It is natural for most transport geographers to get intrigued by the title of this book: Automated and Autonomous Mobilities. Given the significant rise of the use of the term autonomous vehicles (AV) among academics and practitioners, Kellerman manages to attract attention about a contemporary issue. Increasing funding directed towards automated and autonomous mobility over the past decade is proof of the contemporary nature of this book. Additionally, the book fits perfectly well within the respective book series i.e. Transport, Mobilities and Spatial Change published by TGRG of RGS-IBG.
Different types of high-rise residential buildings have proliferated in different countries at least since the 1940s, for a range of reasons. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current state of evidence on how planning, urban design and architectural aspects of high-rise residential buildings may influence social well-being and mental health. A systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Searches for peer-reviewed papers were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science; 4100 papers were assessed. 23 empirical studies published between 1971 and 2016 were included. The review found that house type, floor level, as well as spaces intrinsic to high-rise residential buildings (e.g. shared stairwells) are associated with social well-being and mental health. However, conceptual gaps and methodological inconsistencies still characterise most of the research in this field. We expect that research about and policy attention to this subject may intensify due to its strategic relevance in the face of global challenges such as increasing urbanization and loneliness. This paper concludes by highlighting a number of recommendations for future research.
ICTs are increasingly used in transport contexts for reasons of efficiency, cost-effectiveness and convenience. At the same time, such technologies enable increasingly comprehensive surveillance from the data gathered via devices and infrastructure. Marketing discourses around these applications highlight the benefits that such technologies have for the user and avoid mention of potential risks. This leaves users under- (and in some cases mis-) informed concerning the use of their data by third parties, which raises a number of ethical, social and legal concerns such as privacy and social profiling. Thus this chapter, drawing mainly upon medium theory, philosophy of technology, critical theory and surveillance studies, aims to contribute on a theoretical level to the debate concerning the balance between the positive contributions ICTs can make in the transport sector and the risks arising from the gathering of increasing amounts of personal data. It foregrounds the dual use of ICTs in transport contexts using up-to-date cases of applications and offers policy-relevant recommendations to inform the inclusion of ethical, social and legal issues in the design stage of ICTs for transport.
The state of the art in appraisal of transport infrastructure (particularly for developed countries) is moving towards inclusivity of a set of wider impacts than has traditionally been the case. In appraisal frameworks generally Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA), features as either an alternative to, or complementary with, Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) particularly when assessing a wider set of distributional and other impacts. In that respect it goes some way towards addressing an identified weakness in conventional CBA. This paper proposes a new method to incorporate the wider impacts into the appraisal framework (SUMINI) based upon a composite indicator and MCA. The method is illustrated for a particular example of the wider set of impacts, i. e. equity, through the ex-post assessment of two large EU transport infrastructure (TEN-T) case studies. The results suggest that SUMINI assesses equity impacts well and the case studies highlight the flexibility of the approach in reflecting different policy or project objectives. The research concludes that this method should not be viewed as being in competition with traditional CBA, but that it could be an easily adopted and complementary approach. The value in the research is in providing a new and significant methodological advance to the historically difficult question of how to evaluate equity and other wider impacts. The research is of strong international significance due to the publication of the TEN-Ts review by the European Commission, as well as the transnational nature of large scale interurban transport schemes, the involvement of national and transnational stakeholder groups in the approval and funding of those schemes, the large numbers of population potentially subject to equity and other wider impacts and the degree of variation in the regional objectives and priorities for transport decision makers.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are rapidly evolving and taking centre stage in everyday life in the 21st century alongside the increasing importance and value of information. This is particularly evident in the transport sector where ICT is greatly influencing our mobility and travel choices as well as travel experiences. With this background, this book provides evidence regarding the opportunities, threats, underlying principles and practical issues faced when deploying ICT for transport applications. By focusing on infrastructure, people and processes, the contributors to this book illustrate the challenges for academics, practitioners and policy makers alike through diverse case studies from across the world. Â© Nikolas Thomopoulos, Moshe Givoni and Piet Rietveld 2015. All rights reserved.
Road user charging in urban areas and highways has been studied and implemented in several places worldwide. However, limited attention has been given so far to the impacts of a local road user charging scheme for rural or other protected areas, particularly in the UK. The focus of this paper is the road user charging scheme, which has been proposed for implementation in the Upper Derwent valley of the Peak District national park. By applying both quantitative and qualitative methods it is shown that such schemes share considerable differences compared to other urban or highway schemes, such as diverse objectives, trip purposes, visitors' value of time and dispersion of traffic in neighbouring areas. Nonetheless, management of a rural scheme, the evaluation method used, as well as equity issues appear to be equally significant as in other urban or highway schemes. The conclusion is that a road user charging scheme in the Upper Derwent valley could bring positive impacts by reducing high car usage at peak periods and creating additional revenue to serve essential improvements in the area, but is sensitive to the income and age of the visitors.
Thomopoulos Nikolas, Givoni Mosche, Rietveld Piet (2015) Introduction: Transport and ICT, In: ICT for Transport: Opportunities and Threats ICT for Transport: Opportunities and Threats pp. 1-21
Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Radical technological changes have occurred in the dawn of the twenty-first
century, creating high expectations both for short-term
and long-term evolutions in the use of information to improve trip accuracy
and travel convenience within the transport sector. Information has
become the global currency of this century and ICT (Information and
Communication Technology) enables the distribution of information,
facilitating both physical and digital accessibility. Coupled with increased
mobility, the transport sector is constantly generating data through multiple
devices, sensors and sources (Pelletier et al., 2011), an illustration of
the unique feature of this era. Global mobile data traffic grew 81 per cent
in 2013 and forecasts show that Africa and the Middle East are anticipated
to grow ? based on the compound annual growth rate ? by 70 per cent
whereas Central and Eastern Europe are anticipated to grow by 68 per
cent (Cisco, 2014). So travellers and institutions have the ability to create
value about themselves on their own, as members of organized communities
or as part of the wider digital domain constantly producing or using
data. It has been predicted that user-generated content and networking can act as democratizing forces in this context (Dutton, 2013).
Thomopoulos N., Nikitas A. (2019) Editorial, International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management 19 (1-2) pp. 1-9
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
An array of megatrends has been identified worldwide such as urbanisation, globalisation, population growth, ageing population and increasing social disparities (Hoppe et al., 2014). To address these at a global scale, the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted by all UN member states in 2015 identifying 17 sustainable development goals (UN, 2018a), where SDG11: Sustainable cities and communities has a prominent role. Thus, it becomes apparent that the urban dimension is at the core of those global objectives. This is undeniable since cities are increasingly the places where technological, behavioural and institutional transitions make a significant impact. Planning, managing and assessing urban projects are at the core of contemporary urban development. Within this context, mobility is one of the most influential factors.
Global concerns about climate change, as confirmed at COP21, have led to lower carbon emissions environmental policies, particularly in the road transport sector. Through an empirical analysis of low carbon vehicle (LCV) policies in California, this paper contrasts the findings from diverse distribution theories between income quintiles - used as a proxy for societal groups - to address vertical equity concerns and offer an overview of impact distribution to policy makers. Thus, it contributes in operationalising ethical theories within transport cost benefit analysis and revisiting impact distribution when promoting low carbon vehicles. Findings indicate that manufacturer penalties are the most effective policy measure to avoid cost transfer between stakeholders. Yet, the analysis shows that those purchasing small LCVs may face disproportional vehicle purchase cost increases which needs to be considered by policy makers. Thus, this paper makes a methodological contribution regarding CBA in practice as well as providing policy relevant recommendations.
Interest has re-emerged on the issue of how to incorporate equity considerations in the appraisal of transport projects and large road infrastructure projects in particular. This paper offers a way forward in addressing some of the theoretical and practical concerns that have presented difficulties to date in incorporating equity concerns in the appraisal of such projects. Initially an overview of current practice within transport regarding the appraisal of equity considerations in Europe is offered based on an extensive literature review. Acknowledging the value of a framework approach, research towards introducing a theoretical framework is then presented. The proposed framework is based on the well established MCA Analytic Hierarchy Process and is also contrasted with the use of a CBA based approach. The framework outlined here offers an additional support tool to decision makers who will be able to differentiate choices based on their views on specific equity principles and equity types. It also holds the potential to become a valuable tool for evaluators as a result of the option to assess predefined equity perspectives of decision makers against both the project objectives and the estimated project impacts. This framework may also be of further value to evaluators outside transport
?Smart? in policy terms refers largely to the increasing use and various ways of ICT to meet various objectives, ranging from social cohesion to economic growth and environmental sustainability. Yet it is debatable what smart is in policy terms and even when there is consensus that it is wise to act in a certain way, the outcome might prove otherwise. Similarly, smart policy in terms of promoting the use of ICT in the transport sector includes certain threats while at the same time offering valuable opportunities. Consequently, this concluding chapter aims to summarize the main findings of previous chapters in a table and to draw useful conclusions to foster collaboration between previously distant disciplines. One of the main conclusions of this book is that ICT in particular, and technology in general, form important policy tools to advance sustainable transport, amongst other objectives. However, such policy tools should not be seen as fixes to the sustainable problem but as part of an overall solution minimizing risks. It is only such approaches that can build on synergies and avoid contradictions in the rapidly evolving field of ICT for transport to advance sustainable transport.
Certain developed countries have experienced the ?peak car? phenomenon. While this remains to be confirmed longitudinally, it looks certain that future mobility in Europe and elsewhere will be shaped by a particular technological development: driverless or autonomous transport. The ?autonomous car? ignites the imagination, yet the research and debate on this topic largely focus on the ?autonomous? and not adequately on the ?car? element. Like any new technological development, autonomous transport presents ample opportunities to better our mobility system, but similarly it carries risks and can lead into a future mobility that exacerbates, rather than relieves, current deficiencies of our mobility systems, including its high carbon and high cost characteristics. Now it is high time to explore these, before we lock ourselves into the autonomous car future. Using Low Carbon Mobility (LCM) as a guiding framework to assess mobility patterns and based on an extensive literature review, this paper aims to explore where there is a gap between the likely and desirable outcomes when developing the autonomous car and suggest how we might reduce it. Moreover, enhancing on global empirical evidence and forecasts about the opportunities and threats emerging from ICT deployment in transport and initial evidence on the development of the autonomous car, the paper concludes that a desirable outcome will only come if technological development will be accompanied by a social change. A change where public and sharing will be seen as superior to private and individual transport, could make the autonomous car a blessing.
Rode Philipp, Floater Graham, Thomopoulos Nikolas, Docherty James, Schwinger Peter, Mahendra Anjali, Fang Wanli (2017) Accessibility in Cities: Transport and Urban Form, Disrupting Mobility - Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities pp. 239-273
This chapter reviews the different pathways which cities are following to become more accessible. By identifying the close link between transport and urban form based on global evidence, it highlights the direct and indirect costs of choices made. It then presents the tipping points which can allow to proceed from sprawling urban development and conventional motorised transport to more compact cities characterised by innovative mobility choices shaped around shared and public transport. The examples used are based on cities worldwide to illustrate emerging trends from both developed and developing countries. Therefore, the recommendations are valuable for a range of stakeholders including local and national policy makers, academics and vehicle manufacturers.
Thomopoulos Nikolas (2017) Sofia, In: The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourism
Thomopoulos Nikolas (2017) Cyprus, In: The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourism