pascoe, Sally Braithwaite, Michelle L. Townsend, Jane S. Herbert, Hilary Davies, Kathryn H. Hart, J. Bernadette Moore (2020)The Role of Zinc in Depressed Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society79(OCE2)E542 Cambridge University Press

      Perinatal depression is a depressive illness that affects 10–15% of women in the UK with an estimated cost of £1.8 billion/year. Zinc deficiency is associated with the development of mood disorders and zinc supplementation has been shown to help reduce the symptoms of depression. Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding are at risk of lower levels of zinc because of the high demand from the developing and feeding baby. However, studies in the perinatal period are limited. With a long-term aim of designing a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to examine if zinc supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in pregnant and lactating women;the objective of this review was to systematically evaluate previous RCTs assessing zinc supplementation and depressive symptoms, in order to establish a zinc dosing regimen with regards to Galenic formulation, unit dose and frequency. The review was conducted by independent reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and is registered at Prospero (CRD42017059205). The Allied and Complimentary Medicine, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched since records began, with no restrictions, for intervention trials assessing Galenic formulation, unit dose and frequency of zinc supplementation to reduce the symptoms of depression. From a total of 66 identified records, 7 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria; all assessed the effect of zinc supplementation on mood. Risk of bias was independently assessed using the standard ‘Cochrane risk of bias tool’. Overall, 5 of the 7 papers were rated as high-quality trials; of the other two, one was rated poor and the other fair but both had a number of learning points. Preliminary findings indicate at the end of supplementing zinc, depression scores were reduced significantly. In one study, the Beck score decreased in the placebo group, but this reduction was not significant compared to the baseline. In two of the studies there was a significant correlation between serum zinc and self-reported mood questionnaires. Results also suggest that 25 mg zinc supplementation combined with antidepressant drugs can be effective in the treatment of major depression in women. This supports other work where researchers supplemented 25 mg of elemental zinc for 12 weeks or longer and found a reduction of symptoms in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Thus, an early conclusion is that 25 mg of elemental zinc is an effective dose for improving low mood and is achievable in a trial setting.

      Kathryn Hart, Michael Harvey, Bernadette Egan (2020)Technology use during pregnancy: a review of the quality of nutrition information provided by mobile phone applications, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society79(OCE2)E527 Cambridge University Press

      There are currently 318,000 health mobile applications (apps) available via the major app stores, with new apps appearing at a rate of approximately 200 per day. Pregnancy represents the largest sub-type within the health-related app market, providing a key route via which women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy can obtain health information, and a cost and time efficient alternative to traditional face-to-face healthcare interactions. However the content of these applications, and therefore their ability to facilitate appropriate and safe behaviour change, is largely unmonitored and unregulated. This study aimed to objectively review the availability, affiliation and nutritional content of pregnancy apps, and specifically their adherence to current NICE guidance for optimal nutrition during pregnancy (promotion of Vitamin D and folic acid supplementation, promotion of breastfeeding). Apps (n = 68) were retrieved from Googleplay and the Appstore using a keyword search. After exclusions (n = 39, non-English, focused on pre- or post-pregnancy, not free to access, non-functional), 29 apps were evaluated using the previously developed Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). The original tool was modified to include additional sub-scales to assess the nutritional content of the apps and to rate their privacy settings. A higher score for each sub scale and for the MARS score overall represents a higher quality application. Median nutrition sub-scale score (out of 5) for all apps was 3 (25%: 2, 75%: 4.5) with folic acid requirements most likely to be covered and breastfeeding least. Over one third of the apps reviewed (38%) achieved a nutrition score ≥ 4 and 14% (n = 4) scored 5 out of 5. Nutrition score was significantly associated with overall MARS score (r = 0.615, p < 0.01). Total MARS score (out of 5; median 3 (3, 4)) was not associated with platform (android or apple), app rating or affiliation (e.g. Commercial, Government, NGO or academic institution), though sample size was reduced for these secondary variables. Free to access English language mobile phone applications targeted at pregnant women provide a variable quantity and quality of nutrition information. Those adhering more closely to current NICE guidelines for optimal diet in pregnancy are also more likely to be rated higher across other quality domains, however user rating does not predict information quality. This work will be used to direct interventions to improve e-health literacy amongst vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and to design more appropriate applications which are able to more effectively combine usability and acceptability with a robust evidence base.

      Carla Bredin, Sara Naimimohasses, Suzanne Norris, Ciara Wright, Neil Hancock, Kathryn Hart, J. Bernadette Moore (2020)Development and relative validation of a short food frequency questionnaire for assessing dietary intakes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, In: European journal of nutrition59(2)571pp. 571-580 Springer Nature

      Purpose This work aimed to design and validate a novel short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to assess habitual intakes of food items related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a cohort of European patients. Methods A 48-item SFFQ was created, with questions from existing FFQs and expert knowledge, emphasizing foods and nutrients implicated in NAFLD pathogenesis. Consenting, fibroscan-diagnosed, NAFLD patients completed the SFFQ during a short interview and were asked to complete a 4-day diet diary (4DDD) at home for return by mail. Nutritional intakes were assessed utilizing the myfood24 (TM) food composition dataset and estimated energy requirements (EER) were calculated using sex-, age- and weight-specific equations. Agreement between the dietary instruments was assessed by Spearman correlations and Bland Altman analysis. Results Fifty-five patients completed both the SFFQ and the 4DDD within 30 weeks; 42 (76%) were diagnosed with simple steatosis, whereas 13 (24%) had biopsy-proven steatohepatitis; the majority were overweight or obese, with a median (25th; 75th percentile) BMI of 33.2 kg/m(2) (29.3; 36.0). Reported energy intakes were well below EER with a median intake of 73% of requirements, suggesting widespread under-reporting. Significant correlations were observed between sugar (r = 0.408, P = 0.002), fat (r = 0.44, P = 0.001), fruits (r = 0.51, P = 0.0001) and vegetables (r = 0.40, P = 0.0024) measurements by the SFFQ and 4DDD. Bland Altman plots with regression analysis demonstrated broad comparability with the 4DDD for intakes of fat (bias - 13.8 g/day) and sugar (bias + 12.9 g/day). Conclusions A novel SFFQ designed to be minimally burdensome to participants was effective at assessing dietary intakes in NAFLD patients.

      Mary E. Phillips, Kathryn H. Hart, Adam E. Frampton, M. Denise Robertson (2023)Do Patients Benefit from Micronutrient Supplementation following Pancreatico-Duodenectomy?, In: Nutrients15(12)2804 Mdpi

      Pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) includes resection of the duodenum and use of the proximal jejunum in a blind loop, thus reducing the absorptive capacity for vitamins and minerals. Several studies have analysed the frequency of micronutrient deficiencies, but there is a paucity of data on those taking routine supplements. A retrospective review of medical notes was undertaken on 548 patients under long-term follow-up following PD in a tertiary hepato-pancreatico-biliary centre. Data were available on 205 patients from 1-14 years following PD, and deficiencies were identified as follows: vitamin A (3%), vitamin D (46%), vitamin E (2%), iron (42%), iron-deficiency anaemia (21%), selenium (3%), magnesium (6%), copper (1%), and zinc (44%). Elevated parathyroid hormone was present in 11% of cases. There was no significant difference over time (p > 0.05). Routine supplementation with a vitamin and mineral supplement did appear to reduce the incidence of biochemical deficiency in vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium compared to published data. However, iron, vitamin D, and zinc deficiencies were prevalent despite supplementation and require surveillance.

      Marcela M. Mendes, Kathryn H. Hart, Susan A. Lanham-New, Patricia B. Botelho (2020)Exploring the Impact of Individual UVB Radiation Levels on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Women Living in High Versus Low Latitudes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the D-SOL Study, In: Nutrients12(12)3805pp. 1-15 Mdpi

      Vitamin D can be synthesized in the skin via sunlight exposure as well as ingested through diet. Vitamin D deficiency is currently a major global public health issue, with increasing prevalence in both low and high latitude locations. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to compare the intensity of individual Ultraviolet B radiation levels between women of the same ethnicity living in England and Brazil, respectively; and to investigate the association with circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. We analysed data from 135 Brazilian women (England, n = 56, 51 degrees N; Brazil, n = 79, 16 degrees S) recruited for the D-SOL study (Interaction between Vitamin D Supplementation and Sunlight Exposure in Women Living in Opposite Latitudes). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), individual UVB radiation via UVB dosimeter badges and dietary intake via 4-day diet diaries. Anthropometric, skin phototype, sociodemographic and lifestyle patterns were also assessed. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration of England residents was significantly lower than Brazil residents. Daily individual UVB radiation level showed a strong significant positive correlation with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The required UVB radiation to achieve 75 nmol/L was 2.2 SED and 38.8% of the total variance in 25(OH)D concentrations was explained uniquely by daily individual UVB radiation, after controlling for the influence of age and body mass index. Thus, these results highlight the strong positive association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and individual UVB radiation and the influence of different individual characteristics and behaviours. Collectively, these factors contribute to meaningful, country-specific, public health strategies and policies for the efficient prevention and treatment of vitamin D inadequacy.

      Nyangi A. Gityamwi, Kathryn H. Hart, Barbara Engel (2021)A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Status of Patients on Haemodialysis Maintenance Therapy in a Country of Sub-Saharan Africa, In: International journal of nephrology2021pp. 1-12 Hindawi Publishing Group

      Malnutrition is common among dialysis patients, but there is insufficient literature on the problem from resource-poor settings of the sub-Saharan region. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of dietary intake and nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients to inform the current status of this population group in the region. HD patients aged >= 18 years, with dialysis vintage of >= 3 months, at one nephrology unit in Tanzania were assessed for their habitual diet and nutrient intake. Anthropometric measures and biochemistry tests were also performed. The diet was predominantly starchy food based, accompanied by a limited selection of vegetables. Fruits and animal protein were also minimally consumed (1 portion/day each). Fruit consumption was higher in females than males (median (25(th), 75(th)) = 2 (1, 2.3) versus 0.5 (0, 1.7) portions, p = 0.008). More than 70% of participants had suboptimal measures for protein and energy intake, dietary iron, serum albumin, muscle mass, and hand grip strength (HGS). Inadequacies in protein and energy intake and dialysis clearance (URR) increased with the increase in body weight/BMI and other specific components (MAMC and FMI). Consumption of red meats correlated significantly and positively with serum creatinine (r = 0.46, p = 0.01), potassium (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and HGS (r = 0.43, p = 0.02) and was approaching significance for a correlation with serum iron (r = 0.32, p = 0.07). C-RP correlated negatively with albumin concentration (r = -0.32, p = 0.02), and participants with C-RP within acceptable ranges had significantly higher levels of haemoglobin (p = 0.03, effect size = -0.28). URR correlated negatively with haemoglobin concentration (r = -0.36, p = 0.02). Patients will benefit from improved nutritional services that deliver individually tailored and culturally practical dietary advice to enable them to make informed food choices whilst optimizing disease management.

      M.E Phillips, M.D Robertson, K.H Hart, R Kumar, T.D Pencavel (2022)Long-term effects of clinical interventions on nutritional status in patients with chronic pancreatitis - A systematic review, In: Clinical nutrition ESPEN Elsevier Ltd

      Malnutrition in chronic pancreatitis is complex and multifactorial, with malabsorption, pain, toxic dependencies and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, each playing a role. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the impact of nutritional intervention on markers of nutritional status in this complex patient group, A systematic review of EMBASE and PubMed was carried out in February 2020, identifying 2620 articles. After screening to exclude those reporting short term changes (less than 3 months), with only one data point, or in the wrong population, eight papers were selected for analysis. Seven studies documented the impact of a nutritional intervention, one was an observational study only. Overall, studies were limited by predominantly retrospective designs, heterogenous populations and poor control of potentially confounding variables. Data could not be combined due to variability in reporting methods. All studies exploring nutritional intervention, whether that consisted of advice by a specialist dietitian, dose escalation of pancreatic enzymes, oral nutritional supplements or enteral feeding, demonstrated improved body weight and pain control, whereas patients who did not receive an intervention deteriorated nutritionally. Patients with chronic pancreatitis benefit from nutritional intervention. Further work is required to explore the impact of nutritional intervention on body composition and functional outcomes.

      Saeideh Babashahi, Nicola Carey, Yogini Jani, Kath Hart, Natalia Hounsome (2023)Costs, consequences and value for money in non-medical prescribing: a scoping review, In: BMJ open13(5)e067907pp. e067907-e067907

      Non-medical prescribing (NMP) is a key feature of the UK healthcare system that refers to the legal prescribing rights granted to nurses, pharmacists and other non-medical healthcare professionals who have completed an approved training programme. NMP is deemed to facilitate better patient care and timely access to medicine. The aim of this scoping review is to identify, synthesise and report the evidence on the costs, consequences and value for money of NMP provided by non-medical healthcare professionals. Scoping review DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar were systematically searched from 1999 to 2021. Peer-reviewed and grey literature written in English were included. The research was limited to original studies evaluating economic values only or both consequences and costs of NMP. The identified studies were screened independently by two reviewers for final inclusion. The results were reported in tabular form and descriptively. A total of 420 records were identified. Of these, nine studies evaluating and comparing NMP with patient group discussions, general practitioner-led usual care or services provided by non-prescribing colleagues were included. All studies evaluated the costs and economic values of prescribing services by non-medical prescribers, and eight assessed patient, health or clinical outcomes. Three studies showed pharmacist prescribing was superior in all outcomes and cost saving at a large scale. Others reported similar results in most health and patient outcomes across other non-medical prescribers and control groups. NMP was deemed resource intensive for both providers and other groups of non-medical prescribers (eg, nurses, physiotherapists, podiatrists). The review demonstrated the need for quality evidence from more rigorous methodological studies examining all relevant costs and consequences to show value for money in NMP and inform the commissioning of NMP for different groups of healthcare professionals.

      MARGARET DENISE ROBERTSON, MARY ELIZABETH PHILLIPS, KATHRYN HAYLEY HART, R. Kumar, T Pencavel (2021)Long-term changes in nutritional status and body composition in patients with malignant pancreatic disease - A systematic review, In: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN Elsevier

      Background and aims Patients with pancreatic cancer often experience significant deterioration in nutritional status over time. Malnutrition is complex and multifactorial, with malabsorption, pain, toxic dependencies, co-morbidities and malignant processes all playing a role. The aims of this systematic review were to assess nutritional changes over time and identify tolerance of nutritional intervention, thus identifying potential areas for further research to improve patient outcomes. Materials and methods A systematic review of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed was carried out in February 2020, identifying 2620 articles. After screening to exclude those reporting short-term measures, with only one data point, or in the wrong population, thirteen papers were selected for analysis (four trials in neo-adjuvant treatment, five in populations undergoing palliative treatment for pancreatic cancer, and four in mixed populations undergoing pancreatic resection). Results Overall, studies were limited by predominantly retrospective designs, and poor control of potentially confounding variables. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogenicity in study design and reporting methods. Surgery in mixed cohorts did not appear to result in weight loss. Only one small intervention study was identified. Patients with pancreatic cancer experienced a decline in nutritional status, with 44-63% of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy having low muscle mass prior to starting treatment. Conclusion There is a paucity of data regarding nutritional intervention in pancreatic cancer. Future work should include the use of validated functional and clinical assessment tools to further explore the impact of nutritional intervention, and the relationship between nutritional status and outcome.

      KATHRYN HAYLEY HART, REBECCA MICHALA VEARING, ANDREA L DARLING, Yasmine Probst, Aminat S Olayinka, JEEWAKA MENDIS, Helena Ribeiro, Siddhartha Thakur, MARCELA MORAES MENDES, Karen Charlton, SUSAN ALEXANDRA LANHAM-NEW (2021)Global Perspective of the Vitamin D Status of African-Caribbean Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Springer Nature

      Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency remains a global public health issue, particularly in minority ethnic groups. This review investigates the vitamin D status (as measured by 25(OH)D and dietary intake) of the African-Caribbean population globally. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching key databases (PUBMED, Web of Science, Scopus) from inception until October 2019. Search terms included ‘Vitamin D status’ and ‘African-Caribbean’. A random effects and fixed effects meta-analysis was performed by combining means and standard error of the mean. Results: The search yielded 19 papers that included n=5,670 African-Caribbean participants from six countries. A meta-analysis found this population to have sufficient (>50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D levels at 67.8 nmol/L, 95% CI (57.9, 7.6) but poor dietary intake of vitamin D at only 3.0µg/day, 95% CI (1.67,4.31). For those living at low latitudes ‘insufficient’ (as defined by study authors) 25(OH)D levels were found only in participants with type 2 diabetes and in those undergoing haemodialysis. Suboptimal dietary vitamin D intake (according to the UK recommended nutrient intake of 10µg/day) was reported in all studies at high latitudes. Studies at lower latitudes, with lower recommended dietary intakes (Caribbean recommended dietary intake: 2.5µg/day) found ’sufficient’ intake in two out of three studies. Conclusions: 25(OH)D sufficiency was found in African-Caribbean populations at lower latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, 25(OH)D deficiency and low dietary vitamin D intake was prevalent. Trial registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019158108.

      CHRISTINA RACHEL SADLER, TERRI GRASSBY, KATHRYN HAYLEY HART, M.M Raats, Milka Sokolović, LADA TIMOTIJEVIC (2022)“Even We Are Confused”: A Thematic Analysis of Professionals' Perceptions of Processed Foods and Challenges for Communication, In: Frontiers in Nutrition | www.frontiersin.org(9)826162 Frontiers

      Processed foods are increasingly under the spotlight since the development of classification systems based on proxies for food processing. Published critical reviews and commentaries suggest different views among professional disciplines about the definition and classification of processed food. There is a need to further understand perspectives of professionals on the conceptualisation of processed food and the agreements and disagreements among experts, to encourage interdisciplinary dialogue and aid communication to the public. The aim of this research was to elicit views and understandings of professionals on processed food, their perceptions of lay people's perceptions of the same, and their perspectives on the challenges of communicating about processed foods to the public. The online discussion groups brought together a range of professionals (n = 27), covering the fields of nutrition, food technology, policy making, industry, and civil society, mixed in 5 heterogenous groups. Through thematic analysis the following themes relating to the conceptualisation of processed food and challenges for communication were identified: (1) Broad concepts that need differentiation; (2) Disagreements on scope and degree of processing; (3) The role of food processing within the food system: the challenges in framing risks and benefits; and (4) The challenge of different perspectives and interests for risk communication. Throughout the discussions blurred lines in the characterisation of processing, processed foods, and unhealthy foods were observed. Participants agreed that consensus is important, but difficult. Participants identified a need for further interdisciplinary dialogue, including public engagement, to break down the observed issues, and work towards a mutual understanding and develop clear communication messages.

      Hester Lacey, Stephanie Attersley-Smith, Sophia Stone, Martin Whyte, Jill Shawe, Kathryn Hart (2023)Quality of life improvements after bariatric surgery in reproductive age women with and without PCOS: a cohort study, In: Minerva obstetrics and gynecology75(3)pp. 251-259 Edizioni Minerva Medica

      Obesity can negatively influence quality of life (QoL). Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), associated with obesity, presents with sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and/or insulin resistance. These features can also negatively influence QoL. This study aimed to determine whether bariatric surgery improves QoL in women of reproductive age, with and without PCOS. We hypothesized greater QoL improvements would be seen post-operatively in women with PCOS. Women undergoing bariatric surgery (N.=77) completed questionnaires exploring health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) prior to and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Weight loss, symptoms, and association with change in QoL were assessed. Bariatric surgery resulted in significant QoL improvements, independent of PCOS status. Oligo/amenorrhea was reported in 68% of women at baseline, decreasing to 35% by 12 months. Sixty-five percent of women whose menstrual irregularity resolved over follow-up had PCOS. Hirsutism was reported in 64% of women at baseline (all of whom had PCOS), decreasing to 19% by 12 months. Weight loss at 12-months was 45.8±20.7 kg for women without PCOS compared to 44.3±16.8 kg in women with PCOS (P=0.07). Weight loss was moderately associated with 12-month QoL improvements for both groups. Bariatric surgery provides significant physical and psychological health benefits for women with obesity both with and without PCOS. Surgery can also ameliorate the clinical syndrome of PCOS, including oligomenorrhoea, hirsutism, and subfertility, with subsequent QoL benefits. Psychological support perioperatively may aid QoL outcomes by acknowledging factors influencing QoL beside absolute weight loss.

      Kathryn Hayley Hart, Charo Elena Hodgkins, Tammy Pepper (2023)Dataset for paper: Tackling (Childhood) Obesity through a Voluntary Food Reformulation Policy: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study Investigating Nutritional Changes in the Out-of-Home Sector, In: Tackling (Childhood) Obesity through a Voluntary Food Reformulation Policy: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study Investigating Nutritional Changes in the Out-of-Home Sector University of Surrey

      This paper (Nutrients 2023, 15, 3149. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143149) analyses 2017-2020 changes in nutritional content for desserts served by major chain restaurants in the UK, reviews progress towards sugar and energy targets established as part of the government’s Childhood Obesity Plan, and discusses implications for future reformulation programmes. This dataset (Excel spreadsheet) combines nutritional data collected from restaurant websites from October to December 2020, with unpublished raw data for 2017 and 2018 supplied confidentially by Public Health England (PHE) and additional raw data for 2018 from a previously published study. Desserts are classified using the categories specified by PHE in their technical guidance for the Sugar Reduction Programme. Nutritional information (g/portion and/or g/100g) for each dessert is provided as listed on the menus or in the third-party datasets from which they were extracted. Each dessert was allocated a unique ID at the time of data collection/extraction; some items were subsequently excluded during data cleaning as described in the paper. A total of 3466 items were included in the analysis.

      Sofia Balula Dias, Yannis Oikonomidis, José Alves Diniz, Fátima Baptista, Filomena Carnide, Alex Bensenousi, José María Botana, Dorothea Tsatsou, Kiriakos Stefanidis, Lazaros Gymnopoulos, Kosmas Dimitropoulos, Petros Daras, Anagnostis Argiriou, Konstantinos Rouskas, Saskia Wilson-Barnes, Kathryn Hart, Neil Merry, Duncan Russell, Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Elena Lalama, Andreas Pfeiffer, Anna Kokkinopoulou, Maria Hassapidou, Ioannis Pagkalos, Elena Patra, Roselien Buys, Véronique Cornelissen, Ana Batista, Stefano Cobello, Elena Milli, Chiara Vagnozzi, Sheree Bryant, Simon Maas, Pedro Bacelar, Saverio Gravina, Jovana Vlaskalin, Boris Brkic, Gonçalo Telo, Eugenio Mantovani, Olga Gkotsopoulou, Dimitrios Iakovakis, Stelios Hadjidimitriou, Vasileios Charisis, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis (2022)Users' Perspective on the AI-Based Smartphone PROTEIN App for Personalized Nutrition and Healthy Living: A Modified Technology Acceptance Model (mTAM) Approach, In: Frontiers in nutrition (Lausanne)9898031pp. 898031-898031 Frontiers Media S.A

      The ubiquitous nature of smartphone ownership, its broad application and usage, along with its interactive delivery of timely feedback are appealing for health-related behavior change interventions via mobile apps. However, users' perspectives about such apps are vital in better bridging the gap between their design intention and effective practical usage. In this vein, a modified technology acceptance model (mTAM) is proposed here, to explain the relationship between users' perspectives when using an AI-based smartphone app for personalized nutrition and healthy living, namely, PROTEIN, and the mTAM constructs toward behavior change in their nutrition and physical activity habits. In particular, online survey data from 85 users of the PROTEIN app within a period of 2 months were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and regression analysis (RA) to reveal the relationship of the mTAM constructs, i.e., perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEoU), perceived novelty (PN), perceived personalization (PP), usage attitude (UA), and usage intention (UI) with the users' behavior change (BC), as expressed via the acceptance/rejection of six related hypotheses (H1–H6), respectively. The resulted CFA-related parameters, i.e., factor loading (FL) with the related p -value, average variance extracted (AVE), and composite reliability (CR), along with the RA results, have shown that all hypotheses H1–H6 can be accepted ( p< 0.001). In particular, it was found that, in all cases, FL > 0.5, CR > 0.7, AVE > 0.5, indicating that the items/constructs within the mTAM framework have good convergent validity. Moreover, the adjusted coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) was found within the range of 0.224–0.732, justifying the positive effect of PU, PEoU, PN, and PP on the UA, that in turn positively affects the UI, leading to the BC. Additionally, using a hierarchical RA, a significant change in the prediction of BC from UA when the UI is used as a mediating variable was identified. The explored mTAM framework provides the means for explaining the role of each construct in the functionality of the PROTEIN app as a supportive tool for the users to improve their healthy living by adopting behavior change in their dietary and physical activity habits. The findings herein offer insights and references for formulating new strategies and policies to improve the collaboration among app designers, developers, behavior scientists, nutritionists, physical activity/exercise physiology experts, and marketing experts for app design/development toward behavior change.

      Taryn Smith, Laura Tripkovic, CT Damsgaard,, C Mølgaard, C Ritz, Saskia Wilson-Barnes, KG Dowling, A Hennessy, KD Cashman, M Kiely, Susan Lanham-New, Kathryn Hart (2016)Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 years: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial, In: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition104(5)138065pp. 1301-1309 American Society for Nutrition

      Background Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements to ensure adequacy remains weak. Objective To establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above proposed cut-offs (25, 30, 40 and 50 nmol/L) during the winter-time in white males and females (14-18 years) in the UK (51o 9 N). Design In a dose-response trial, 110 adolescents (age 15.9 ± 1.4 years; 43% male) were randomizedto receive daily 0, 10 or 20 µg vitamin D3 supplements for 20 weeks during the winter-time. A non-linear regression model was fit to the total vitamin D intake (diet plus supplemental) and post-intervention serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and regression predicted values were used to estimate the vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations above specific cut-offs. Results Mean (± SD) serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 49.2 ± 12.0 to 56.6 ± 12.4 nmol/L and from 51.7 ± 13.4 to 63.9 ± 10.6 nmol/L in the 10 and 20 µg/day groups respectively, and decreased in the placebo group from 46.8 ± 11.4 to 30.7 ± 8.6 nmol/L (all p ≤ 0.001). Vitamin D intakes required to maintain post-intervention 25(OH)D concentrations > 25 and > 30 nmol/L in 97.5% of adolescents were estimated as 10.1 and 13.1 µg/day respectively, and 6.6 µg/day to maintain 50% of adolescents > 40 nmol/L. As the response of 25(OH)D plateaued at 46 nmol/L, there is uncertainty in estimating the vitamin D intake required to maintain 25(OH)D > 50 nmol/L in 97.5% of adolescents, but it did exceed 30 µg/day Conclusions Vitamin D intakes of between 10 and ~30 µg/day are required by white adolescents during the winter-time in order to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations > 25 – 50 nmol/L, depending on the serum 25(OH)D threshold chosen.

      M Whyte, C Pring, D Cooke, K Hart, BM McGowan, D Subramanian, J Shawe (2014)Pregnancy after diabetes obesity surgery (PADOS): Incidence and outcomes, In: Pregnancy Hypertension4(3)pp. 239-239

      Half of all bariatric surgical procedures are in women of childbearing age but it remains unclear whether surgery is suitable for women who subsequently conceive: specifically the relative risks and benefits of potential nutrient deficiencies versus weight reduction. We will present data collected from Clinical Practice Research Databases on the maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancies complicated either by obesity or previous bariatric surgery (BS). Two groups, matched to obese controls for BMI pre-BS and post-BS (at the time of ante-natal booking) will be compared. In this way, the effect of BS on pregnancy outcomes may be examined, independent of its effect on weight. A sub-group of women with antecedent Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) will allow for investigation of the additional impact and persistence of this co-morbidity. This builds upon pilot data collected from a retrospective cohort of women (18-45years) undergoing laparoscopic roux-en-Y (RYGB) surgery over a 24-month period (n=218). After exclusions and loss to follow up, data from 111 patients were analysed; 81 (73%) had conceived prior to RYGB, 20 (18%) became pregnant post RYGB and a further 22 patients (20%) were trying to conceive at the time of data collection. Three women had T2DM which resolved post BS. A suggestion of greater miscarriage risk prior to surgery in this sub-group will be confirmed as more women are recruited. Pregnancy is a frequent desire/occurrence after BS. This database study will advance understanding of the maternal and fetal outcomes of such pregnancies and inform antenatal care.

      J Shawe, D Cooke, K Hart, BM McGowan, C Pring, D Subramanian, M Whyte (2014)Pregnancy after diabetes obesity surgery (PADOS): Qualitative study of pre-pregnancy care, In: Pregnancy Hypertension4(3)pp. 238-238 Elsevier

      Half of all bariatric surgical procedures are in women of childbearing age. Surgery may improve fertility yet exacerbate nutritional deficiencies, that may be disadvantageous to the fetus. A frequently encountered subgroup of obese women have type 2 diabetes. The health risks, to both mother and child, of diabetes in pregnancy are well described including 4.7× risk of stillbirth and 2× risk of congenital abnormality. What is not clear is whether bariatric surgery mitigates or complicates the health consequences of women with obesity and diabetes in pregnancy. In addition the influence of the type of surgery, the optimal interval between surgery and conception and evidence based preconception recommendations are unknown. This study complements wider research aiming to inform optimal management of this patient population. Obese diabetic women require clear guidance regarding pregnancy planning after surgery. This study will develop an understanding of the barriers and facilitators (psychological, behavioural, attitudinal and nutritional) to achieving effective pre-pregnancy health and care in women with type 2 diabetes who have undergone metabolic surgery. Currently women's perception of fertility issues and risks after bariatric surgery is unknown and thus a qualitative interpretive paradigm was chosen. Interviews with the target population will explore decision-making processes; experience regarding metabolic surgery and perceived pregnancy risk. Interviews with a broad range of health professionals involved in bariatric care will include rationale for selected surgical procedure and post surgery referral processes e.g. contraceptive care. This will advance understanding of how to provide targeted support and monitoring.

      Laura Tripkovic, LR Wilson, Kathryn Hart, Sigurd Johnsen, Simon de Lusignan, CP Smith, G Bucca, S Penson, G Chope, Ruan Elliott, E Hypponen, J L Berry, Susan Lanham-New (2017)Daily supplementation with 15 mg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial, In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition106(2)pp. 481-490 American Society for Nutrition

      Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20–64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the vitamin D3 biscuit and the vitamin D3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the vitamin D2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P < 0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) ( P < 0.0001)], the vitamin D2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0002)]. Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, vitamin D3 was more effective than vitamin D2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize vitamin D status within the general population. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN23421591.

      Jill Shawe, Kathryn Hart, Ann Robinson (2020)Lifestyle: Substance Use—Nicotine, Alcohol and Drugs, In: Preconception Health and Care: A Life Course Approachpp. 129-158 Springer

      Use of substances including alcohol, tobacco and drugs is common in people of reproductive age, can lead to dependence and is a major global health concern. Despite targeted public health policies and campaigns, population surveys (National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH) 2020; European Drug Report 2019) continue to highlight widespread use of substances, often in combination, which have substantial negative implications for health in general and the potential to harm future generations (Stephenson et al. 2018). Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the complex psychological, physiological and social factors that may be linked to substance use and be prepared to offer counselling and referral for specialist services. Pregnancy, however, can be a ‘window of opportunity’ and a motivating factor for women and their partners to change their behaviour and minimise risk with help to quit or cut down on substance use (Solomon and Quinn 2004). Preconception care offers the opportunity to further reduce risk by helping to modify consumption prior to pregnancy.

      HM Macdonald, A Mavroeidi, WD Fraser, AL Darling, AJ Black, L Aucott, F O'Neill, K Hart, JL Berry, SA Lanham-New, DM Reid (2011)Erratum to: Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?, In: Osteoporos Int
      CG Mountford, AC Okonkwo, K Hart, NP Thompson (2016)Managing Malnutrition in Older Persons Residing in Care Homes: Nutritional and Clinical Outcomes Following a Screening and Intervention Program., In: Journal of nutrition in gerontology and geriatrics35(1)pp. 52-66 Taylor & Francis

      This study aimed to establish prevalence of malnutrition in older adult care home residents and investigate whether a nutritional screening and intervention program could improve nutritional and clinical outcomes. A community-based cohort study was conducted in five Newcastle care homes. 205 participants entered; 175 were followed up. Residents already taking oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were excluded from interventions. Those with Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) score of 1 received dietetic advice and ≥2 received dietetic advice and were prescribed ONS (220 ml, 1.5 kcal/ml) twice daily for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI), MUST, mini nutritional assessment score (MNA)®, mid upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were recorded at baseline and 12 weeks. Malnutrition prevalence was 36.6% ± 6.6 (95% CI). A higher MUST was associated with greater mortality (p = 0.004). Type of intervention received was significantly associated with change in MUST score (p < 0.001); dietetic advice resulting in the greatest improvement. There were no significant changes in BMI (p = 0.445), MAMC (p = 0.256), or GDS (p = 0.385) following the interventions. Dietitian advice may slow the progression of nutritional decline. In this study oral nutritional supplements over a 3-month period did not significantly improve nutritional status in malnourished care home residents.

      Marcela M Mendes, Kathryn H Hart, Emma L Williams, Jeewaka Mendis, Susan A Lanham-New, Patrícia B Botelho (2021)Vitamin D Supplementation and Sunlight Exposure on Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in 2 Parallel, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials, In: The Journal of nutrition151(10)3137pp. 3137-3150

      Vitamin D concentrations are a function of sunlight exposure and dietary intake. However, current dietary vitamin D recommendations do not consider differences in country-specific sunlight availability or spontaneous individual exposure. We aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation and sunlight exposure on vitamin D concentrations in Brazilian women living in high compared with low latitudes. In 2 parallel, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials, Brazilian women living in England (51°N) composed "without ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure" groups and those living in Brazil (16°S) composed the "with UVB exposure" groups (mean age, 31.39 ± 8.7 years). Participants received 15 μg cholecalciferol or placebo daily for 12 weeks during wintertime. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, the primary outcome, were assessed by HPLC-MS/MS, vitamin D intakes were assessed by 4-day diet diaries, and sunlight exposure was assessed by UVB dosimeters. The effects of supplementation and UVB exposure were tested by the intention to treat with a linear mixed model. The 25(OH)D concentrations increased in both supplemented groups [from 75.1 ± 22.0 to 84.8 ± 21.0 nmol/L (P = 0.004) in the group with UVB exposure; from 38.1 ± 15.9 to 55.1 ± 12.2 nmol/L (P 

      AL Darling, OA Hakim, K Horton, MA Gibbs, L Cui, JL Berry, SA Lanham-New, KH Hart (2012)Associations between vitamin D status and radial bone geometry in older South Asian and Caucasian women, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY71(OCE3)pp. E230-E230 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      K Hart, S Barr, S Reeves, K Sharp, Y Jeanes (2016)Suboptimal dietary intake is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, In: NUTRITION & DIETETICS73(2)pp. 177-183 WILEY-BLACKWELL
      YM Jeanes, S Reeves, EL Gibson, C Piggott, VA May, Kathryn Hart (2017)Binge eating behaviours and food cravings in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, In: Appetite109(Feb)pp. 24-32 Elsevier

      Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine condition in women, is often anecdotally associated with binge eating behaviours and food cravings; however there is a paucity of research. This study aimed to report the prevalence of binge eating and food cravings and their relation to obesity risk in women with PCOS. Participants completed an online survey including the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, Food Cravings-Trait Questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire revised-18. The study included obese (n = 340), overweight (n = 70) and lean (n = 45) women with PCOS and lean healthy women (n = 40). Sixty percent of obese women with PCOS were categorised with binge-eating behaviour, with 39% presenting with clinically significant behaviour. Obese women with PCOS presented with high mean food cravings-trait scores (131.6 ± 28.9) that were significantly greater compared with lean (114.0 ± 34.9) and overweight women with PCOS (120.1 ± 29.5; p < 0.001). Multiple regression exploring relations between eating styles and adiposity explained 59% of the variance in binge eating symptom scores in women with PCOS (F = 173.8; p < 0.001, n = 463): significant predictors were food cravings total score (beta = 0.52; p < 0.001), emotional eating score (beta = 0.16; p < 0.001), BMI (beta = 0.13; p < 0.001) and uncontrolled eating score (beta = 0.10; p < 0.01). Compared with lean healthy women, lean women with PCOS exhibited significantly higher binge eating symptom scores (10.9 ± 7.8 versus 7.4 ± 6.0; p < 0.05), though similar total food craving scores (114.0 ± 34.9 versus 105.6 ± 26.6: NS). This study is the largest, to date, to robustly report that a high proportion of women with PCOS exhibit binge eating behaviours. We recommend screening women with PCOS for binge eating behaviours to help inform the choice of weight management approach for this clinical population.

      Andrea Darling, Kathryn Hart, F Gossiel, F Robertson, Julie Hunt, TR Hill, Sigurd Johnsen, JL Berry, R Eastell, R Vieth, Susan Lanham-New (2017)Higher bone resorption excretion in South Asian women vs White Caucasians and increased bone loss with higher seasonal cycling of vitamin D:  results from the D-FINES cohort study, In: Bone98pp. 47-53 Elsevier

      Few data exist on bone turnover in South Asian women and it is not well elucidated as to whether Western dwelling South Asian women have different bone resorption levels to that of women from European ethnic backgrounds. This study assessed bone resorption levels in UK dwelling South Asian and Caucasian women as well as evaluating whether seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with bone resorption in either ethnic group. Data for seasonal measures of urinary N-telopeptide of collagen (uNTX) and serum 25(OH)D were analysed from n=373 women (four groups; South Asian postmenopausal n=44, South Asian premenopausal n=50, Caucasian postmenopausal n=144, Caucasian premenopausal n =135) (mean (± SD) age 48 (14) years; age range 18-79 years) who participated in the longitudinal D-FINES (Diet, Food Intake, Nutrition and Exposure to the Sun in Southern England) cohort study (2006-2007). A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA (n=192) showed a between subjects effect of the four groups (P

      D Sutton, T Davey, G VenkatRaman, K Hart (2009)Can a functional food exert a cholesterol lowering effect in renal transplant patients?, In: Journal of Renal Care35(1)pp. 42-47
      KH Hart, L Boyle, CA Hartwick, L Moreno, SA Lanham-New, B Fielding (2015)Live, eat, sleep football? Body size and composition and beliefs about physical activity in an international cohort of school-aged boys participating in regular team sport, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E97-E97 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      N Omar, M Gibbs, K Hart (2011)Nutritional status and food-related quality of life in hospitalised older adults, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY70(OCE4)pp. E130-E130 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      F Koidis, F Makinwa, K Hart, M Gibbs, S Hampton (2015)Assessment of the use of earplugs effectiveness on a slow eating rate protocol, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE4)pp. E273-E273 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      T Smith, L Tripkovic, K Hart, S Lanham-New (2015)Associations between maternal-child dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in UK male and female adolescents aged 14-18 years, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE5)pp. E329-E329 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      N Omar, M Gibbs, K Hart (2011)Nutritional status in older adults across care settings, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY70(OCE6)pp. E390-E390 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      KH Hart, JA Bishop, H Truby (2002)An investigation into school children's knowledge and awareness of food and nutrition, In: JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS15(2)pp. 129-140 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD
      HM Macdonald, A Mavroeidi, WD Fraser, AL Darling, AJ Black, L Aucott, F O'Neill, K Hart, JL Berry, SA Lanham-New, DM Reid (2011)Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?, In: Osteoporos Int22(9)pp. 2461-2472

      We assessed sunlight and dietary contributions to vitamin D status in British postmenopausal women. Our true longitudinal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements varied seasonally, being lower in the north compared to the south and lower in Asian women. Sunlight exposure in summer and spring provided 80% total annual intake of vitamin D.

      Philippa S. Gibson, Alberto Quaglia, Anil Dhawan, Huihai Wu, Sue Lanham-New, Kath Hart, Emer Fitzpatrick, J. Bernadette Moore (2018)Vitamin D status and associated genetic polymorphisms in a cohort of UK children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, In: Pediatric Obesity13(7)pp. 433-441 Wiley

      Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of polymorphisms determining vitamin D status remains unknown. Objectives: To determine in UK children with biopsy-proven NAFLD: (i) vitamin D status throughout a 12-month period; (ii) interactions between key vitamin D-related genetic variants (NADSYN1/DHCR7, VDR, GC, CYP2R1) and disease severity. Methods: In 103 pediatric patients with NAFLD, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and genotypes were determined contemporaneously to liver biopsy and examined in relation to NAFLD activity score and fibrosis stage. Results: Only 19.2% of children had adequate vitamin D status; most had mean 25OHD levels considered deficient (

      L Tripkovic, L Wilson, K Hart, S Lanham-New (2013)Associations between dietary intake and volumetric bone mineral density in South Asian and Caucasian women: preliminary analysis of the D2-D3 Study, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E216-E216 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Louise Wilson, Laura Tripkovic, Kath Hart, Susan Lanham-New (2017)Vitamin D deficiency as a public health issue: using vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in future fortification strategies, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society76(3)pp. 392-399 Cambridge University Press

      The role of vitamin D in supporting the growth and maintenance of the skeleton is robust; with recent research also suggesting a beneficial link between vitamin D and other nonskeletal health outcomes, including immune function, cardiovascular health and cancer. Despite this, vitamin D deficiency remains a global public health issue, with a renewed focus in the UK following the publication of Public Health England’s new Dietary Vitamin D Requirements. Natural sources of vitamin D (dietary and UVB exposure) are limited, and thus mechanisms are needed to allow individuals to achieve the new dietary recommendations. Mandatory or voluntary vitamin D food fortification may be one of the mechanisms to increase dietary vitamin D intakes and subsequently improve vitamin D status. However, for the food industry and public to make informed decisions, clarity is needed as to whether vitamins D2 and D3 are equally effective at raising total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations as the evidence thus far is inconsistent. This review summarises the evidence to date behind the comparative efficacy of vitamins D2 and D3 at raising 25(OH)D concentrations, and the potential role of vitamin D food fortification as a public health policy to support attainment of dietary recommendations in the UK. The comparative efficacy of vitamins D2 and D3 has been investigated in several intervention trials, with most indicating that vitamin D3 is more effective at raising 25(OH)D concentrations. However, flaws in study designs (predominantly under powering) mean there remains a need for a large, robust randomised-controlled trial to provide conclusive evidence, which the future publication of the D2–D3 Study should provide (BBSRC DRINC funded: BB/ I006192/1). This review also highlights outstanding questions and gaps in the research that need to be addressed to ensure the most efficacious and safe vitamin D food fortification practices are put in place. This further research, alongside cost, availability and ethical considerations (vitamin D3 is not suitable for vegans), will be instrumental in supporting government, decision-makers, industry and consumers in making informed choices about potential future vitamin D policy and practice.

      R Hollingdale, D Sutton, K Hart (2008)Facilitating dietary change in renal disease: investigating patients' perspectives., In: J Ren Care34(3)pp. 136-142

      BACKGROUND: Renal diets are arguably the most restrictive for any patient group, and many of the restrictions contradict current recommendations for healthy eating. OBJECTIVES. This study aims to explore the knowledge and beliefs of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients about the role of diet in their disease presentation and management. METHODS: Focus groups (FG) with nephrology and dialysis patients informed the development of a questionnaire. Patient experiences and knowledge of diet-disease links and their education needs were explored. RESULTS: Renal diets were not always perceived as compatible with other dietary advice, and often difficult to integrate with family and social occasions. Eighty percent respondents said they would like to receive dietary advice as soon as they know they have renal damage. Renal dietitians were identified as the most reliable and trustworthy source of dietary information, followed by renal specialist doctors. CONCLUSION: Early dietetic intervention would be welcomed by patients, with group work and 'expert patient' assistance offering one means of delivering this service in a patient-centred way.

      L Tripkovic, NC Muirhead, KH Hart, GS Frost, JK Lodge (2015)The effects of a diet rich in inulin or wheat fibre on markers of cardiovascular disease in overweight male subjects, In: JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS28(5)pp. 476-485 WILEY-BLACKWELL
      L Tripkovic, H Lambert, K Hart, CP Smith, G Bucca, S Penson, G Chope, E Hyppönen, J Berry, R Vieth, S Lanham-New (2012)Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis., In: Am J Clin Nutr95(6)pp. 1357-1364 American Society for Nutrition

      Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].

      Kaitlin Day, Alastair Kwok, Alison Evans, Fernanda Mata, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Kath Hart, Leigh Ward, Helen Truby (2018)Comparison of a Bioelectrical Impedance Device against the Reference Method Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Anthropometry for the Evaluation of Body Composition in Adults, In: Nutrients10(10)1469 MDPI

      This study aimed to compare the use of the bioelectrical impedance device (BIA) seca® mBCA 515 using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method, for body composition assessment in adults across the spectrum of body mass indices. It explores the utility of simple anthropometric measures (the waist height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC)) for the assessment of obesity. In the morning after an overnight fast (10 h), 30 participants underwent a body composition DXA (GE iDXA) scan, BIA (seca 515), and anthropometric measures. Compared to the DXA reference measure, the BIA underestimated fat mass (FM) by 0.32 kg (limits of agreement

      Taryn Smith, Laura Tripkovic, Susan Lanham-New, Kathryn Hart (2017)Vitamin D in adolescence: evidence-based dietary requirements and implications for public health policy, In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.77(3)pp. 292-301 Cambridge University Press

      Vitamin D is a unique nutrient. Firstly, it acts as a pro-hormone and secondly, the requirement for vitamin D can be met by both endogenous synthesis from sunlight and by dietary sources. This complicates the determination of dietary requirements for vitamin D, which along with the definition of optimal vitamin D status, have been highly controversial and much debated over recent years. Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, which is concerning given the important role of vitamin D, and calcium, in promoting normal bone mineralisation and attainment of peak bone mass during this rapid growth phase. Dietary vitamin D recommendations are important from a public health perspective in helping to avoid deficiency and optimise vitamin D status for health. However limited experimental data from winter-based dose-response randomised trials in adolescents has hindered the development of evidence-based dietary requirements for vitamin D in this population group. This review will highlight how specifically designed randomised trials and the approach adopted for estimating such requirements can lead to improved recommendations. Such data indicates that vitamin D intakes of between 10 and ~30 µg/day may be required to avoid deficiency and ensure adequacy in adolescents, considerably greater than the current recommendations of 10-15 µg/day. Finally this review will consider the implications of this on public health policy, in terms of future refinements of vitamin D requirement recommendations and prioritisation of public health strategies to help prevent vitamin D deficiency

      Taryn J Smith, Laura Tripkovic, Hanne Hauger, Camilla T Damsgaard, Christian Mølgaard, Susan Lanham-New, Kathryn H Hart (2018)Winter Cholecalciferol Supplementation at 51°N Has No Effect on Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Healthy Adolescents Aged 14-18 Years, In: The Journal of Nutrition148(8)pp. 1269-1275 American Society for Nutrition

      Background: Epidemiological studies have supported inverse associations between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cardiometabolic risk markers, but few randomized trials have investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on these markers in adolescents. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of winter-time cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on cardiometabolic risk markers in white, healthy 14-18 year-old adolescents in the UK (51°N) as part of the ODIN Project. Methods: In a dose-response trial, 110 adolescents (15.9±1.4 years; 43% male; 81% normal weight) were randomly assigned to receive 0, 10 or 20 μg/day vitamin D3 for 20 weeks (October-March). Cardiometabolic risk markers including BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma triglycerides, cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL and total:HDL) and glucose were measured at baseline and endpoint as secondary outcomes, together with serum 25(OH)D. Intervention effects were evaluated in linear regression models as between-group differences at endpoint, adjusted for the baseline value of the outcome variable and additionally for age, sex, Tanner stage, BMIz and baseline serum 25(OH)D. Results: Mean±SD baseline serum 25(OH)D was 49.1±12.3 nmol/L and differed between groups at endpoint with concentrations of 30.7±8.6, 56.6±12.4 and 63.9±10.6 nmol/L in the 0, 10 and 20 μg/day groups respectively (P≤0.001). Vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on any of the cardiometabolic risk markers (all P>0.05), except for lower HDL (-0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.21, 0.04, P=0.003) and total cholesterol (-0.21 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.42, 0.00, P=0.05) in the 20 compared to the 10 μg/day group, which disappeared in the fully adjusted analysis (P=0.27 and P=0.30 respectively). Conclusions: Supplementation with vitamin D3 at 10 and 20 μg/25 day, which increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations during the winter-time, had no effect on markers of cardiometabolic risk in healthy 14-18 year-old adolescents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02150122.

      C Sibbons, L Boyle, GC Burdge, M Umpleby, KA Lilycrop, CA Hartwick, S Lanham-New, K Hart, BA Fielding (2015)Evaluation of fatty acid status in children of different nationalities, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E94-E94 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Philippa Gibson, Sarah Lang, Anil Dhawan, Emer Fitzpatrick, Michelle L Blumfield, Helen Truby, Kath Hart, Jennifer Moore (2017)Systematic Review: Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Management of Paediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition65(2)pp. 141-149 Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins [

      OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of nutrition and physical activity interventions in the clinical management of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease continues to rise alongside childhood obesity. Weight loss through lifestyle modification is currently first-line treatment, although supplementation of specific dietary components may be beneficial. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials assessing nutritional and physical activity interventions. Primary outcome measures were changes to liver biomarkers assessed by imaging, histology, or serum liver function tests. Study quality was evaluated using the American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. RESULTS: Fifteen articles met eligibility criteria investigating nutritional supplementation (vitamin E [n = 6], probiotics [n = 2], omega-3 fatty acids [n = 5]), dietary modification (low glycaemic load [n = 1] and reducing fructose intake [n = 1]). No randomized controlled trials examining physical activity interventions were identified. Vitamin E was ineffective at improving alanine transaminase levels, whereas omega-3 fatty acids decreased hepatic fat content. Probiotics gave mixed results, whereas reduced fructose consumption did not improve primary outcome measures. A low glycaemic load diet and a low-fat diet appeared equally effective in decreasing hepatic fat content and transaminases. Most studies were deemed neutral as assessed by the American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. CONCLUSIONS: The limited evidence base inhibits the prescription of specific dietary and/or lifestyle strategies for clinical practice. General healthy eating and physical activity guidelines, promoting weight loss, should remain first-line treatment until high-quality evidence emerges that support specific interventions that offer additional clinical benefit.

      Andrea Darling, Kathryn Hart, Susan Lanham-New, HM MacDonald, K Horton, AR Kang'Ombe, JL Berry (2013)Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: A comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women, In: Osteoporosis International24(2)pp. 477-488 Springer Verlag

      This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. Introduction: There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. Methods: This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51 N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Results: Serum 25(OH)D

      Taryn J Smith, Susan Lanham-New, Kath Hart (2017)Vitamin D in adolescents: Are current recommendations enough?, In: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology173pp. 265-272 Elsevier

      Vitamin D is essential for bone development during adolescence and low vitamin D status during this critical period of growth may impact bone mineralization, potentially reducing peak bone mass and consequently increasing the risk of osteoporosis in adulthood. Therefore, the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency in adolescent populations is of great concern. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, the widely accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, that defines adequacy, and the vitamin D intake requirements to maintain various 25(OH)D thresholds are not well established. While the current intake recommendations of 10–15 μg/day may be sufficient to prevent vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25–30 nmol/l), greater intakes may be needed to achieve the higher threshold levels proposed to represent adequacy (25(OH)D > 50 nmol/l). This review will address these concerns and consider if the current dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents are sufficient.

      L Wilson, K Hart, S Lanham-New, L Tripkovic (2013)Vitamin D intakes and blood pressure in Caucasian and South Asian women aged 20-64 years - baseline analysis of the D2-D3 study, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E189-E189 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      SJ Long, K Hart, LM Morgan (2002)The ability of habitual exercise to influence appetite and food intake in response to high- and low-energy preloads in man, In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION87(5)pp. 517-523 C A B I PUBLISHING
      AL Darling, OA Hakim, K Horton, MA Gibbs, L Cui, JL Berry, SA Lanham-New, KH Hart (2013)Adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and total volumetric bone density in postmenopausal South Asian women with small bone size., In: Bone55(1)pp. 36-43

      There is some evidence that South Asian women may have an increased risk of osteoporosis compared with Caucasian women, although whether South Asians are at increased risk of fracture is not clear. It is unknown whether older South Asian women differ from Caucasian women in bone geometry. This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to use peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) to measure radial and tibial bone geometry in postmenopausal South Asian women. In comparison to Caucasian women, Asian women had smaller bone size at the 4% (-18% p

      CG Mountford, NP Thompson, K Hart (2013)Can a community-based nutritional screening and intervention programme improve clinical outcomes in Newcastle elderly care home residents?, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E250-E250 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      L Wilson, K Hart, R Elliott, CP Smith, G Bucca, S Penson, G Chope, E Hypponen, J Berry, S Lanham-New, L Tripkovic (2015)The D2-D3 Study: comparing the efficacy of 15 mu g/d vitamin D2 vs. D3 in raising vitamin D status in both South Asian and Caucasian women, and the ethical implications of placebo treatment, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E116-E116 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      K Hart, Y Nicolaidou, AO Musaiger, SM Alqallaf, F Al-Haddad (2013)Type 1 Diabetes in Children: The Bahraini Dilemma, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E298-E298 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      YM Jeanes, S Barr, K Smith, KH Hart (2009)Dietary management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the United Kingdom: the role of dietitians, In: JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS22(6)pp. 551-558 WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
      PS Gibson, S Lang, M Gilbert, D Kamat, S Bansal, ME Ford-Adams, AP Desai, A Dhawan, E Fitzpatrick, JB Moore, KH Hart (2015)Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study, In: NUTRIENTS7(12)pp. 9721-9733 MDPI AG

      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

      Nicolas Farina, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl Turner, Kathryn Hart, Naji Tabet (2017)Homocysteine concentrations in the cognitive progression of Alzheimer's disease, In: Experimental Gerontology99pp. 146-150 Elsevier

      Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinemia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is widely reported and appears to worsen as the disease progresses. While active dietary intervention with vitamins B12 and folate decreases homocysteine blood levels, with promising clinical outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), this so far has not been replicated in established AD populations. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between hyperhomocystenemia and relevant vitamins as the disease progresses. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 38 participants with mild to moderate AD were followed for an average period of 13 months. Plasma folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Dietary intake of B vitamins was also measured. Spearman’s correlations were conducted by homocysteine and B vitamin status. Results: As expected, cognitive status significantly declined over the follow-up period and this was paralleled by a significant increase in homocysteine concentrations (p=0.006). However, during this follow-up period there was no significant decline in neither dietary intake, nor the corresponding blood concentrations of vitamin B12/folate, with both remaining within normal values. Changes in blood concentrations of B vitamins were not associated with changes in homocysteine levels (p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the increase in homocysteine observed in AD patients as the disease progresses cannot be solely explained by dietary and blood levels of folate and vitamin B12. Other dietary and non-dietary factors may contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia and its toxic effect in AD, which needs to be explored to optimise timely intervention strategies.

      L Tripkovic, L Wilson, K Hart, R Elliott, CP Smith, G Bucca, S Penson, G Chope, E Hypponen, J Berry, S Lanham-New (2015)The D2-D3 Study: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial in women, comparing the efficacy of 15ug/d vitamin D2 vs vitamin D3 in raising serum 25OHD levels, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E16-E16 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      H Sanders, L Tripkovic, L Wilson, K Hart, S Lanham-New (2015)Comparison of reported dietary intakes between Caucasian and South Asian women and extent of under-reporting, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E148-E148 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      S Barr, K Hart, S Reeves, K Sharp, YM Jeanes (2011)Habitual dietary intake, eating pattern and physical activity of women with polycystic ovary syndrome, In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION65(10)pp. 1126-1132 NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP

      BACKGROUND: The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OH)D levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the "gold standard method" with high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA) used in a hospital laboratory. SUBJECTS: Eighteen children, aged 6-12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. METHODS: Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OH)D levels (D3 and D2) assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OH)D levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13.20. The difference in classification between the two methods was found to be statistically significant (P=0.004). A Bland-Altman plot showed a poor level of agreement between the two assay methods. The CMIA overestimated insufficient values and underestimated deficiency, when compared to UPLC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant difference between the two assay methods with CMIA overestimating vitamin D insufficiency. Clinicians should be prudent in their assessment of a single vitamin D reading, when the gold standard method is not available or feasible.

      Andrea Darling, Kath Hart, MA Gibbs, Susan Lanham-New, F Gossiel, R Eastell, T Kantermann, K Horton, Sigurd Johnsen, JL Berry, DJ Skene, R Vieth (2014)Greater seasonal cycling of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased parathyroid hormone and bone resorption, In: Osteoporosis International25(3)pp. 933-941

      This analysis assessed whether seasonal change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with bone resorption, as evidenced by serum parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide concentrations. The main finding was that increased seasonal fluctuation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with increased levels of parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide. Introduction: It is established that adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, vitamin D) concentration is required for healthy bone mineralisation. It is unknown whether seasonal fluctuations in 25(OH)D also impact on bone health. If large seasonal fluctuations in 25(OH)D were associated with increased bone resorption, this would suggest a detriment to bone health. Therefore, this analysis assessed whether there is an association between seasonal variation in 25(OH)D and bone resorption. Methods: The participants were (n = 279) Caucasian and (n = 88) South Asian women (mean (±SD); age 48.2 years (14.4)) who participated in the longitudinal Diet, Food Intake, Nutrition and Exposure to the Sun in Southern England study (2006-2007). The main outcomes were serum 25(OH)D, serum parathyroid hormone (sPTH) and serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (sCTX), sampled once per season for each participant. Results: Non-linear mixed modelling showed the (amplitude/mesor) ratio for seasonal change in log 25(OH)D to be predictive of log sPTH (estimate = 0.057, 95 % CI (0.051, 0.063), p < 0.0001). Therefore, individuals with a higher seasonal change in log 25(OH)D, adjusted for overall log 25(OH)D concentration, showed increased levels of log sPTH. There was a corresponding significant ability to predict the range of seasonal change in log 25(OH)D through the level of sCTX. Here, the corresponding parameter statistics were estimate = 0.528, 95 % CI (0.418, 0.638) and p ≤ 0.0001. Conclusions: These findings suggest a possible detriment to bone health via increased levels of sPTH and sCTX in individuals with a larger seasonal change in 25(OH)D concentration. Further larger cohort studies are required to further investigate these preliminary findings. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

      K Hart, E Cave, B Conroy, N Farina, J Young, J Rusted, N Tabet (2013)Nutritional status of older adults with and without dementia, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY72(OCE4)pp. E247-E247 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      SA Lanham-New, H Lambert, L Tripkovic, CP Smith, G Bucca, K Hart, S Penson, G Chope, E Hyppoenen, JL Berry, R Vieth (2011)Vitamin D-2 v. vitamin D-3 supplementation in raising 25OHD status: preliminary findings of a meta-analysis, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY70(OCE3)pp. E94-E94 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      Marcela M. Mendes, Andrea L. Darling, Kathryn H. Hart, Stephen Morse, Richard Murphy, Susan A. Lanham-New (2019)Impact of high latitude, urban living and ethnicity on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: A need for multidisciplinary action?, In: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology188pp. pp 95-102 Elsevier

      The effects of urban living on health are becoming increasingly important, due to an increasing global population residing in urban areas. Concomitantly, due to immigration, there is a growing number of ethnic minority individuals (African, Asian or Middle Eastern descent) living in westernised Higher Latitude Countries (HLC) (e.g. Europe, Canada, New Zealand). Of concern is the fact that there is already a clear vitamin D deficiency epidemic in HLC, a problem which is likely to grow as the ethnic minority population in these countries increases. This is because 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status of ethnic groups is significantly lower compared to native populations. Environmental factors contribute to a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HLC, particularly during the winter months when there is no sunlight of appropriate wavelength for vitamin D synthesis via the skin. Also, climatic factors such as cloud cover may reduce vitamin D status even in the summer. This may be further worsened by factors related to urban living, including air pollution, which reduces UVB exposure to the skin, and less occupational sun exposure (may vary by individual HLC). Tall building height may reduce sun exposure by making areas more shaded. In addition, there are ethnicity-specific factors which further worsen vitamin D status in HLC urban dwellers, such as low dietary intake of vitamin D from foods, lower production of vitamin D in the skin due to increased melanin and reduced skin exposure to UVB due to cultural dress style and sun avoidance. A multidisciplinary approach applying knowledge from engineering, skin photobiology, nutrition, town planning and social science is required to prevent vitamin D deficiency in urban areas. Such an approach could include reduction of air pollution, modification of sun exposure advice to emphasise spending time each day in non-shaded urban areas (e.g. parks, away from tall buildings), and advice to ethnic minority groups to increase sun exposure, take vitamin D supplements and/or increase consumption of vitamin D rich foods in a way that is safe and culturally acceptable. This review hopes to stimulate further research to assess the impact of high latitude, urban environment and ethnicity on the risk of vitamin D deficiency.

      OA Hakim, F Shojaee-Moradie, K Hart, JL Berry, R Eastell, F Gossiel, R Hannon, AM Umpleby, BA Griffin, SA Lanham-New (2011)Vitamin D deficiency, poor bone health and the risk of CVD in Caucasian and South Asian women: analysis from the D-FINES study, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY70(OCE3)pp. E100-E100 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      KH Hart, A Herriot, JA Bishop, H Truby (2003)Promoting healthy diet and exercise patterns amongst primary school children: a qualitative investigation of parental perspectives, In: JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS16(2)pp. 89-96 BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD
      YM Jeanes, J Hodgson, N Saunders, L Gibson, K Hart (2012)Eating behaviours in obese and lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY71(OCE3)pp. E237-E237 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS

      There is still limited data on the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone health in healthy younger adults, particularly in Latin America. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to investigate the associations of 25(OH)D and plasma PTH concentrations with bone parameters, and potential confounders, in women living in a high (England) or low (Brazil) latitude country. Bone was assessed by either peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (England) or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan (Brazil), serum 25(OH)D concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and PTH by the chemiluminescent method. In participants living in England, total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was significantly higher in women

      M Mendes, Kath Hart, Susan Lanham-New, Patricia B. Botelho (2020)Suppression of Parathyroid Hormone as a Proxy for Optimal Vitamin D Status: Further Analysis of Two Parallel Studies in Opposite Latitudes, In: Nutrients12(4)942 MDPI

      Optimal vitamin D status has commonly been defined as the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at which parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations would be maximally suppressed, represented by an observed minimum plateau. Previous findings indicate a large variation in this plateau, with values ranging from

      L Tripkovic, KH Hart, GS Frost, JK Lodge (2014)Interindividual and intraindividual variation in pulse wave velocity measurements in a male population, In: BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING19(4)pp. 233-241 LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
      L Wilson, E Hall, K Hart, S Lanham-New, L Tripkovic (2012)Association between dietary vitamin D intakes and blood pressure in Caucasian and South Asian females: preliminary analysis of the D2-D3 Study, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY71(OCE3)pp. E235-E235 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      L Wilson, S Lanham-New, K Hart, L Tripkovic (2012)The influence of habitual dietary intake on bone density in pre-menopausal women, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY71(OCE2)pp. E127-E127 CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      L Tripkovic, L Wilson, K Hart, S Lanham-New (2012)Comparison of vitamin D-2 and vitamin D-3 supplementation in increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis Reply, In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION96(5)pp. 1153-1154 AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN
      Hanne Hauger, Christian Mølgaard, Charlotte Mortensen, Christian Ritz, Hanne Frøkiær, Taryn J Smith, Kath Hart, Susan Lanham-New, Camilla T Damsgaard (2018)Winter Cholecalciferol Supplementation at 55°N Has No Effect on Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Healthy Children Aged 4–8 Years, In: The Journal of Nutrition148(8)pp. 1261-1268 Oxford University Press

      Background: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles in many observational studies in children, but very few randomized controlled trials have investigated this. Objective: We explored the effect of winter-time cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on cardiometabolic risk markers in young, white, 4- to 8-y-old healthy Danish children (55°N) as part of the pan-European ODIN project. Methods: In the ODIN Junior double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial, 119 children (mean ± SD age: 6.7 ± 1.5 y; 36% male; 82% normal weight) were randomly allocated to 0, 10 or 20 μg/d of vitamin D3 for 20 wk (October–March). Cardiometabolic risk markers including BMI-for-age z score (BMIz), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum triglycerides and cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL, and total:HDL), plasma glucose and insulin, and whole-blood glycated hemoglobin were measured at baseline and endpoint as secondary outcomes together with serum 25(OH)D. Intervention effects were evaluated in linear regression models as between-group differences at endpoint adjusted for baseline value of the outcome, and additionally for age, sex, baseline serum 25(OH)D, BMIz, time since breakfast, and breakfast content. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 56.7 ± 12.3 nmol/L at baseline and differed between groups at endpoint with concentrations of 31.1 ± 7.5, 61.8 ± 10.6, and 75.8 ± 11.5 nmol/L in the 0-, 10-, and 20 μg/d groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on any of the cardiometabolic risk markers in analyses adjusted for baseline value of the outcome (all P ≥ 0.05), and additional covariate adjustment did not change the results notably. Conclusions: Preventing the winter decline in serum 25(OH)D with daily vitamin D3 supplementation of 10 or 20 μg had no cardiometabolic effects in healthy 4- to 8-y-old Danish children. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02145195.

      OA Hakim, Kath Hart, P McCabe, J Berry, R Francesca, LE Rhodes, N Spyrou, A Alfuraih, S Lanham-New (2016)VITAMIN D PRODUCTION IN UK CAUCASIAN AND SOUTH ASIAN WOMEN FOLLOWING UVR EXPOSURE., In: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology164pp. 223-229 Elsevier

      It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D). However ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated.The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D production between UK South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined and controlled exposure to UVR.Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for the measurement of vitamin D status during the run in period (9 days, no sunbed exposure) after which, all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8minutes respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study.Despite consistently lower 25(OH)D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesised.This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations.

      A.L. Darling, K.H. Hart, S. Arber, J.L. Berry, P.L. Morgan, B.A. Middleton, S. Lanham-New, D.J. Skene (2019)25-Hydroxyvitamin D status, light exposure and sleep quality in UK dwelling South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, In: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology189pp. pp 265-273 Elsevier

      There is a lack of research into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status, light exposure and sleep patterns in South Asian populations. In addition, results of research studies are conflicting as to whether there is an association between 25(OH)D status and sleep quality. We investigated 25(OH)D status, self-reported and actigraphic sleep quality in n = 35 UK dwelling postmenopausal women (n = 13 South Asians, n = 22 Caucasians), who kept daily sleep diaries and wore wrist-worn actiwatch (AWL-L) devices for 14 days. A subset of n = 27 women (n = 11 South Asian and n = 16 Caucasian) also wore a neck-worn AWL-L device to measure their light exposure. For 25(OH)D concentration, South Asians had a median ± IQR of 43.8 ± 28.2 nmol/L, which was significantly lower than Caucasians (68.7 ± 37.4 nmol/L)(P = 0.001). Similarly, there was a higher sleep fragmentation in the South Asians (mean ± SD 36.9 ± 8.9) compared with the Caucasians (24.7 ± 7.1)(P = 0.002). Non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis of rest/activity patterns showed a higher night-time activity (L5) (22.6 ± 14.0 vs. 10.5 ± 4.4; P = 0.0008) and lower relative amplitude (0.85 ± 0.07 vs. 0.94 ± 0.02; P ˂ 0.0001) in the South Asian compared with the Caucasian women. More South Asians (50%) met the criteria for sleep disorders (PSQI score ˃5) than did Caucasians (27%) (P = 0.001, Fishers Exact Test). However, there was no association between 25(OH)D concentration and any sleep parameter measured (P ˃ 0.05) in either ethnic group. South Asians spent significantly less time in illuminance levels over 200 lx (P = 0.009) than did Caucasians. Overall, our results show that postmenopausal South Asian women have lower 25(OH)D concentration than Caucasian women. They also have higher sleep fragmentation, as well as a lower light exposure across the day. This may have detrimental implications for their general health and further research into sleep quality and light exposure in the South Asian ethnic group is warranted.

      Andrea Darling, Kathryn Hart, HM Macdonald, K Horton, AR Kang’ombe, JL Berry, Susan Lanham-New (2012)Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women, In: Osteoporosis International Springer Verlag

      This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. Introduction There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. Methods This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20–55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Results Serum 25(OH)D 

      REBECCA MICHALA VEARING, KATHRYN HAYLEY HART, Karen Charlton, Yasmine Probst, DAVID J BLACKBOURN, KOUROSH RASEKH AHMADI, SUSAN ALEXANDRA LANHAM-NEW, Andrea L. Darling (2021)Vitamin D Status of the British African-Caribbean Residents: Analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort, In: Nutrients13(11)4104 MDPI

      The vitamin D status of the United Kingdom (UK) African-Caribbean (AC) population remains under-researched, despite an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency due to darker skin phenotypes and living at a high latitude. This cross-sectional study explored the vitamin D status and intake of AC individuals (n = 4046 with a valid serum 25(OH)D measurement) from the UK Biobank Cohort, aged ≥40 years at baseline (2006–2010). Over one third of the population were deficient (50 nmol/L). Median (IQR) 25(OH)D was 30.0 (20.9) nmol/L. Logistic regression showed that brown/black skin phenotype, winter blood draw, not consuming oily fish and not using vitamin D supplements predicted increased odds of vitamin D deficiency, whilst older age and a summer or autumn blood draw were significantly associated with reduced odds of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were prevalent in this AC population and is of considerable concern given the individual and societal implications of increased morbidity. Public health messaging for this group should focus on year-round vitamin D supplementation and increasing intakes of culturally appropriate vitamin D-rich foods. These data also support the urgent requirement for a revised vitamin D RNI for ethnic groups.

      S Wilson‐Barnes, L. P Gymnopoulos, K Dimitropoulos, V Solachidis, K Rouskas, D Russell, Y Oikonomidis, S Hadjidimitriou, J María Botana, B Brkic, E Mantovani, S Gravina, G Telo, E Lalama, R Buys, M Hassapidou, S Balula Dias, A Batista, L Perone, S Bryant, S Maas, S Cobello, P Bacelar, S. A Lanham‐New, K Hart (2021)PeRsOnalised nutriTion for hEalthy livINg: The PROTEIN project, In: Nutrition bulletin46(1)pp. 77-87

      Personalised nutrition is a novel public health strategy aiming to promote positive diet and lifestyle changes. Tailored dietary and physical activity advice may be more appropriate than a generalised ‘one‐size‐fits‐all’ approach as it is more biologically relevant to the individual. Information and computing technology, smartphones and mobile applications have become an integral part of modern life and thereby present the opportunity for novel methods to encourage individuals to lead a healthier lifestyle. This article introduces the European Union‐funded PROTEIN project (PeRsOnalised nutriTion for hEalthy livINg) consortium and introduces the associated work packages. The primary objective of the PROTEIN project is to produce a novel adaptable mobile application suite based on sound nutrition and physical activity advice from experts in their field, accessible to all population groups, with differing health outcomes, whose behaviour can be tracked with a variety of sensors and health hazard perception. The mobile application ‘ecosystem’ that will be developed by the consortium includes a platform, mobile suite, cloud services, artificial intelligence advisor, game suite, modelling of expert’s knowledge, users’ behaviour data collection, data analysis and a dashboard for healthcare professionals. It is proposed that users will find the provision of personalised nutrition advice and real‐time data capture through a smartphone application useful, and importantly, will be encouraged by this to make positive health behaviour changes.

      NICOLA JOHNSTONE, Chiara Milesi, Olivia Burn, Bartholomeus van den Bogert, Arjen Nauta, KATHRYN HAYLEY HART, Paul T. Sowden, Philip W J Burnet, KATHRIN COHEN KADOSH (2021)Anxiolytic effects of a galacto-oligosaccharides prebiotic in healthy females (18-25 years) with corresponding changes in gut bacterial composition, In: Scientific reports11(1)pp. 8302-8302

      Current research implicates pre- and probiotic supplementation as a potential tool for improving symptomology in physical and mental ailments, which makes it an attractive concept for clinicians and consumers alike. Here we focus on the transitional period of late adolescence and early adulthood during which effective interventions, such as nutritional supplementation to influence the gut microbiota, have the potential to offset health-related costs in later life. We examined multiple indices of mood and well-being in 64 healthy females in a 4-week double blind, placebo controlled galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) prebiotic supplement intervention and obtained stool samples at baseline and follow-up for gut microbiota sequencing and analyses. We report effects of the GOS intervention on self-reported high trait anxiety, attentional bias, and bacterial abundance, suggesting that dietary supplementation with a GOS prebiotic may improve indices of pre-clinical anxiety. Gut microbiota research has captured the imagination of the scientific and lay community alike, yet we are now at a stage where this early enthusiasm will need to be met with rigorous research in humans. Our work makes an important contribution to this effort by combining a psychobiotic intervention in a human sample with comprehensive behavioural and gut microbiota measures.

      Pascale Sophie Russell, Debbie M. Smith, Michele D. Birtel, Kathryn Hayley Hart, Sarah Elizabeth Golding (2022)The role of emotions and injunctive norms in breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis, In: Health psychology review16(2)pp. 257-279 Taylor & Francis

      Breastfeeding has many known benefits, but rates vary globally. We propose two main reasons why psychological theory and interventions have not been successful to date in explaining breastfeeding behaviours. Specifically, prior research underestimates the importance of (1) specific emotions and (2) wider injunctive influences (i.e., societal and moral norms about what women feel they ought to be doing) in the breastfeeding experience. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored whether injunctive norms and/ or specific emotions are associated with breastfeeding behaviours (i.e., intentions, initiation and duration). Seventy-two papers were included in this review; data were extracted and quality appraisals conducted for all included studies. A meta-analysis of effect sizes was performed with the quantitative data. A convergent qualitative synthesis of the data was conducted, resulting in the following line of argument: Breastfeeding is a social behaviour and not a personal/individual behaviour. From this line of argument, three themes with associated sub-themes were developed, highlighting the importance of both specific emotions and injunctive norms on breastfeeding behaviours. These influences are discussed in relation to both theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research.

      CHRISTINA RACHEL SADLER, TERRI GRASSBY, KATHRYN HAYLEY HART, MONIQUE MARIA RAATS, Milka Sokolović, LADA TIMOTIJEVIC (2021)Processed food classification: Conceptualisation and challenges, In: Trends in Food Science and Technology112pp. 149-162 Elsevier

      Background: Processed foods are typically praised/revered for their convenience, palatability, and novelty; however, their healthfulness has increasingly come under scrutiny. Classification systems that categorise foods according to their “level of processing” have been used to predict diet quality and health outcomes and inform dietary guidelines and product development. However, the classification criteria used are ambiguous, inconsistent and often give less weight to existing scientific evidence on nutrition and food processing effects; critical analysis of these criteria creates conflict amongst researchers. Scope and approach: We examine the underlying basis of food classification systems and provide a critical analysis of their purpose, scientific basis, and distinguishing features by thematic analysis of the category definitions. Key findings and conclusions: These classification systems were mostly created to study the relationship between industrial products and health. There is no consensus on what factors determine the level of food processing. We identified four defining themes underlying the classification systems: 1. Extent of change (from natural state); 2. Nature of change (properties, adding ingredients); 3. Place of processing (where/by whom); and 4. Purpose of processing (why, essential/cosmetic). The classification systems embody socio-cultural elements and subjective terms, including home cooking and naturalness. Hence, “processing” is a chaotic conception, not only concerned with technical processes. Most classification systems do not include quantitative measures but, instead, imply correlation between “processing” and nutrition. The concept of “whole food” and the role of the food matrix in relation to healthy diets needs further clarification; the risk assessment/management of food additives also needs debate.

      K Nicol, E Thomas, A Nugent, J Woodside, K Hart, S C Bath (2022)Iodine fortification of plant-based dairy and fish alternatives - the effect of substitution on iodine intake based on a market survey in the UK, In: British journal of nutritionpp. 1-28 CUP

      Iodine deficiency has been demonstrated in UK women, which is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development during pregnancy. Plant-based diets are increasingly popular, especially with young females, which may affect iodine intake as the main dietary sources are dairy and fish; plant-based products are naturally low in iodine. We, therefore, aimed to (i) assess the iodine fortification of milk-, yoghurt-, cheese- and fish-alternative products available in UK supermarkets and (ii) model the impact that substitution with such products would have on iodine intake using portion-based scenarios. A cross-sectional survey of retail outlets was conducted in 2020 and nutritional data was extracted from food labels. We identified 300 products, including plant-based alternatives to: (i) milk (n=146), (ii) yoghurt (n=76), (iii) cheese (n=67), and (iv) fish (n=11). After excluding organic products (n=48), which cannot be fortified, only 28% (n=29) of milk alternatives and 6% (n=4) of yoghurt alternatives were fortified with iodine, compared to 88% (n=92) and 73% (n=51) respectively with calcium. No cheese alternative was fortified with iodine but 55% were fortified with calcium. None of the fish-alternatives were iodine-fortified. Substitution of three portions of dairy (milk/yoghurt/cheese) per day with unfortified alternatives would reduce iodine provision by 97.9% (124 vs. 2.6 µg) and substantially reduce the contribution to adult intake recommendations (83 vs. 1.8%). Our study highlights that the majority of plant-based alternatives are not iodine-fortified and that use of unfortified alternatives in place of dairy and fish may put consumers at risk of iodine deficiency.

      Nicola Johnstone, Susannah Dart, Paul Knytl, Arjen Nauta, Kathryn Hart, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh (2021)Nutrient Intake and Gut Microbial Genera Changes after a 4-Week Placebo Controlled Galacto-Oligosaccharides Intervention in Young Females, In: Nutrients13(12)4384 MDPI

      Recent interest in the gut-brain-axis has highlighted the potential of prebiotics to impact wellbeing, and to affect behavioral change in humans. In this clinical trial, we examined the impact of four-weeks daily supplementation of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on self-reported nutrient intake and relationships on gut microbiota in a four-week two-armed parallel double-blind placebo controlled GOS supplement trial in young adult females. Food diaries and stool samples were collected prior to and following 28 days of supplement consumption. It was found that four weeks of GOS supplementation influenced macronutrient intake, as evident by reduced carbohydrate and sugars and increased fats intake. Further analysis showed that the reduction in carbohydrates was predicted by increasing abundances of Bifidobacterium in the GOS group in comparison to the placebo group. This suggests that Bifidobacterium increase via GOS supplementation may help improve the gut microbiota composition by altering the desire for specific types of carbohydrates and boosting Bifidobacterium availability when fiber intake is below recommended levels, without compromising appetite for fiber from food.

      OA Hakim, A Darling, S Starkey, M Wong, F Shojaee-Moradie, K Hart, L Morgan, J Berry, A Umpleby, B Griffin, S Lanham-New (2010)POOR BONE HEALTH AND INCREASED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK: EVIDENCE OF A LINK IN THE D-FINES STUDY POPULATION, In: OSTEOPOROSIS INTERNATIONAL21pp. 96-97
      AL Darling, F Gossiel, R Hannon, DJ Skene, KH Hart, JL Berry, R Eastell, SA Lanham-New (2011)An association between seasonal fluctuation 'cycling' of 25(OH)D and increased bone resorption but not BMD or BMC in UK South Asian and Caucasian women living at 51on, In: BONE48pp. S187-S187

      It has been hypothesised that the U shaped association between 25(OH)D and some health outcomes may be due to large seasonal fluctuations of 25(OH)D1. It is unknown whether such fluctuation of 25(OH)D (‘cycling’) influences bone health. This is an important issue, because if ‘cycling’ is detrimental for bone, then winter only rather than year round vitamin D supplementation may be useful for bone health to ‘blunt’ the rhythm. In the D-FINES study, n = 373 women (South Asian/Caucasian) had repeated measurements in four seasons for serum 25(OH)D and PTH, as well as a DXA scan in autumn and spring. Serum C-telopeptide (sCTX) was also measured in a random subset (n = 66). Cosinor regression analysis was used to identify individuals showing a significant rhythm (p < 0.10) (‘cyclers’) and those not showing a significant seasonal rhythm (‘non-cyclers’). Potential differences in bone indices between the two groups were assessed within ethnicity. Dependent variables analysed were absolute values for autumn femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD, BMC and bone area, and absolute sCTX and sPTH in each season. Also, change in sCTX and sPTH from summer to winter and change in DXA bone indices from autumn to spring were analysed. ANCOVA was run, adjusting for summer and winter 25(OH)D status, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity, and dietary calcium. BMI was also controlled for in the analysis due to its negative correlation with seasonal change in 25(OH)D. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between ‘cyclers’ and ‘non-cyclers’ for any of the bone indices in either ethnic group. However, there were trends for a higher CTX and PTH in ‘cyclers’ versus ‘non-cyclers’ in both ethnic groups in every season, but no differences for BMD or BMC (Figs. 1–4). This suggests tentatively that ‘cycling’ could be associated with changes in bone metabolism but may not translate into structural changes. In summary, there is no clear evidence here to suggest that ‘cycling’ is detrimental to bone health, although there are trends in PTH and CTX that warrant further investigation with a larger sample.

      KH Hart (2007)Malabsorption, In: B Thomas, J Bishop, BD Association (eds.), Manual of dietetic practicepp. 455-460 Wiley-Blackwell
      KH Hart, R Hiscutt, H Truby (2007)A pilot investigation into body composition change and dietary intake during an 8-week low-carbohydrate diet in free-living obese women., In: International Journal of Body Composition Research5(1)pp. 41-44
      SJ Long, KH Hart, LM Morgan (2000)The effects of habitual exercise level upon appetite response and food intake following high and low energy preloads., In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY59pp. 123A-123A C A B INTERNATIONAL
      KH Hart, J Power (2007)Disorders of the colon, In: B Thomas, J Bishop, BD Association (eds.), Manual of dietetic practicepp. 486-495 Wiley-Blackwell
      R Boley, K Hart, H Truby (2005)Influence of different high-protein meals on subsequent food intake, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY64pp. 51A-51A CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
      O Hakim, F Shojaee-Moradie, K Hart, J Berry, R Eastell, F Gossiel, R Hannon, M Umpleby, B Griffin, S Lanham-New (2011)Evidence of a link between poor bone health, low vitamin D status and CVD risk in caucasian and asian women, In: BONE48pp. S197-S198
      PS Gibson, E Fitzpatrick, D Kamat, A Dhawan, ME Ford-Adams, A Desai, K Hart, JB Moore (2015)Assessment of diet and lifestyle factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a UK paediatric population, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE5)pp. E324-E324
      S Barr, K Hart, S Reeves, Y Jeanes (2007)Dietary composition of UK women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, In: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM51pp. 345-346 KARGER
      FA Al-Haddad, A Musaiger, M Al-Qallaf, K Hart (2015)Children with Type 1 Diabetes, In: Bahrain Medical Bulletin37(1)

      © 2015, Bahrain Medical Bulletin. All Rights Reserved.Background: The prevalence of diabetes in the Middle East is amongst the highest worldwide; Bahrain ranks amongst the top 10 countries. In particular, increasing number of children are being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) posing a significant public health concern. Objective: To evaluate the magnitude of type 1 diabetes in Bahrain. Design: A Case-Control Retrospective Study. Setting: Pediatric Diabetes and Endocrine Clinic and Local Health Centers (LHC). Method: Fifty-nine cases and 53 controls were included in the study. Data from the Diabetes Registry were recorded for subjects meeting the inclusion criteria and questionnaire was administered to healthy controls. Chi Square or Student’s t-test was used as appropriate. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate independent predictors of T1DM. Result: Fifty-nine children aged 6-12 years diagnosed with T1DM in the years 2009 and 2010 were compared to 53 healthy controls. Children with T1DM were more likely to have suffered from a pre-diabetes illness such as tonsillitis 32 (54.2%) compared to controls 3 (5.7%), and have undergone a surgery prior to diagnosis 14 (23.7%), and to have mothers with T2DM or family history of GDM. No significant difference in infant-feeding practices was observed between children with type 1 diabetes and the healthy controls. Conclusion: Children with T1DM were more likely to have suffered from other infectious illnesses before the diagnosis was established. Whilst unable to fully investigate any potential genetic differences between cases and controls, this study provides support for the theoretical role of infections as a trigger for T1DM.

      AL Darling, KH Hart, DJ Skene, S Arber, SA Lanham-New (2014)Vitamin D status, functional ability and muscle strength in older South Asian and Caucasian women in the UK, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY73(OCE1)pp. E23-E23
      M Champion, M Hayward, K Hart (2006)Interprofessional education: Even clinical psychologists can do it, In: Clinical Psychology Forum(167)pp. 38-41

      Clinical psychology trainees and dietetic students came together to learn from and with each other. This article reports some of the experiences of those involved.

      AL Darling, KH Hart, F Gossiel, R Eastell, JL Berry, SA Lanham-New (2015)Bone resorption levels are related to diet in UK dwelling South Asian but not Caucasian women, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E43-E43
      KH Hart (2007)Dietary Fibre, In: B Thomas, J Bishop, BD Association (eds.), Manual of dietetic practice(2.5)pp. 180-186 Wiley-Blackwell
      P Gibson, E Fitzpatrick, A Quaglia, A Dhawan, H Wu, K Hart, S Lanham-New, JB Moore (2015)Assessment of vitamin D status and genetic variation in vitamin-D related genes: key findings from a UK paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease population, In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY74(OCE1)pp. E12-E12
      CA Hartwick, L Moreno, M Fisberg, K Hart, B Fielding, S Lenham-New, Z Richards (2014)An international study of food behavior and nutritional status of children from 21 countries, In: FASEB JOURNAL28(1)
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