The role of m6A methylation of RNA has remained elusive for decades, however recent technological advances are now allowing the mapping of the m6A methylation landscape at nucleotide level. This has spurred an explosion in our understanding of the role played by RNA epigenetics in RNA biology. m6A modifications have been tied to almost every aspects of the mRNA life cycle and it is now clear that RNA virus genomes are subject to m6A methylation. These modifications play various roles in the viral replication cycle. This review will summarize recent breakthroughs concerning m6A RNA modification and their implications for cellular and viral RNAs.
Brocard Michele, Ladevaia Valentina, Klein Philipp, Hall Belinda, Lewis Glenys, Lu Jia, Burke James, Willcocks Margaret, Parker Roy, Goodfellow Ian G., Ruggieri Alessia, Locker Nicolas (2020) Norovirus infection results in eIF2± independent host translation shut-off and remodels the G3BP1 interactome evading stress granule formation, PLoS Pathogens
Public Library of Science
Viral infections impose major stress on the host cell. In response, stress pathways can rapidly deploy defence mechanisms by shutting off the protein synthesis machinery and triggering the accumulation of mRNAs into stress granules to limit the use of energy and nutrients. Because this threatens viral gene expression, viruses need to evade these pathways to propagate. Human norovirus is responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Here we examined how norovirus interacts with the eIF2± signaling axis controlling translation and stress granules. While norovirus infection represses host cell translation, our mechanistic analyses revealed that eIF2± signaling mediated by the stress kinase GCN2 is uncoupled from translational stalling. Moreover, infection results in a redistribution of the RNA-binding protein G3BP1 to replication complexes and remodelling of its interacting partners, allowing the avoidance from canonical stress granules. These results define novel strategies by which norovirus undergo efficient replication whilst avoiding the host stress response and manipulating the G3BP1 interactome.