Criminology and criminal justice
The grouping conducts empirical research, together with more theoretically-oriented work, on the nature of crime and deviance, social control and the principal institutions of the criminal justice system in contemporary society. This research area also run the Surrey Crime Research Lab.
- Asset recovery, organised and syndicated crime
- Community, neighbourhood and intelligence led policing
- Cyber and criminal justice system (incorporating the police service, courts and sentencing, prisons and probation)
- Criminal statistics
- Early intervention, anti-social behaviour and social control
- Ethnicity, community and identity
- Hate crime
- Human rights
- Interventions with offenders
- Meta-analysis and realist evaluation techniques
- Methods for researching crime especially survey methodology, advanced quantitative methods, spatial modelling, public opinion research and mixed methods
- Prison effects
- Racism and crime
- Technology and surveillance, securitization and biometrics
- The deployment of female and ethnic minority group police officers impact on community engagement and crime reduction
- Victims of crime, victimization
- Youth justice.
Our research has been funded by research councils in the UK and abroad, central government departments, along with a large number of statutory and non-statutory organizations. The group brings sophisticated research designs to bear on analytically-informed and/or policy-relevant topics in contemporary criminal justice. Methodologically the group's expertise covers the full range from ethnographic field studies to quantitative research methods, the secondary analysis of large datasets and archival qualitative data, and on to evaluation research methods.
Members of the group are currently conducting research on:
- The role of citizens, communities and volunteers in contemporary policing
- The factors influencing levels of prison legitimacy and procedural justice using national survey data of prisoners in England and Wales
- The collateral impact of youth justice punishment orders on parents and other family members
- The nature, extent and impact of hate crime in the city of Leicester
- The nature and impact of targeted victimisation of Goth’s and ‘alternatives’
- The spatial patterning of crime and perceptions of crime
- The role of local neighbourhood context.
Principally carried out by Jon Garland, an internationally recognised hate crime expert, this body of work examines the nature, extent and impact of hate crime victimisation, as well as its causes. Currently Jon is collaborating in the Leicester Hate Crime project, a two-year study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, which is the largest ever study of hate crime victimisation. This project, which is coming towards its conclusion, is investigating not just the experiences of the more ‘recognised’ hate crime victim communities (including those who experience racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic victimization), but also anyone who feels they have been targeted because of who they are. The research includes an extensive online and written survey of the wide range of victim communities, complemented by hundreds of in-depth interviews with victims.
Research in to policing has a long history at the University of Surrey. At the present time Karen Bullock is conducting work on the role of volunteers in policing as well as the police use of social media. Members of the Crime Research Lab are also working alongside colleagues around the country to develop and disseminate knowledge about what is known to be effective in reducing crime as part of the College of Policing's newly established 'What Works Centre for Crime Reduction’. Daniel McCarthy has been conducing work on partnership working, early intervention working, and police cultural change.
Lead by Ian Brunton-Smith with Daniel McCarthy, this project has been examining the role of prison context in shaping prisonerexperience, legitimacy and reoffending. This uses data from a longitudinal cohort of nearly 4,000 prisoners (Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction) linked to the Police National Computer. Multilevel and structural equation models enable us to identify unique prison effects, as well as explore in detail the dynamic nature of prison life. This work has been supported by Ministry of Justice funding.
Daniel McCarthy will be starting a new ESRC funded study exploring the experiences of the parents of young people leaving custody in July 2015.
Ian Brunton-Smith is working to identify and explain the impact that street-segment character and neighbourhood context has in shaping crime and local residents’ perceptions of crime. This involves the application of complex geo-spatial and multilevel models to recorded crime and crime survey data. The work is currently supported by a British Academy grant.
Principally led by Michael McGuire, this research area is focused on understanding and evidencing the growing impacts of technology - not just upon offending, but the criminal justice process as a whole. Current research is focused upon several thematic areas: 1) Developing a more sophisticated understanding of digital or cyber crime and more effective responses to this. Amongst various projects under this theme can be included; an international working group on cybercrime aimed at setting out new cyber crime research methods for the coming decade; work with the Surrey Centre for Cyber Security on mapping and responding to the emerging phenomenon of Cloud based offending; and research into the nature and form of organised crime online. 2) Creating a more comprehensive approach to technology crime and control, in order to extend understanding beyond the use and misuse of digital technologies. One output here will be the forthcoming Handbook of Technology, Crime and Justice (Routledge, 2015) which brings together international experts across the fields of chemical, biological, nuclear, and other technologies to offer a state of the art analysis of their criminal significance. 3) Analysis of the implications of automation for crime and its control - for example algorithmic based crime prevention tools. 4) Developing new frameworks for more effective handling of technology dependent evidence in the courtroom.
Previous research undertaken by members of the lab includes studies of criminal careers; criminal investigation, including the investigation of murder, and the conduct of major incident inquiries; role conflict in probation officers; the training of probation officers; joint police/social work investigation of child sexual abuse; rural racism; football hooliganism; and the collaborative networks of different criminal justice agencies tackling low-level disorder.
Start date: February 2018
End date: March 2020
The University of Surrey has been commissioned by the Office of the Sussex Police and Crime Commissioner to undertake an independent evaluation of the Video Enabled Justice (VEJ) programme. The VEJ programme involves the pilot implementation of new digital and video technology in magistrates’ courts and police custody suites including: a new digital booking tool designed to identify and reduce time gaps between cases; and the installation of new video technology in police custody suites.
The evaluation will document the conduct of first appearances, breach of bail and arrest warrant hearings both before and after the implementation of new digital and video equipment. These hearings will involve defendants detained in police custody, appearing either via a video link from custody suites, or in person at magistrates’ courts. Comparative analysis of hearings conducted in face-to-face mode and in VEJ video-enabled mode, both before and after the implementation of the new equipment, will support a systematic appraisal of the differences and similarities as experienced by courtroom participants between these modes.
The evaluation will assess the extent to which quantitative and qualitative benefits of the new digital and video equipment have been achieved. It will also identify any unintended consequences or issues resulting from the pilot initiative. Overall, the evaluation aims to inform the optimisation of the affordances offered by the VEJ platform and system.
The evaluation will triangulate both primary and secondary quantitative and qualitative data. The main stages of the research will involve:
- Desk-based research to appraise the policy context and review of the academic and practitioner literature bases.
- Systematic observations of the ‘before’ stage prior to the VEJ pilot, including video-enabled hearings with old-style technology and traditional face-to-face hearings.
- Systematic observations of the ‘after’ stage following the implementation of the VEJ pilot, including video enabled hearings with the new-style technology and traditional face-to-face hearings.
- The systematic observations will be analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential models, triangulated against qualitative field data.
- Semi-structured interviews with legal professionals, lay participants and other individuals with relevant knowledge and/or experience of the magistrates' courts.
- Analysis of secondary quantitative data.
Our previous research projects have been wide ranging and include studies of criminal careers; criminal investigation, including the investigation of murder, and the conduct of major incident inquiries; attitudes to date rape and relationship rape; criminal statistics and risk prevention; police training and socialisation, including international comparative research; the training of lawyers; role conflict in probation officers; the training of probation officers; joint police/social work investigation of child sexual abuse; community policing; Community Service; moral reform movements; police relations with violent children and adolescents; factors affecting the size of the prison population; parole; police decision-making in neighbourhood disputes; police relations with ethnic minorities; children convicted of grave crimes; the public's role in crime prevention; resignation factors in the police and the extent of local area drug misuse.
Start date: 1 July 2013
End date: 31 October 2013
Following a number of recent high profile cases which have brought into question the integrity of the police in England and Wales (e.g. Hillsborough Independent Panel and Leveson Inquiry), the government and the police service is looking to raise standards of ethical behaviour across the service. Together with the psychology department Dr Karen Bullock has been conducting a review of the literature on what interventions, processes and levers might be effective in preventing wrongdoing in organisations. The purpose is to highlight policies or practices aimed at raising the standards of ethical behaviour across the police service.
College of Policing
Start date: 1 April 2015
End date: 31 March 2016
While there has been academic discussion about the impact of religion on the formation and effect of law and public policy in contemporary British society, there has been little discussion of the role of religion and faith in policing (McFadyen and Prideaux, 2013). However, a sensitivity towards religion in policing has become seen as essential for ensuring that the police service understand and respond to the concerns of faith groups - through faith-sensitive approaches to tackling crime problems - and is accountable to them. Furthermore, faith groups are increasingly seen as well positioned to understand citizens’ needs, provide a focal point around which services can be organised and delivered, and to marshal support and activity relating to crime control at the local level. Therefore, police engagement with faith groups has become seen as a way of building trust and confidence, and promoting dialogue and information exchange, in ways that are central to effective crime prevention and enforcement of the criminal law. Although faith groups are a key facet of civil society (Putnam, 2000) and the role of faith groups in policing is enthusiastically encouraged by governments (NPIA, 2010; Home Office, 2004 & 2010), little is known about how officers understand faith and its place in policing, the needs of faith groups, or the nature of the relationship between faith groups and constabularies. It is far from clear whether officers can identify, engage with, and motivate faith groups in order to co-produce crime control. There is also scant knowledge about the factors which structure the decision-making of faith groups in respect of whether to engage with constabularies, how this decision-making might differ between faith groups, or the quality of any information exchange and dialogue between faith groups and police. Where faith groups are motivated to work with constabularies, nothing is known about the implications for and impact on the quality and equality, transparency and accountability, of crime control.
The aims of the research are:
- To give an account of the relationship between faith groups and constabularies which explains the role played by faith groups in practices of crime control
- To assess how the relationship between faith groups and constabularies influences the policing of faith groups
- To assess the implications of the relationship between faith and policing in respect of social (in)equality and human rights
- To tease out the consequences for autonomy, transparency and accountability in policing
- To contribute to the development of policy and practice.
- Karen Bullock
- Paul Johnson
Start date: 1 June 2015
End date: 31 December 2018
The project is focused on the impacts which child custody has on the broader family post-release from prison. Using a methodological combination of in-depth interviews with parents and qualitative social network analysis, the project will investigate ways parental social networks are shaped and re-shaped as a result of having a child imprisoned, together with exploring the wider social and psychological impacts which prison resettlement has on family members related to the offender.
Economic and Social Research Council
Start date: 1 June 2015
End date: 1 June 2016
The Police Dependants’ Trust (PDT) provides welfare support to police officers and their families in the event than an officer is killed or seriously incapacitated while on duty. The University of Surrey has been commissioned by the PDT to undertake a one-year research project designed to assist in identifying ways of providing more support in the event of an injury or death, helping to bolster the wider police efficiency agenda.
The research will explore the existing level of support provided following an injury on duty, as well as identifying gaps in provision. To achieve these objectives the research will:
- Develop a map of current typical officer pathways at force level following injury whilst on duty
- Identify key points of risk along the pathway which may create a vulnerability for either the officer, force or their dependants
- Map the current services that are typically available to mitigate the risks at force level including identifying statutory support available
- Identify gaps in provision which can be used to inform development of the PDT grants programme
The project will utilise both quantitative and qualitative techniques and engage with a broad range of stakeholders, including those who have been injured on duty, to gain an in-depth understanding of their experiences around injury and the support available.
The main stages of the research will involve:
- Desk-based research to map the level of service provision, appraise policy context and review academic and practitioner literature bases
- Online survey of police officers, PCSOs, staff and special constables
- Semi-structured interviews with police officers, PCSOs, staff and special constables who have experienced an injury whilst on duty
Start date: 2 September 2013
End date: 30 September 2016
Work has begun on the three year What Works Centre for Crime Reduction funded by the ESRC and Home Office in partnership with the College of Policing. The Centre is one of several What Works Centre instigated by the Cabinet Office to develop an evidence base for central government policy. The aim of this centre is to provide synthesis, evaluation and communication of the evidence base in support of policy implementation in the crime reduction arena. The primary customers for the outputs of the centre will be decision-makers and practitioners. Our aim to develop a strong evidence base for crime reduction and we will focus on mapping and assessing the quality of the evidence base and ranking interventions in terms of evidence strength, cost and crime reduction impact. The Centre will also include training for practitioners on evidence appraisal and an evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Centre. The Centre, which comprises leading universities from across the UK, further seeks to position the UK as a global destination for evidence-based crime reduction training. This is an important step towards sustained improvements in the evidence base for crime reduction and its application in the public, private and voluntary sectors. Drawing on international good practice, it will build on and enhance the UK’s capacity to develop, disseminate and apply evidence-based approaches to crime reduction. Primary outputs from the centre will be tools and guidance to help decision makers and practitioners.
- Nigel Fielding
- Karen Bullock
- Jane Fielding
Start date: 10 September 2012
End date: 9 September 2014
This two-year study will examine the experiences and expectations of those who are victimised because of their identity, vulnerability or perceived 'difference' in the eyes of the perpetrator. By exploring hate crime in a broader sense of 'targeted victimisation', the project aims to investigate the experiences of the more ‘recognised’ hate crime victim communities, including those who experience racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic victimisation, as well as those who are marginalised from existing hate crime scholarly and policy frameworks. The study will also investigate respondents’ perceptions of criminal justice agencies and other service providers in order to assess the needs of victims and to identify lessons for effective service delivery
- Dr N Chakraborti
- Mr J Garland
Brunton-Smith, I., Sutherland, A., and Jackson, J. (2014) ‘Bridging structure and perception; On the social ecology of beliefs and worries about neighbourhood violence in London’ British Journal of Criminology. 54(4): 503-526.
Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J., and Sutherland, A. (2014) ‘The Role of Neighbourhoods in Shaping Crime and Perceptions of Crime’ in van Ham, M., and Manley, D. (eds) Neighbourhood Effects or Neighbourhood based Problems? A Policy Context. Springer.
Brunton-Smith, I., and Hopkins, K. (2014) ‘The impact of experience in prison on the employment status of prisoners after release: Findings from the first 3 waves of Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR)’. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice
Brunton-Smith, I., Carpenter, J., Kenward, M., and Tarling, R. (2014) ‘Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) Using multiple imputation to recover missing data from the SPCR’. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice
Bullock, K.(Online first) 'Diversity in the Special Constabulary'. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice.
Bullock, K., and Leeny, D. (Online first) 'On matters of balance: An examination of the deployment, motivation and management of the Special Constabulary'. Policing and Society.
Bullock, K. (2014) Citizens, Community and Crime Control. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bullock, K. (2014) 'Criminal benefit, the confiscation order and the post-conviction confiscation regime'. Crime, Law and Social Change: 62(1): 45-64
Bullock, K. and Sindall, K. (2014) 'The Nature and Extent of Citizen Participation in Neighbourhood Policing'. Policing and Society: 24(4): 385-404
Bullock, K. (2014) 'Integrated Approaches to Domestic violence? An Exploration of the Role of the Victim and Women’s Safety Work in Cognitive-Behavioural Programmes'. The Probation Journal, 61(1): 27-43
Bullock, K., and Lister, S. (2014) Post-conviction Confiscation of Assets in England and Wales: Rhetoric and Reality, in C. King and C. Walker (eds). Dirty Assets: Emerging Issues in the Regulation of Criminal and Terrorist Assets. London: Ashgate.
Garland J., and Chakraborti N. (2014) Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research. Bristol: Policy Press.
Garland J., and Hodkinson P. (2014) '“F**king Freak! What the hell do you think you look like?” Experiences of Targeted Victimisation Among Goths and Developing Notions of Hate Crime'. The British Journal of Criminology, 54(4): 613-631.
Garland J.,and Hodkinson P. (2014) 'Alternative Subcultures and Hate Crime'. in Hall N, Corb A., Grieve J., and Giannasi P (eds.) The International Handbook of Hate Crime. London: Routledge. pp. 226-236.
Garland J., and Rowe M. (2014) 'The Hollow Victory of Antiracism in English Football'. in Treadwell J., and Hopkins M (eds.) Football Hooliganism, Fan Behaviour and Crime, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 92-105.
Hopkins, K., and Brunton-Smith, I. (2014) ‘Prisoners’ experience of prison and outcomes on release: Results from Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR)'. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice
McCarthy, D, J. (2014) 'Soft' Policing: The Collaborative Control of Anti-Social Behaviour, Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan
McCarthy, D, J., and O’Neill, M. (2014) 'The Police and Partnership Working: Reflection on Recent Research', Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice,
McCarthy, D, J. (2014) 'Revisiting Revolutions in Youth Justice', Criminal Justice Matters, 97(1): 16-17.
McGuire, M. (2014) 'Putting the 'Cyber' into Cyber-terrorism: Re-reading Technological Risk in a Hyperconnected World' in Cyberterrorism: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer.
O’Neill, M., and McCarthy, D, J. (2014) ‘(Re)Negotiating Police Culture through Partnership Working: Trust, Compromise and the ‘New’ Pragmatism’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 14(2): 143-159.
Sturgis, P., Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J., and Kuha, J. (2014) ‘Ethnic diversity and the social cohesion of neighbourhoods in London’ Journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(8): 1286-1309.
Brunton-Smith, I., and Hopkins, K. (2013) ‘The factors associated with reconviction following release from prison: Findings from the first 3 waves of Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR)'. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice
Bullock, K., and Condry, R. (2013) Responding to Denial, Minimization and Blame in Correctional Settings: The "Real World' Implications of Offender Neutralizations, European Journal of Criminology. 10(5): 572-590.
Bullock, K. (2013) Community, Intelligence-led Policing and Crime Control, Policing and Society. 23(2): 125-144.
Bullock, K., and Leeney, D. (2013) Participation, ‘Responsivity’ and Accountability in Neighbourhood Policing, Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): 199-214.
Bullock, K. (2013) Intelligence Led Policing and the National Intelligence Model, in J. Brown (ed). The Future of Policing. London: Routledge
McCarthy, D, J. (2013) 'Gendering ‘Soft’ Policing: Female Cops, Multi-Agency Working, and the Fragilities of Police Culture/s’, Policing and Society, 23(2): 262-278.
McGuire, M. (2013) 'Technomia and the Biochemical Citizen', Deviance et Societe, 3.
McGuire, M. (2013) 'Cybercrime - A Review of the Evidence', HOS/11/047. Home Office.
McGuire, M. (2013) 'Counting the Cost of E-Crime', British Retail Consortium, Research Report.
Millie, A., and Bullock, K. (2013) 'Policing in a Time of Contraction and Constraint: Re-imagining the Role and Function of Contemporary Policing', Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): 133-142.
Sutherland, A., Brunton-Smith, I., and Jackson, J. (2013) ‘Collective efficacy and violence in London’ British Journal of Criminology, 53(6): 1050-1074.
Brunton-Smith, I., and Jackson, J. (2012) ‘Chapter 2 - Urban Fear and its Roots in Place’ in Ceccato, V. (ed) Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear. Springer.
Bullock, K., and Leeney, D. (2012) Public Concern about Organised Crime, Crime Prevention and Community Safety. 14(4): 287-292.
Bullock, K., and Johnson, P. (2012) The Impact of the Human Rights Act on the Police Service in England and Wales, British Journal of Criminology. 52(3): 630-650.
McGuire, M. (2012) Technology, Crime and Justice. London: Taylor-Francis.
McGuire, M. (2012) 'Organised Crime in the Digital Age (II)', John Grieve Centre for Policing/Detica BAE.
Millie, A., and Bullock, K. (2012) Re-imagining policing post-austerity. British Academy Review, 19: 16-18.
Brunton-Smith, I., and Sturgis, P. (2011) ‘Do neighborhoods generate fear of crime?: An empirical test using the British Crime Survey’. Criminology, 49(2): 331-369.
Brunton-Smith, I. (2011) ‘Untangling the relationship between fear of crime and perceived disorder: Evidence from a longitudinal study of young people in England and Wales’. British Journal of Criminology, 51(6): 885-899.
Bullock, K. (2011) Responding to Anti-social Behaviour: Analysis, Interventions and the Transfer of Knowledge, Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal. 13(1): 1-15.
Bullock, K. (2011) The Construction and Interpretation of Risk Technologies in Contemporary Probation Practice. British Journal of Criminology. 51(1): 120-135.
Garland J., and Bilby, C. (2011) ''What Next, Dwarves?': Images of Police Culture in Life on Mars'. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(2): 115-132.
McCarthy, D, J. (2011) 'Classing Early Intervention: Social Class, Occupational Moralities and Criminalization', Critical Social Policy, 31(4): 495-516.
McGuire, M. (2011) 'Organised Crime in the Digital Age (I)', John Grieve Centre for Policing/Detica BAE.
McGuire, M. (2011) 'Abnormal Law: Teratology as a Logic of Criminalisation', in The Structure of Criminal Wrongs, Volume II.
Treadwell J., and Garland J. (2011) ‘Masculinity, marginalisation and violence: A case study of the English Defence League’. The British Journal of Criminology, 51(4): 621-634.
Brunton-Smith, I., Sindall, K., and Tarling, R. (2010) ‘The Effect of Demographic Make-up on Perceptions of Antisocial Behaviour in London as Measured by the British Crime Survey and 2008 Place Survey’. Government Office for London.
Bullock, K., Clarke, R., and Tilley, N. (2010) Situational Prevention of Organised Crime. Cullompton: Willan.
Bullock, K. (2010) Enforcing Financial Penalties: The Case of Confiscation Orders, The Howard Journal. 49(4): 328-339.
Bullock, K., and Ekblom, P. (2010) Richness, Retrievability and Reliability – Issues in a Working Knowledge Base for Good Practice in Crime Prevention, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 16(1): 29-47.
Bullock, K. (2010) The Confiscation Investigation, Policing: An International Journal of Policy and Practice. 4(1): 7-14.
Bullock, K. (2010) Improving Accessibility and Accountability – Neighbourhood Policing and the Policing Pledge, Safer Communities: International Journal of Community Safety. 9(1): 10-19.
Bullock, K. (2010) Generating and Using Community Intelligence: The Case of Neighbourhood Policing. The International Journal of Police Science and Management. 12(1): 1-11.
Bullock, K., Sarre, S., Tarling, R., and Wilkinson, M. (2010) An Implementation Study of the delivery of Domestic Abuse Programmes in Probation Areas and Her Majesty’s Prison Service. Ministry of Justice Research Series 15/10. London: Ministry of Justice.
Chakraborti N., and Garland J. (2012) 'Reconceptualizing hate crime victimization through the lens of vulnerability and 'difference''. Theoretical Criminology, 16(4): 499-514.
Garland J. (2012) 'Difficulties in defining hate crime victimization'. International Review of Victimology, 18(1): 25-37.
Garland J., and Chakraborti N. (2012) 'Divided by a common concept? Assessing the implications of different conceptualizations of hate crime in the European Union'. European Journal of Criminology, 9(1): 38-51.
Garland J., and Treadwell J. (2012) 'The New Politics of Hate? An Assessment of the Appeal of the English Defence League Amongst Disadvantaged White Working Class Communities in England'. Journal of Hate Studies, 10(1): 123-141.
Garland J. (2010) '‘It’s a Mosher Just Been Banged for No Reason’: Assessing the Victimisation of Goths and the Boundaries of Hate Crime'. International Review of Victimology, 17(2): 159-177.
McCarthy, D, J. (2010) 'Self-Governance or Professionalized Paternalism? The Police, Contractual Injunctions, and the Management of Deviant Populations', The British Journal of Criminology, 50(5): 896-913.
McGuire, M. (2010) 'Sharpes Monsters and the English Law', Journal of Social and Legal Studies.
McGuire, M. (2010) 'Online Surveillance and Personal Freedom' in Jewkes, Y., and Yar, M. The Handbook of Internet Crime. Willan.
Rowe M., and Garland J. (2012) 'Paying the price? Why football still has a problem: Mike Rowe and Jon Garland assess the ongoing presence of racism in football'. Criminal Justice Matters, 88(1): 30-31.
Brunton-Smith, I., and Allen, J. (2009) ‘Chapter 3 - Measuring Crime’ In M. Bulmer, J. Gibbs and L. Hyman (eds) Social Measurement through Social Surveys: an Applied Approach, Ashgate.
Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2009) Born to Fail? Policing, Reform and Neighbourhood Problem-Solving, The Police Journal. 83(2): 117-130.
Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2009) Police Reform: the Prospects for Evidence Based Policing and Crime Reduction, Policing: An International Journal of policy and Practice. 381-387.
Bullock, K., Chowdhury, R., and Hollings, P. (2009) Public Concerns about Organised Crime. Home Office Research Report 16. London: Home Office.
Bullock, K., Mann, D., Street, R., and Coxon, C. (2009) Examining attrition in confiscating the proceeds of crime. Home Office Research Report 17. London: Home Office.
Chakraborti N., and Garland J. (2009) Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses. London: Sage.
McCarthy, D, J. (2009) Policing and the Poetics of Everyday Life (Review), Policing and Society, 19(4): 493-4.
Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2008) Understanding and Tackling Gang Violence. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal. 10(1): 36-47.
Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2008) 'Problem-oriented Policing', in A. Wakefield, A Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage.
McGuire, M. (2008) Hypercrime: The New Geometry of Harm. Routledge-Cavendish.