Dr Paul Hodkinson

Research Interests

Main research areas

sociology of youth and youth cultures; social media and identity; contemporary fathering; media and society; approaches to 'insider research' in sociology


PhD supervision

I am currently supervising 6 PhD students in a range of areas. I have acted as external examiner for 12 students. I welcome communication from prospective PhD students in any of the areas above or related areas. For more details about the Sociology PhD programme at Surrey please see here.


Media, Power and Control (level 5 undergraduate); Popular Music and Society (level 6 undergraduate); Understanding Youth Culture (level 6 undergraduate); Dissertation and PhD supervision

Departmental Duties

Director of Postgraduate Research, Department of Sociology

External examining

External examiner for BA Media and Communications at Demontfort University.

Previously, external examiner for the MA in Popular Music Studies at the University of Liverpool from 2008-11.

External examiner for PhD students at University of Liverpool, University of Glasgow, London School of Economics, Brunel University, University of Essex, University of Warwick, University of Bolton, Canterbury Christ Church University, University of Wollongong, Macquarie University and University of Adelaide.

Media interviews/appearances

  • Daily Telegraph, 26 May 2015: 'Why don't young people want to be part of a tribe anymore?' Quoted in article about youth tribes
  • BBC Online, 5 April 2013: 'How are Goths and Emos defined' Quoted in article on definition of groups included in GMP hate crime definition
  • Sky News, 4 April 2013: Live interview on alternative subcultures and hate crime
  • The Guardian, 26 April 2012: 'Goth For Life' Quoted in article on older goths
  • The Guardian, 24 October 2011: 'Growing Up for Goths' Article about my research on older goths
  • BBC Radio 4 Thinking Allowed, 29 June 2011: Live interview focused on ageing in the goth scene
  • The Guardian, 25 February 2010: 'From mod to emo: why pop tribes are still making a scene' Quoted in article about contemporary pop tribes
  • Daily Telegraph, 30 June 2007: 'The Myth of the MySpace Generation' Quoted in article about young people's use of social networking sites
  • BBC2 The Culture Show, 11th November 2006: Recorded interview broadcast as part of an item focused upon the Whitby Gothic Weekend
  • Radio CFRA, Canada, 15 September 2006: Live interview with Rob Snow about goth culture in relation to recent violent incidents in Canada
  • Radio CHQR, Canada, 15 September 2006: Live interview with Dave Rutherford on apparent connection to the goth scene of Montreal college shootings perpetrator, Kimyeer Gil
  • Dose Magazine, Canada, 26 April 2006: 'Blaming Violence on Goth Culture...' Quoted in article on blaming of goth scene for recent murders
  • BBC Online, 21 September 2005: 'Making the World's Musical Tribes' Quoted in article focused upon 'musical tribes' around the world
  • BBC World Service, 19 September 2005: 'Musical Tribes' Quoted in documentary on young people and musical tribes around the world
  • Sky One, 25 April 2005: 'Peaches Geldoff - Teenage Mind' Interview extracts as part of documentary on contemporary teenagers
  • BBC Radio Shropshire, 17 February 2005: Recorded interview with Jim Hawkins on the goth scene
  • BBC Scotland, 26 January 2015: Live interview for phone-in on goth culture in light of the sentencing of Luke Mitchell
  • The Times, Sunday Herald, Scotsman, Evening Times, 21-23 January 2005: quoted in relation to the guilty conviction in Jodi Jones murder case
  • BBC Radio 5 Live, QFM, Classic FM, Home 107.9 FM, 21 January 2005: Interview on news bulletins focused on guilty conviction in Jodi Jones murder case
  • BBC Radio 1, 4 November 2002: 'Beyond the Pale' Quoted in documentary on the goth scene
  • BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour, 10 Sept 2002: Interview with Jenni Murray on return of goth fashion to high street
  • BBC Radio 4 Thinking Allowed, 17 July 2002: Interview with Laurie Taylor about goths

Contact Me

Phone: 01483 68 3767

Find me on campus
Room: 13 AD 03

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Journal articles

  • Hodkinson P, Garland J. (2016) 'Targeted Harassment, Subcultural Identity and the Embrace of Difference: A Case Study'. British Journal of Sociology,
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Hodkinson P. (2015) 'Youth Cultures and the Rest of Life: Subcultures, Post-Subcultures and Beyond'. Journal of Youth Studies,


    Recent debate on the conceptualisation of youth cultures has been characterised as an irreconcilable stalemate between materialist defenders of a version of subcultural theory derived from the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies and post-subcultural theorists who favour more individualised understandings. This article suggests that, beneath this façade lies a more complex and reconcilable debate and that it may be time to move beyond the polarising presence of the CCCS as primary reference point for the discussion. Turning to substance, I go on to examine how enduring areas of disagreement within the debate can be resolved, establishing ways forward with respect to the interplay between spectacular groupings and individual pathways and the contextualisation of youth cultures, including with respect to material and structural factors. I advocate greater emphasis on the study of collective youth cultures as part of broader biographies as a way forward that can reconcile these substantive strands and draw together insight from across the subcultures/post-subcultures debate.

  • Hodkinson P. (2015) 'Bedrooms and Beyond: Youth, Identity and Privacy on Social Network Sites'. Sage New Media and Society,
  • Garland JM, Hodkinson P. (2014) '“F**king Freak! What the hell do you think you look like?” Experiences of Targeted Victimisation Among Goths and Developing Notions of Hate Crime'. Oxford University Press The British Journal of Criminology, 54 (4), pp. 613-631.


    Greater Manchester Police’s categorisation of targeted attacks on ‘alternative subculture’ members as hate crimes prompted extensive debate about whether such incidents are comparable to those of recognised hate crime groups. Hate crime experts have contributed to this debate but there is a lack of detailed empirical research on the subject. Drawing on qualitative interviews with twenty-one respondents mostly affiliated to the goth scene, this paper uncovers extensive experience of verbal harassment and, for some respondents, repeated incidents of targeted violence. The nature and impact of such experiences, we argue, bears comparison with key facets of hate crime. Such evidence informs and underlines the importance of conceptual arguments about whether hate crime can or should be extended beyond recognised minority groups.

  • Hodkinson P. (2013) 'Family and Parenting in an Ageing ‘Youth’ Culture: A Collective Embrace of Dominant Adulthood'. online before print http://soc.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/12/10/0038038512454351.abstract Edition. Sage Publications Sociology, 47 (6), pp. 1072-1087.


    ‘Youth’ music and style cultures, such as the punk, goth, metal and club scenes, often are regarded as opposed to the institution of the family and the values it symbolises. Yet significant numbers of the participants of such groups are now remaining actively involved into their thirties and beyond alongside the taking on of permanent cohabitation, marriage and parenthood. This article explores the increasing importance of family life for ageing members of ‘youth’ cultures in relation to the case study of the goth scene, a dark-themed grouping whose average age is rising. I emphasise the collective nature of the embrace of family among older goths and the implications of this for the values and environment of the group itself and the trajectories of individual members. Amongst other things, I explore whether the drift towards family and parenthood amongst goths might be understood as a collective assimilation into dominant adulthood.

  • Hodkinson P. (2013) 'Spectacular Youth Cultures and Ageing: Beyond Refusing to Grow Up'. Wiley Sociology Compass, 7 (1), pp. 13-22.


    For decades, research on the subject of music and style subcultures has presented participation in such groups as a temporary manifestation of adolescence. More recently, sociologists have begun to examine the lives and identities of those who remain involved in so-called 'youth' subcultures beyond their teens and early twenties. This article examines the ways such work has begun to illuminate the role of enduring subcultural identities as part of the developing lives of older participants. Such work, I suggest, rejects simplistic understandings of older participation as a refusal to grow up in favour of a detailed focus on the relationships between continuing participation and other aspects of developing adult life, including career, family and the ageing body. Identifying core themes and debates while identifying areas for further work, I argue that this developing field of research addresses one of the primary criticisms of youth cultural research in the past, which is that such research has tended to examine leisure related affiliations in a fixed period of time and in isolation from the rest of participants' lives. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • Hodkinson P. (2012) 'Beyond Spectacular Specifics in the Study of Youth (Sub)Cultures'. Taylor & Francis Journal of Youth Studies, 15 (5)


    This paper asks how much we can learn about youth music and style groupings from the detail of the spectacular content and practices which most obviously distinguish such groups. First, I consider an apparent revival in theoretically driven interpretations of subcultural style, music and content in recent work on the goth scene, arguing that, for all their sophistication, such studies seem liable to reproduce some of the difficulties of earlier studies of spectacular symbolic meanings unless their findings are connected with other kinds of evidence. The paper then examines recent calls for greater focus on the minutiae of participants’ sensory experience of distinct subcultural practices. I discuss case studies of promising work in the area, while emphasising the need to avoid reducing subcultures to the specificities of selected spectacular experience. Drawing the two parts together, I suggest many elements of subcultures are neither imprinted in spectacular sounds and texts nor discernable from the immediate sensations spectacular practices give rise to. In order to enhance our overall understanding it is important, therefore, that our examination of the distinct and extraordinary features of subcultures is contextualised in relation to broader understandings a range of other properties and patterns which may be less distinct, unique or extraordinary.

  • Geldens P, Lincoln S, Hodkinson P. (2011) 'Youth: Identities, transitions, cultures'. Sage Journal of Sociology, 47 (4), pp. 347-353.
  • Hodkinson P. (2011) 'Ageing in a Spectacular Youth Culture: Continuity, Change and Community in the Goth Scene'. 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell British Journal of Sociology, 62, pp. 262-282.


    This article explores the continuing involvement in youth music and style cultures of older participants through examination of the case study of the goth scene. It does so in the context of a widespread neglect, until recently, of what happens to participants of ‘youth cultures’ as they move beyond adolescence and also of a growing consensus about the broadening of youth itself as a life course period. Drawing on recent work on older participants in other music and style related groupings, the article uses original qualitative research to examine the developing lives and identities of goths as they become older. Rather than regarding continuing participation as a simple extension of youth, the focus is on the ways participation accompanied and was reconciled with material, domestic and physical elements of developing adult lives. Through reference to the case study, I emphasize the ways the experience of ageing for long-term music and style culture participants can constitute a collective experience.

  • Brooks R, Hodkinson P. (2008) 'Young People, New Technologies and Political Engagement: Introduction'. Taylor & Francis Journal of Youth Studies, 11 (5), pp. 473-479.
  • Hodkinson P, Lincoln S. (2008) 'Online journals as virtual bedrooms? Young people, identity and personal space'. Sage Publications Ltd Young: Nordic Journal of Young Research, 16 (1), pp. 27-46.


    This paper considers the increasing importance of personal, individualized spaces in the lives and identities of young people through a comparative examination of the contemporary use of the physical space of the bedroom and the ‘virtual’ territory of the online journal. Particularly popular among those in their teens and early twenties, online journals constitute an interactive form of web log whose content tends to be dominated by reflections upon the everyday experiences, thought and emotions of their individual owner. We propose here that such online journals often take on for their users the symbolic and practical properties of individually owned and controlled space – something we illustrate through a comparison with young people’s uses of the primary individual centred physical space in their lives – the bedroom. This discussion is informed by research by each of the authors, on young people’s bedrooms and on the use of online journals respectively. The paper identifies and explores understandings and functions of these two spaces for young people, identifying a number of apparent similarities in their use. Through doing so, we illustrate the potential value of the bedroom as a prism through which to understand online journal use at the same time as helping to illuminate the general significance of personal space to the lives and identities of contemporary young people.

  • Brooks RM, Hodkinson P . (2008) 'Introduction'. Taylor & Francis Journal of Youth Studies, 11 (5), pp. 473-479.


    Over recent years, politicians and social commentators in many countries of the world have become concerned with what is perceived to be young people’s declining engagement within the political sphere. There is certainly strong evidence that turnout in national elections has fallen markedly among the youngest age groups. In the UK, for example, between 1997 and 2001 the percentage of 18-24 year olds who voted fell by 29 per cent to 39 per cent, a much greater drop than was witnessed among other age groups (Phelps 2005; Wattenberg 2003). Moreover, in 2005, when turnout in general rose slightly, it continued to decline for the 18-24 age group and remained the same for 25-34 year olds (Phelps 2005). Similar trends have been observed in other countries. Indeed, a previous special issue of the Journal of Youth Studies, on Youth and Politics (volume 6, number 3, 2003) has shown how concern about youth disengagement is driving public debate in countries as far apart as Canada, Germany and Australia.

  • Hodkinson P. (2007) 'Interactive online journals and individualization'. SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD NEW MEDIA & SOCIETY, 9 (4), pp. 625-650.
  • Hodkinson P. (2005) 'Insider Research in the Study of Youth Cultures'. Routledge Journal of Youth Studies, 8 (2), pp. 131-149.


  • Hodkinson P, Bennett A. (2012) Ageing and Youth Cultures. Music, Style and Identity. Oxford : Berg Publishers
  • Hodkinson P. (2011) Media, Culture and Society: An introduction. Sage Publications Ltd


    'In his beautifully balanced, clear and broad-ranging account of a fast-changing field, Paul Hodkinson has successfully brought together myriad perspectives with which to critically analyse today's media culture and media society' - Sonia Livingstone, Professor of Media & communication, LSE Clearly organized, systematic and combining a critical survey of the field with a finely judged assessment of cutting edge developments, this book provides a 'must have' contribution to media and communication studies. The text is organized into three distinctive parts, which fall neatly into research and teaching requirements: Elements of the Media (which covers media technologies, the organization of the media industry, media content and media users); Media, Power and Control (which addresses questions of the media and manipulation, the construction of news, public service broadcasting, censorship, commercialization); and Media, Identity and Culture (which covers issues of the media and ethnicity, gender, subcultures, audiences and fans). The book is notable for: • Logical and coherent organization • Clarity of expression • Use of relevant examples • Fair minded criticism • Zestful powers of analysis It has all of the qualities to be adopted as core introductory text in the large and buoyant field of media and communication studies.

  • Hodkinson P, Deicke W. (2009) Youth Cultures: Scenes, Subcultures and Tribes. Routledge, Taylor & Francis


    Youth Cultures offers a comprehensive outline of youth cultural studies in the twenty-first century, with reference to a range of new research case studies. Featuring both well known and emerging scholars from the UK, the US and mainland Europe, the book addresses core theoretical and methodological developments before going on to examine key substantive themes in the study of young people's identities and lifestyles. These include questions of commerce, power and politics, issues of gender and ethnicity, uses of place and space and impacts of new media and communications. Simultaneously offering an accessible introduction and a range of new contributions to the subject area, Youth Cultures will appeal to both students and academics within a range of disciplines, including sociology, media and cultural studies, youth studies and popular music studies.

  • Hodkinson P. (2002) Goth. Identity, Style and Subculture. London : Berg Publishers


    Goths represent one of the most arresting, distinctive and enduring subcultures of recent times. The dedication of those involved to a lifestyle which, from the outside, may appear dark and sinister, has spawned reactions ranging from admiration to alarm. Until now, no one has conducted a full-scale ethnographic study of this fascinating subcultural group. Based on extensive research by an 'insider', this is the first. Immersing us in the potent mix of identities, practices and values that make up the goth scene, the author takes us behind the faade of the goth mystique. From dress and musical tastes to social habits and the use of the internet, Hodkinson details the inner workings of this intriguing group. Defying postmodern theories that claim media and commerce break down substantive cultural groupings, Hodkinson shows how both have been used by goths to retain, and even strengthen, their group identity. Hodkinson provides a comprehensive reworking of subcultural theory, making a key contribution to the disciplines of sociology, cultural studies, youth studies, media studies, and popular music studies. Readable and accessible, this groundbreaking book presents a unique chance to engage with a contemporary, spectacular culture.

Book chapters

  • Hodkinson P. (2015) 'Contextualizing the Spectacular'. in Dhoest A, Malliet S, Segaert B, Haers J (eds.) The Borders of Subculture: Resistance and the Mainstream London : Routledge , pp. 5-16.
  • Hodkinson P. (2015) 'Sociology: From Committing to Being?'. in Twamley K, Doidge M, Scott A (eds.) Sociologists' Tales Contemporary narratives on sociological thought and practice Cambridge : Policy Press , pp. 135-142.
  • Garland JM, Hodkinson P. (2014) 'Alternative Subcultures and Hate Crime'. in Hall N, Corb A, Grieve J, Giannasi P (eds.) The International Handbook of Hate Crime London : Routledge Article number 18 , pp. 226-236.
  • Hodkinson P . (2012) 'The Collective Ageing of a Goth Festival'. in Hodkinson P, Bennett A (eds.) Ageing and Youth Cultures: Music, Style and Identity London : Berg Publishers Article number 10


    Some of the work featured in this book focuses on longstanding participants who form a significant but smallish older minority within music and/or style communities which remain somewhat dominated by younger people. In these examples, we might argue that the scenes or communities themselves remain fairly clearly within the category of youth cultures in the traditional sense. In spite of their overall longevity, the membership of such groups has a substantial age-related turnover, through the falling off of many participants during their twenties and their replacement by waves of younger recruits. As many studies within this volume and elsewhere have shown, the continuing participation of a minority in their 30s, 40s and beyond within such longstanding youth cultures provokes important research questions and conclusions. As the first of three chapters on the subject of ageing scenes, however, this chapter considers a related but distinct scenario, one in which whole scenes or subcultures gradually become older. In this situation, ‘continuing scenes’, as Smith puts it, remain, at least to an extent, populated by ‘the same body of continuing participants’ (Smith 2009: 428). Here the tendency for participants to fall away during their twenties is less marked, with substantial numbers remaining involved well into adulthood and towards middle-age. In some cases this may combine with a reduction or arrest in the recruitment of new teenage participants. Rather than finding themselves in a small minority within primarily adolescent cultures, an adult critical mass of participants may find themselves growing up together. This chapter explores a case study of such a scenario in the form of the goth scene and, more specifically, a particular twice yearly goth festival which has been taking place in the seaside town of Whitbyi in the North East of the UK for approximately fifteen years. The goth scene emerged in the early 1980s and has, during its three decades, been centred consistently on distinctive and recognisable forms of dark, macabre music and fashion – most obviously in the form of black hair and clothing. Notwithstanding apparently similar yet somewhat separate recent adolescent developments such as emo, the established goth scene has undergone a substantial increase in its average age, especially since the late 1990s when I first conducted research on the subculture (Hodkinson 2002). This broader change has manifested itself in a particularly concentrated fa

  • Hodkinson P. (2009) 'Spectacular Youth? Young People's Fashion and Style'. in Furlong A (ed.) Handbook of Youth and Young Adulthood Routledge, Taylor & Francis Article number 40


    The ways young people use clothing and other forms of bodily decoration as a means of expressing themselves has been an important focus for researchers of youth culture. There is a degree of agreement among scholars that style offers a means for adolescents to explore and express identity within a transitory period of the life course in which the dependencies of childhood gradually are relinquished without yet having fully been replaced by adult routines and responsibilities. Yet the details of how and why style is used and how this should be theorised and understood are the subject of considerable debate. This chapter outlines key elements of such debates, beginning with the influential work of a well known group of theorists from Birmingham, UK and developing a number of points of discussion which continue to dominate contemporary research of the subject.

  • Hodkinson P. (2009) 'Youth Cultures: A Critical Outline of Key Debates'. in Hodkinson P, Deicke W (eds.) Youth Cultures: Scenes, Subcultures and Tribes Routledge Article number 1
  • Hodkinson P. (2008) 'Grounded Theory and Inductive Research'. in Gilbert N (ed.) Researching Social Life Third Edition. London : Sage Publications Ltd Article number 5 , pp. 80-100.


    This chapter focuses upon the principles and procedures associated with grounded theory, which has become the most well known approach to inductive social research. Having distinguished between inductive and deductive approaches to the development of theory through research in a general sense, the chapter goes on to outline the key features of grounded theory, including the notions of theoretical sampling, coding, constant comparison, and theoretical saturation. The focus here is partly on providing practical information and examples on how to carry out grounded theory research but also on understanding the justifications and arguments offered by proponents for adopting this approach. Having set out such procedures and arguments, we will examine some of the criticisms which have been levelled against grounded theory. It is suggested that, although highly influential, grounded theory is not very often followed to the letter and that – for better or worse – it is more common for researchers to adopt one or more elements associated with approach as part of their efforts to develop theory through research.

  • Hodkinson P. (2007) '“We are all individuals, but we’ve all got the same boots on!” Traces of Individualism within a Subcultural Community'. in Goodlad LME, Bibby M (eds.) Goth: Undead Subculture Duke University Press Books , pp. 322-334.
  • Hodkinson P. (2007) 'Gothic Music and Subculture'. in Catherine SPD, McEvoy E (eds.) The Routledge Companion to Gothic Routledge , pp. 260-269.
  • Hodkinson P. (2006) 'Subcultural Blogging. Online Journals and Group Involvement Among UK Goths'. in Bruns A, Jacobs J (eds.) Uses of Blogs Peter Lang Pub Inc , pp. 187-198.
  • Hodkinson P. (2005) 'Communicating Goth: Online Media'. in Gelder K (ed.) The Subcultures Reader Routledge , pp. 564-574.
  • Hodkinson P. (2004) 'Translocal Connections in the Goth Scene'. in Bennett A, Peterson RA (eds.) Music Scenes: Local, Translocal and Virtual Vanderbilt Univ Pr , pp. 131-148.
  • Hodkinson P. (2004) 'The Goth Scene and (Sub)Cultural Substance'. in Bennett A, Kahn-Harris K (eds.) After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture Palgrave MacMillan , pp. 135-147.
  • Hodkinson P. (2003) '“Net.Goth”. On-line Communications and (Sub)Cultural Boundaries'. in Muggleton D, Weinzierl R (eds.) The Post-Subcultures Reader Berg Publishers , pp. 285-298.


Hodkinson, P. (2015), 'Goths, Depression and Self-Harm: Some Reflections on Bowes et al's Study', Department of Sociology Blog.

Hodkinson, P. (2015), 'Shared parental leave - Can it be made normal?', Department of Sociology Blog.

Hodkinson, P. and Garland, J. (2014), 'Hate Crime Victims? Goths and Targeted Victimisation', Department of Sociology Blog.

Hodkinson, P. (2012) 'Leveson and Press Freedom: Is an Unregulated Press Free?', Blogspot


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