Carol Woodhams

Professor Carol Woodhams

Professor of Human Resource Management and Head of Department of People and Organisations
+44 (0)1483 682006
42 MS 03
Thursdays 10 - 11


Affiliations and memberships

Committee Member British Academy of Management Gender in Management Special Interest Group
I hold the Past Chair position of the Gender and Diversity in Management Special Interest Group at the European Academy of Management and chaired it between 2007 and 2011. I have been on the Committee (Treasurer) of the British Academy of Management Gender in Management Special Interest Group since its inception in 2006.
Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development


Research interests

Research projects

My teaching

My publications


CAROL WOODHAMS, Mark Williams , Jane Dacre , Ira Parnerkar , Mukunda Sharma (2021)A retrospective observational study of ethnicity-gender pay gaps among hospital and community health service doctors in England., In: BMJ open BMJ

Objectives: To identify differences in average basic pay between groups of National Health Service (NHS) doctors cross-classified by ethnicity and gender. Analyse the extent to which characteristics (grade, specialty, age, hours etc.) can explain these differences. Design: Retrospective observational study using repeated cross-section design. Setting: Hospital and Community Health Services (HCHS) in England. Participants: All HCHS doctors in England employed by the NHS between 2016 and 2020 appearing in the Digital Electronic Staff Record dataset (average N=99,953 per year). Main outcome measures. Hours-adjusted full-time equivalent pay gaps; given as raw data and controlled for demographic, job, and workplace characteristics (such as grade, specialty, age, whether British nationality, region) using multivariable regression and statistical decomposition techniques. Results. Pay gaps relative to white men vary with the ethnicity-gender combination. Indian men slightly out-earn white men and Bangladeshi women have a 40% pay gap. In most cases, pay gaps can largely be explained by characteristics that can be measured, especially grade, with the extent varying by specific ethnicity-gender group. However, a portion of pay gaps cannot be explained by characteristics that can be measured. Conclusions. This study presents new evidence on ethnicity-gender pay gaps among NHS doctors in England using high quality administrative and payroll data. The findings indicate all ethnicity-gender groups earn less than white men on average, except for Indian men. In some cases, these differences cannot be explained giving rise to discussions about the role of discrimination.