Dr Harriet Tenenbaum

Reader in Developmental Psychology
PhD, University of California, Santa Cruz
+44 (0)1483 689442
07 AC 05
Student consultation and feedback: M 10-12 and by appt

University roles and responsibilities

  • Director of Learning and Teaching

    Business, industry and community links

    British Journal of Developmental Psychology


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    My teaching

    Courses I teach on

    Postgraduate taught

    My publications


    Journal articles

    Alsamih, M., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Rusconi, P. (in press). How do Saudi children and their mothers evaluate religion-based exclusion? Journal of Child and Family Studies.

    Ingoglia, S., Barrett, M. B., Iannello, N., Inguglia, C., Liga, F., Grazia Lo Cricchio, M., Tenenbaum, H. R., Wiium, N., Lo Coco, A. (2021). Promoting democratic and intercultural competences in the primary school context: The experience of “Children’s Voices for a new Human Space.” Journal of Clinical and Developmental Psychology, 3 (1), 45-57.

    Cameron, L., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (in press). Lessons from developmental science to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 restrictions on social development. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leonard, H. C. (in press). Motor skills predict faux pas understanding in childhood. Infant and Child Development.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Winstone, N. E., Leman, P. J., & Avery, R. E. (in press). How effective is peer learning? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology.

    Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (in press). Gender comparisons in mother-child emotion talk: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles.

    Hirst, S., Hepper, E., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (in press). Attachment dimensions and forgiveness of others: A meta-analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.

    Gilles, J. K., Elisha, I., Ruck, M. R., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Willenberg, I. (in press). Does situation matter in conceptions of children's nurturance and self-determination rights? An examination of South African children's and mothers' perspectives. International Journal of Children’s Rights.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Leman, P. J., Aznar, A., Duthie, R., & Killen, M. (2018). Young people’s reasoning about exclusion in novel groups. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 175, 1-16.

    Alsamih, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2018). Saudi Arabian children's reasoning about religion-based exclusion. British Journal of Developmental Psychology.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Capelos, T., Lorimer, J., & Stocks, T. (2018). Positive thinking elevates tolerance: Experimental effects of happiness on adolescents’ attitudes towards asylum seekers. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

    Robnett. R. D., Wertheimer, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2018). Does a woman’s marital surname choice influence perceptions of her husband? An analysis focusing on gender-typed traits and relationship power dynamics. Sex Roles.

    Fidalgo, A. M., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Aznar, A. (2018). Are there gender differences in emotion comprehension? Analysis of the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 1065-1074.

    Strohmeier, D., Barrett, M. D., Bora, C., Caravita, S., Donghi, E., Dragoti E., Fife-Schaw, C. R., Gómez-López, M., Kapéter, E., Mazzone, A., Rama R., Roşeanu G., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Steiner H., Trip, S., Tenenbaum, H. R., Urhane, D., &Viejo, C. (2017). Young people’s engagement with the European Union: The importance of visions and worries for the future of Europe. Journal of Psychology / Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225, 313-325

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Leman, P. J., & Aznar, A. (2017). Children’s reasoning about peer and school segregation in a diverse society Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 358-365.

    To, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., and Hogh, H. (2017). Secondary school students’ reasoning about evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54, 247-273.

    Lindell, A. K., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Aznar, A. (2017). Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3 – 7 years. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 22, 17-30.

    To, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Wormald, D. (2016). What do parents and children talk about at a natural history museum? Curator, 59, 369-385.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Hohenstein, J. M. (2016). Parent-child talk about the origins of living things. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150: 314-329.

    Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2016). Parent-child positive touch: Gender, age, and task differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40, 317-333.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., To, C., Wormald, D., Pegram, E. (2015). Changes and stability in reasoning after a field trip to a natural history museum. Science Education, 99, 1073-1091.

    Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2015). Gender differences in parent-child emotion talk. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33,148-155.

    Willenberg, I. A., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2014). “It’s not like in apartheid”: South African children’s knowledge of their rights. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 22, 446–466.

    Van Herwegen, J., Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2014). The use of emotions in narratives in Williams Syndrome. Journal of Communication Disorders, 50, 1-7.

    Ruck, M. D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2014). Does moral and social conventional reasoning predict British young people’s judgments about the rights of asylum-seeker youth? Journal of Social Issues, 70, 47-62, DOI: 10.1111/josi.12046.

    Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2013). Spanish parents’ emotion talk and their children’s understanding of emotion. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00670.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2012). British adolescents' and young adults' understanding and reasoning about the religious and non-religious rights of asylum-seeker youth. Child Development, 83, 1102-1115.

    Møller, S. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Danish majority children’s reasoning about exclusion based on gender and ethnicity. Child Development, 82, 520-532.

    Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., Aldrich, N. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning?, Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 1-18.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Ford, S., & Alkhedairy, B. (2011). Telling stories: Gender differences in peers’ emotion talk and communication style, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 707-721.

    Ruck, M. D., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Willenberg, I. (2011). South African mixed-race children’s and mothers’ judgments and reasoning about children’s nurturance and self-determination rights. Social Development, 20, 517-535.

    Leman, P. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Practising gender: Children’s relationships and the development of gendered behaviour and beliefs.  British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 153-157.

    Aldrich, N. J., Tenenbaum, H. R., Brooks, P. J., Harrison, K., & Sines, J. (2011). Perspective-taking in children's narratives about jealousy, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 86-109.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Prior, J., Dowling, C., & Frost, R. E. (2010). Supporting parent-child conversations in a history museum. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 241-254.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Hill, D. B., Joseph, N., & Roche, E.  (2010). "It's a boy because he's painting a picture": Age differences in children's conventional and unconventional gender schemas. British Journal of Psychology,101, 137-154.

    Tenenbaum, H. R. (2009). “You’d Be Good at that”: Gender patterns in parent-child talk about courses. Social Development, 18, 447-463.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Callanan, M. A. (2008). Parents’ science talk to their children in Mexican-descent families residing in the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 1-12.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., & Dunne, G. (2008). The role of explanatory conversations in children’s emotion understanding. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 249-263.

    Frisina, P.G., Borod, J. C., Foldi, N.S., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2008). Depression in Parkinson’s disease: Health risks, etiology, and treatment options. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4.

    Frisina, P. G., Tenenbaum, H. R., Borod, J. C., & Foldi, N. (2008). A meta-analytic study of the effects of TCAs, SSRIs, and MAOs on the health outcomes of Parkinson’s disease patients. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 5, 667-682.

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., Tenenbaum, H. R., Koepke, M., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). Transient and robust knowledge: Contextual support and the dynamics of children’s reasoning about density.  Mind, Brain, and Education, 1, 98-108.

    Ruck, M. D., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Sines, J. (2007). Brief report: British adolescents’ views about the rights of asylum-seeking children. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 687-693.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2007). Do teachers hold different expectations for ethnic minority than for European-American children?: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 253-273.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Porche, M. V., Snow, C. E., Ross, S., & Tabors, P. (2007). Maternal and child predictors of low-income children’s educational attainment, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 227-238.

    Aldrich, N. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2006). Anger, sadness, and frustration: Gendered patterns in early adolescents’ and their parents’ emotion talk. Sex Roles, 55, (11-12), 775-785.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Snow, C. E., Roach, K., & Kurland, B. (2005). Talking and reading science: Longitudinal data on sex differences in mother-child conversations in low-income families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 1-19.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Visscher, P., Pons, F., & Harris, P. L. (2004). Emotional understanding in Quechua children from an agro-pastoralist village. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 471-478.

    Tenenbaum, H. R.,  Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., & Zanger, V. V. (2004). Children’s learning about water in a museum and a classroom. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 40-58.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2003). Parent-child conversations about science: Socialization of

    gender inequities. Developmental Psychology, 39, 34-47.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2002). Are Parents' Gender Schemas Related to their Children's Gender-Related Cognitions?:  A Meta Analysis. Developmental Psychology, 38, 615-630.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Callanan, M., Alba-Speyer, C., & Sandoval, L. (2002). The Role of Educational Background, Activity, and Past Experiences in Mexican-descent Families' Science Conversations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 225-248.

    Crowley, K., Callanan, M.A., Tenenbaum, H.R., & Allen, E. (2001). Parents explain more often to boys than to girls during shared scientific thinking. Psychological Science, 12, 258-261.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Crosby, F. J., & Gliner, M. D. (2001). Mentoring relationships in graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 326-341.

    Leaper, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Shaffer, T. G.  (1999).  Communication patterns of African-American girls and boys from low-income, urban backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1489-1503.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (1998). Mothers' and fathers' responses to their Mexican-descent child: A sequential analysis.  First Language, 18, 129-147.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (1997). Mothers' and fathers' questions to their child in Mexican-descent families: Moderators of cognitive demand during play. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 318-332.

    Edited books

    Leman, P. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (Eds.) (2014). Gender and Relationships. Routledge: Psych Press.

    Strohmeier, D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (Eds.) (2019). Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.

    Other publications

    Strohmeier, D., Barrett, M. D., Bora, C., Caravita, S., Donghi, E., Dragoti E., Fife-Schaw, C. R., Gómez-López, M., Kapéter, E., Mazzone, A., Rama R., Roşeanu G., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Steiner H., Trip, S., Tenenbaum, H. R., Urhane, D., &Viejo, C. (2019). Predictors of young people‘s engagement with the European Union. In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Barrett, M. D., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2019). What predicts British young people’s views of Europe? In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.

    Strohmeier, D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2019). Young peoples’ engagement with the European Union and their visions and worries for the future of Europe. In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.

    Strohmeier, D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2019). Recommendations to strengthen young peoples’ engagement with the European Union. In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.

    Tenenbaum, H. R & Aznar, A. (2017). Diferencias de género en la expresión emocional en la infancia. [Gender differences in emotion expression in early childhood]. In Marta Giménez-Dasí and L. Quintanilla. Desarrollo Emocional en la Infancia Temprana: Debates Actuales y Retos Futuros. [Emotional Development in Early Childhood: Current Debates and Future Challenges]. Pirámide.

    Aznar, A., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2017). Bullying of religious minorities and asylum seekers.  In H. Cowie and C. Meyers (Eds). School Bullying and Mental Health: Risks, Intervention and Prevention. Routledge.

    Ruck, M. D., Peterson-Badali, M., Elisha, E. M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2017). Children’s voices about children’s rights: Thoughts from developmental psychology. In M. D. Ruck (Ed). The Handbook of Children’s Rights. Routledge.

    Leman, P. J. & Tenenbaum, H. (2017). Communication in children’s and adolescents’ social groups, in A. Rutland, D. Nesdale, & C. S. Brown (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Leaper, C., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2016). Gender socialization in childhood. In K. Nadal. The Sage Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Leman, P. J., Aznar, A., & To, C. (2016). Studying children’s conversation. In J. Van Herwegen and J. Prior (Eds.), Developmental Methods. Oxford: Psychology Press.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & May, D. (2014). Gender in parent-child relationships. In P. J. Leman & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds), Gender Development. Oxford: Psychology Press.

    Leman, P. J. & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2014). Introduction. In P. J. Leman & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds). Gender Development. Oxford, UK: Psychology Press.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., Aznar, A., & Leman, P.J. (2014). Gender differences in language development. In P. J. Brooks & V. Kempe (Eds.),  Encyclopaedia of Language Development. Sage.

    Tenenbaum, H. R. (2013). Editorial. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 1-2.

    Joshi, L. H. with Rosen, G., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Raising Children: The Primary Years. Prentice Hall Life.

    Roberts, R., Bećirević, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2007). Children and war: Making sense of Iraq. (pp. 170-180). In R. Roberts (Ed.), Just War: Psychology, Terrorism, and Iraq. PCCS Books: Ross-on-Wye.

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Aldrich, N. (2005). Gender Differences. In N. A. Salkind (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Human Development. Volume 2, 557-563.

    Callanan, M. A., Alba-Speyer, C., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2000). Linking home and school through children’s questions that followed family science workshops (Research Brief No. 8). Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence.

    Children's books

    Cowie, H., Jones, F., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2021). A School for Everyone: Stories & Lesson Plans to Teach Inclusivity & Social Issues London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

    Cowie, H., Jones, F., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2019). Emily is Being Bullied, What can she do? London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

    Book reviews

    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Hill. D. B. (2006). [Review of Brain Gender]. M. Hines. Oxford, UK: Oxford Press. Feminism and Psychology, 16, 495-501.

    Thompson, R. B. & Tenenbaum, H. (2002). [Review of Culturally Speaking: Managing Rapport Through Talk Across Cultures] H. Spencer-Oatey (Ed.). London, England and New York, NY:  Continuum Press (2000).  Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 183-187.


    Since the Covid-19 pandemic and the resulting social restrictions, children’s peer interactions have been altered. Peer interactions help children learn from each other to develop their understanding of conversation, emotion, and group norms. In addition, friendships can reduce intergroup bias and prejudice and increase independence. In this paper, we review the ways that peers contribute to children’s cognitive and social development in informal and formal settings. Although restrictions are necessary to control the spread of the virus, social restrictions do not have to be the detriment of peer relations.
    Parental responses to transgressions are a mechanism through which self-conscious emotions and social competence are socialised in children. Evidence indicates that inductive parenting is more effective than power assertive parenting in the development of child social competence. Given variation in parental discipline responses, this study examined predictors of the use of these parenting styles. The present study investigated parental shame-proneness, parental perfectionism, and parental acceptance of children’s expression of emotions as predictors of a predominantly inductive or power assertive parenting style. Sixty-nine mothers of typically developing children aged between 5 to 11 years completed an online study. A scenario-based measure of parenting responses to child transgression allowed for the categorisation of mothers into those with a predominantly inductive parenting style and those with a predominantly power assertive parenting style. Measures of mothers’ shame-proneness, perfectionism, and beliefs about children’s emotional expression included the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), the Almost Perfect Scale – Revised (APS-R), and the Parental Beliefs About Children’s Emotions (PBACE) questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analyses found a five-predictor model to be significantly better than a constant only model at predicting a predominantly inductive or power assertive parenting style. The five predictors in the model were parental shame-proneness, parental perfectionistic standards (adaptive perfectionism), parental acceptance of children’s expression of positive emotions, mothers’ level of education, and number of children in the family. The importance of considering these parental predictor variables, particularly shame-proneness, in the development of parenting interventions is discussed.
    Wallinheimo Anna-Stiina (2020)Mental arithmetic and evaluative pressure: the role of distributed cognition University of Surrey
    The purpose of this thesis was to further our understanding of the role of distributed cognition (with the use of pen and paper) in defusing the impact of evaluative pressure caused by priming gender-related stereotypes about girls’ maths performance and performance-approach goals on mental arithmetic performance. Interactivity is the transferring of internal cognitive process (e.g., computing simple maths tasks) to the outside world by using different tools (e.g., pen and paper). Some members of social groups (e.g., women) may not perform well in mathematics after negative stereotypes about their academic performance in the mathematical domain, which is known as stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is the risk of confirming a negative stereotype expectation about one’s group. Another decrement to performance may be caused by achievement goals, such as performance-approach goals. Performance-approach goals are linked to normative behaviour where the individual is motivated by outperforming others in academic performance. Negative stereotyping and performance-approach goals can generate anxiety that deplete existing working memory resources. However, some of these working memory limitations can be compensated by off-loading the internal cognitive process to the external environment. We tested whether off-loading could buffer the effects of stereotype threat and performance-approach goals in four experiments. In Studies 1 (16-year-old girls) and 2 (female university students), participants carried out mental arithmetic tasks in the stereotype threat condition or control, crossed with interactivity or no interactivity. There was increased maths performance (accuracies) with interactivity, confirming existing literature. Additionally, the solution latencies were improved when the mental arithmetic tasks were in a known format. However, when the maths tasks were in a novel format, the participants of the second study became slower because of speed-accuracy trade-off. The first two studies found no statistically significant effects of stereotype threat on maths performance. Nevertheless, working memory in participants in Study 1 was depleted in the stereotype threat condition, but it did not affect mental arithmetic performance. Finally, the participants in the interactive conditions in Study 2 had a reduction of their state maths anxiety levels measured at the end of the experiment. Studies 3 (Pilot Study) and 4 focused on achievement goals and their differing effects on working memory. Female university students carried out modular arithmetic tasks in a performance-approach goal or mastery-approach goal condition crossed with interactivity or no interactivity. Performance-approach goal endorsement hampered cognitive performance, as measured by maths accuracy in Study 3, but not in Study 4. These findings were extended in Study 4 where these negative effects were reduced with the help of interactivity. Across both studies, individuals in the mastery-approach goal condition had a performance drop in the interactive condition (Study 3 and 4). Thus, interactivity did not benefit the cognitive performance of these participants. Finally, Study 4 reported higher maths anxiety levels for the individuals in the performance-approach condition. However, the increased maths anxiety levels were not reduced with the help of distributed cognition. Reasons for the findings and future implications will be discussed.

    Objective: Shame is a secondary self-conscious distressing emotion that can be evoked following experiences of failure. Research indicates potential gender differences in shame responses following failure however findings have been mixed. The current study examined whether gender-stereotypicality of a task was related to anticipated shame following task failure, and whether gender attitudes in mothers and children were related to anticipated shame.

    Design: Mothers and their children completed measures assessing gender stereotyped attitudes. Children were then asked to read six short stories about failing a task (2 male-stereotyped, 2 female-stereotyped, 2 non-stereotyped). Following each story, children were asked to rate how much shame they would experience in the situation.

    Participants: Participants were 28 mother-child dyads recruited from schools in London.

    Results/Findings: ANOVA and correlational analysis were used to explore relationships between mother and child gender attitudes, and feelings of anticipated shame in response to gender-stereotyped and non-gender stereotyped failure. Results suggested a main effect of task, however associations between parent and child gender attitudes were inconsistent.

    Conclusions/Implications: Mostly, the study hypotheses were not supported. Conceptual and methodological critiques are considered, such as validity of the concept of gender stereotyped tasks, task salience and measurement issues. Further research is needed to explore parent-child gender attitudes and the implications of these for the development of self-conscious emotions such as shame.

    Forgiveness is a prosocial mechanism that facilitates both intra- and inter-personal wellbeing. Attachment security has been identified as supporting forgiveness through positive representations of self and other. This thesis examined attachment theory as a framework for understanding forgiveness. This was achieved through two overarching research areas: initial examination of the mechanisms between trait insecure attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) and forgiveness of close other, and the potential of state attachment security (via attachment security priming) as a means of supporting forgiveness. One meta-analysis and four empirical studies examined the influence of insecure attachment dimensions on forgiveness of others. Study 1 was a meta-analysis of 26 studies and demonstrated a small-to-moderate negative effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance on forgiveness of others. Study 2 examined the association between insecure attachment dimensions and forgiveness of a hypothetical relationship partner. Attachment anxiety and avoidance both negatively predicted forgiveness, regardless of severity of transgression and presence/ absence of apology. Indirect effects of rumination, empathy, and negative attributions were present for both attachment anxiety and avoidance, but unique indirect effects were also identified. Fear mediated the anxiety-forgiveness association and motivation to sustain the relationship mediating the avoidance-forgiveness association. This study also clarified the factor structure of forgiveness and related post-transgression responses. Study 3 assessed the efficacy of attachment security priming on boosting forgiveness of a hypothetical transgression and clarified the type of fear that mediates the anxiety-forgiveness association (i.e., fear of losing relationship partner). Attachment security priming successfully boosted Positive Forgiveness but did not reduce the negative effects of Revenge, Avoidance, and Grudge Motivations. Study 4 examined the effect of attachment security priming on forgiveness of an experimentally manipulated transgression using real-life romantic couples in the lab. No effect of prime or transgression was identified. Methodological considerations are discussed. Study 5 examined forgiveness of daily transgressions over a 2-week period and assessed the effect of attachment security priming on forgiveness during this time. Security priming was effective in boosting forgiveness and reducing negative post-transgression responses over the 2-week period, but not at a 2-week follow up. Overall, findings support a negative association between insecure attachment dimensions and forgiveness of relationship partners and highlight the unique role of fear and motivation. This thesis also demonstrates the first use of attachment security priming to boost forgiveness. These findings support the use of attachment theory as a framework for examining when and why we forgive.
    Alsamih Munirah (2020)How Saudi children evaluate religion-based exclusion. University of Surrey
    Peer exclusion is when a group of children exclude another child or reject his or her request to join them (Gazelle & Druhen, 2009). Peer exclusion affects the child's wellbeing and academic achievement. A number of studies have examined how children evaluate peer exclusion based on group membership, for example of the basis of gender and ethnicity, in the US and Europe. However, little work has been done in the Middle East. Moreover, no work has included parents with their children to test the relationship between parents and children. This thesis examined how Saudi children and their mothers evaluate religion-based exclusion. Five studies were carried out to achieve the aim of this thesis. The main aim of these studies was to examine how Saudi children evaluate the exclusion of in-group members (Muslim, Sunni) and out-group members (Shia, non-Muslim) when the perpetrator of the exclusion was their father or their peers. In the first study, Saudi children (N= 92) residing in Saudi Arabia were interviewed. Children were more likely to accept exclusion of out-group members than in-group members. Also, they were more likely to accept exclusion when it was ordered by their father than if it was ordered by a group of peers. In the second study, mothers (N= 60) residing in Saudi Arabia and children were interviewed. There was a significant mother-child relationship only when discussing the exclusion of out-group members. In the third study, Saudi children residing in the UK were interviewed (N= 76) and the findings were similar to the first study; children were more likely to accept the exclusion of out-group members than in-group members and exclusion by their fathers than by peers. In the fourth study, Saudi mothers and children residing in the UK were interviewed. There was no significant mother-child relationship in the evaluation of religion-based exclusion. The final study compared Saudi children and their mothers in Saudi Arabia with Saudi children and their mothers in the UK. Saudis in Saudi Arabia were more accepting of exclusion than Saudis in the UK. Children in Saudi Arabia and in the UK were more likely to accept exclusion than their mothers. Generally, children and their mothers in Saudi Arabia and in the UK were more likely to accept exclusion by the father than by their peers. In summary, the results of this thesis suggest that Saudi fathers play a vital role in affecting children's and mothers' attitudes. Mothers seem to hold more tolerant attitudes than their children. The findings are discussed in relation to Saudi culture and the literature on transmission of attitudes and intergroup contact.
    Tenenbaum Harriet (2018)Positive Thinking Elevates Tolerance: Experimental Effects of Happiness on Adolescents’ Attitudes Towards Asylum Seekers, In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry23(2)pp. 346-357 SAGE Publications
    Inducing emotional reactions toward social groups can influence individuals’ political tolerance. This study examines the influence of incidental fear and happiness on adolescents’ tolerant attitudes and feelings towards Muslim asylum seekers. In our experiment, 219 16- to 21-year-olds completed measures of prejudicial attitudes. After being induced to feel happiness, fear, or no emotion (control), participants reported their tolerant attitudes and feelings toward asylum-seeking young people. Participants assigned to the happiness condition demonstrated more tolerant attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people than did those assigned to the fear or control conditions. Participants in the control condition did not differ from participants in the fear condition. The participants in the happiness condition also had more positive feelings toward asylum-seeking young people than did participants in the control condition. The findings suggest that one way to increase positive attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people is to improve general emotional state.
    Tenenbaum HR, Callanan MA (2008)Parents' science talk to their children in Mexican-descent families residing in the USA, In: International Journal of Behavioral Development32(1)pp. 1-12 Sage
    Everyday parent-child conversations may support children's scientific understanding. The types and frequency of parent-child science talk may vary with the cultural and schooling background of the participants, and yet most research in the USA focuses on highly schooled European-American families. This study investigated 40 Mexican-descent parents' science talk with their children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, range = 2 years 10 months to 8 years 6 months). Parents were divided between a higher schooling group who had completed secondary school, and a basic schooling group who had fewer than 12 years of formal schooling. Parents and children were videotaped engaging with science exhibits at a children's museum and at home. Conversations were coded in terms of parents' explanatory talk. In both contexts, Mexican-descent parents engaged children in explanatory science talk. At the museum, parents in the higher schooling group used more causal explanations, scientific principles explanations, and encouraging predictions types of explanations than did parents in the basic schooling group. By contrast, the only difference at home was that parents in the higher schooling group used more encouraging predictions talk than parents in the basic schooling group. Parents who had been to museums used more explanations than parents who had never visited a museum. The results suggest that while explanatory speech differed somewhat in two groups of Mexican-descent parents varying in formal schooling, all of these children from Mexican-descent families experienced some conversations that were relevant for their developing science literacy. © 2008 Sage Publications.
    Tenenbaum HR, Hill DB, Joseph N, Roche E (2010)'It's a boy because he's painting a picture': Age differences in children's conventional and unconventional gender schemas, In: British Journal of Psychology101(1)pp. 137-154 Wiley
    Two studies investigated the development of children's gender knowledge using a procedure designed to tap into children's unconventional gender beliefs. Study 1 revealed a developmental progression with 34 3- to 4-year-old children providing more unconventional reasons than conventional reasons to explain the gender of a series of drawings. By contrast, 39 5- to 6-year-old and 42 7- to 8-year-old children provided more conventional than unconventional reasons. Study 2 found that a second sample of 423- to 4-year-old children mastered a close-ended assessment of gender stereotyping, while they relied on unconventional and conventional reasoning equally when explaining the gender of a series of drawings displaying conventional cues only. This research supports the model that children's conventional gender schemas do not develop before their unconventional gender schemas. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
    Tenenbaum HR, Prior J, Dowling CL, Frost RE (2010)Supporting parent-child conversations in a history museum, In: British Journal of Educational Psychology80(2)pp. 241-254 Wiley
    Background. Museums can serve as rich resources for families to learn about the social world through engagement with exhibits and parent-child conversation about exhibits. Aims. This study examined ways of engaging parents and child about two related exhibits at a cultural and history museum. Sample participants consisted of families visiting the Animal Antics and the Gone Potty exhibits at the British Museum. Methods. Whilst visiting two exhibits at the British Museum, 30 families were assigned to use a backpack of activities, 13 were assigned to a booklet of activities, and 15 were assigned to visit the exhibits without props (control condition). Results. Compared to the families in the control condition, the interventions increased the amount of time parents and children engaged together with the exhibit. Additionally, recordings of the conversations revealed that adults asked more questions related to the exhibits when assigned to the two intervention conditions compared to the control group. Children engaged in more historical talk when using the booklets than in the other two conditions. Conclusions. The findings suggest that providing support with either booklets or activities for children at exhibits may prove beneficial to parent-child conversations and engagement with museum exhibits. © The British Psychological Society.
    Aznar A, Tenenbaum H (2013)Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion, In: Frontiers in Psychology4670pp. 1-11 Frontiers Research Foundation
    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.
    Møller SJ, Tenenbaum HR (2011)Danish Majority Children's Reasoning About Exclusion Based on Gender and Ethnicity, In: Child Development82(2)pp. 520-532 Wiley
    This study investigated 282 eight- to twelve-year-old Danish majority children's judgments and justifications of exclusion based on gender and ethnicity (i.e., Danish majority children and ethnic-minority children of a Muslim background). Children's judgments and reasoning varied with the perpetrator of the exclusion and the social identity of the target. Children assessed exclusion based on ethnicity as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender and used more moral reasoning for the former than the latter. Children judged it less acceptable for a teacher than a child to exclude a child protagonist. Children were sensitive to status, judging it less acceptable to exclude a less powerful group member. The findings are discussed in relation to intergroup relations in Denmark. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc..
    Leman PJ, Tenenbaum HR (2011)Practising gender: Children's relationships and the development of gendered behaviour and beliefs, In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology29(2)pp. 153-157 Wiley
    Gender, as a topic of study in psychology, can sometimes be treated as a messy inconvenience for researchers who would rather focus on illuminating universal laws of human behaviour.Developmentalists have been no less guilty of this approach than many others. Yet, gender is a topic thatwill not go away, and it will not disappear because it is a ubiquitous and fundamental part of any child’s development. As such, it is hard to imagine how a child can ever develop without gender influencing her behaviour, thinking, or social relationships. Therefore, developmental psychologists should be interested in gender because research demonstrates that from a young age children react to their own and others’ gender and think about gender in complex, subtle, and nuanced ways. By understanding how gender links with relationships across development, we can also come to understand and possibly begin to address an enduring source of inequality in adult social relationships and roles. This Special Issue explores how gender influences children’s and adolescents’ behaviour, communication, and thinking across contexts.
    Aldrich NJ, Tenenbaum HR, Brooks PJ, Harrison K, Sines J (2011)Perspective taking in children's narratives about jealousy, In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology29(1)pp. 86-109 Wiley
    This study explored relationships between perspective-taking, emotion understanding, and children's narrative abilities. Younger (23 5-/6-year-olds) and older (24 7-/8-year-olds) children generated fictional narratives, using a wordless picture book, about a frog experiencing jealousy. Children's emotion understanding was assessed through a standardized test of emotion comprehension and their ability to convey the jealousy theme of the story. Perspective-taking ability was assessed with respect to children's use of narrative evaluation (i.e., narrative coherence, mental state language, supplementary evaluative speech, use of subjective language, and placement of emotion expression). Older children scored higher than younger children on emotion comprehension and on understanding the story's complex emotional theme, including the ability to identify a rival. They were more advanced in perspective-taking abilities, and selectively used emotion expressions to highlight story episodes. Subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence were predictive of children's elaboration of the jealousy theme. Use of supplementary evaluative speech, in turn, was predictive of both subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
    Tenenbaum HR (2009)'You'd be good at that': Gender patterns in parent-child talk about courses, In: Social Development18(2)pp. 447-463 Wiley
    This study examined the parent-child dyad as a context in which children's gender-stereotyped course selections are reinforced. Fifty four children from two age groups (Ms = 10.67 and 12.71 years) and their mothers and fathers selected courses for when children reached secondary school. Afterwards, children and parents discussed their decisions. Parents of sons selected fewer foreign language courses than mathematics, language arts or science courses, whereas parents of daughters selected fewer science and foreign language than mathematics or language arts courses. Girls selected fewer science than language arts courses, whereas boys selected fewer foreign language than mathematics or science courses. Although parents' course selections followed gender-stereotyped patterns for language arts and science, their discouraging comments were not confined to cross-gender-stereotyped domains. Instead, parents made more discouraging comments in general to daughters than to sons. Counter to the hypotheses, daughters made more encouraging comments about science courses than did sons while talking to mothers. The findings suggest that parents and children may show gender-differentiated preferences for children before children are old enough to make course decisions. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2008.
    Alfieri L, Brooks PJ, Aldrich NJ, Tenenbaum HR (2011)Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning?, In: Journal of Educational Psychology103(1)pp. 1-18 American Psychological Association
    Discovery learning approaches to education have recently come under scrutiny (Tobias & Duffy, 2009), with many studies indicating limitations to discovery learning practices. Therefore, 2 meta-analyses were conducted using a sample of 164 studies: The 1st examined the effects of unassisted discovery learning versus explicit instruction, and the 2nd examined the effects of enhanced and/or assisted discovery versus other types of instruction (e.g., explicit, unassisted discovery). Random effects analyses of 580 comparisons revealed that outcomes were favorable for explicit instruction when compared with unassisted discovery under most conditions (d = -0.38, 95% CI [-.44, -.31]). In contrast, analyses of 360 comparisons revealed that outcomes were favorable for enhanced discovery when compared with other forms of instruction (d = 0.30, 95% CI [.23, .36]). The findings suggest that unassisted discovery does not benefit learners, whereas feedback, worked examples, scaffolding, and elicited explanations do. © 2010 American Psychological Association.
    Aznar Ana, Tenenbaum Harriet R. Gender Comparisons in Mother-Child Emotion Talk: A Meta-Analysis, In: Sex Roles Springer Verlag
    Mother-child emotion talk is one of the main ways through which children learn about emotions. Some previous research studies have suggested that mother-child emotion talk is a gendered process, influencing how girls and boys talk about emotions. Despite inconsistent findings in establishing if mothers use different amounts of emotion talk with their daughters and sons, there is no known meta-analysis of the literature examining gender differences in the frequency of mother-child emotion talk. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis is to explore gender comparisons in the frequency of mother-child emotion talk as well as the moderators of these differences. Based on 34 independent group samples (samples of unique individuals) consisting of 3649 participants, no gender differences in the frequency of emotion talk between mothers of daughters and mothers of sons were found. Using a random-effects model, the meta-analysis had a mean weighted effect size of Cohen’s d = .04 (95% CI = [−.05, .13], p = .36). It was not heterogeneous, Qw (33) = 39.36, p = .21. Thus, findings of the present meta-analysis suggest that mother-child emotion talk has not been shown to be gendered, which has implications for children’s socialization of emotions.
    To Cheryl, Tenenbaum Harriet, Hogh H (2016)Secondary School Students’ Reasoning About Evolution, In: Journal of Research in Science Teaching54(2)pp. 247-273 Wiley
    This study examined age differences in young people’s understanding of evolution theory in secondary school. A second aim of this study was to propose a new coding scheme that more accurately described students’ conceptual understanding about evolutionary theory. We argue that coding schemes adopted in previous research may have overestimated students’ grasp of evolutionary concepts.Atotal of 106 students aged 12, 14, and 16 took part in individual interviews investigating their understanding of evolution. Using the newcoding scheme, wefound that while 16-year olds were more likely than 12-year olds to endorse scientific concepts when answering a question about finches, their understanding of natural selection, however, did not generalize to the other four questions. Furthermore, students began to incorporate relevant terminology (e.g., adapt, evolve, etc.) and structure their explanations using relevant language at around age 14. Students often used relevant terminology without having a more advanced understanding of evolutionary theory. Instead, they used the relevant terms in a colloquial rather than a scientific sense. Implications of the current findings for teaching and theory are discussed.
    Tenenbaum Harriet, Leman P, Aznar A (2017)Children's reasoning about peer and school segregation in a diverse society, In: Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology: Growing Up with Diversity: A Social Psychological Perspective27(5)pp. 358-365 Wiley
    This study examined children's reasoning about single‐gender and single‐faith schools and play contexts. Young people (twenty‐three 8‐ to 10‐year‐olds and fifty‐three 12‐ to 14‐year‐olds) were asked to judge and reason about the acceptability of exclusion based on gender and religion by children and school principals. Participants rated exclusion based on gender as more acceptable than based on religion. Exclusion from school contexts was rated as more acceptable than exclusion from play contexts. Participants tended to invoke moral reasons to condemn exclusion when reasoning about religion, whereas they tended to invoke social conventional reasons when reasoning about gender. Young people's greater support for religiously inclusive schooling compared to gender inclusive schooling suggests that societal and governmental acceptance of religious diversity has support from future generations.
    Leman PJ, Tenenbaum HR (2013)Gender and development, In: Gender and Developmentpp. 1-157
    © 2014 Patrick J. Leman and Harriet R. Tenenbaum. All rights reserved.Children are born into a world infused with gendered information. An understanding of what it is to be a boy or girl can be critical in forming social relationships, social identities, and learning how to think and behave. Gender and Development is an important new volume that charts how children practice these gendered identities at different ages and in different social contexts.Taking a socio-cognitive approach, and integrating both theoretical and applied perspectives, the book looks at a range of contexts in which gender affects development and socialisation, from the child's place in the family unit and their interaction with parents and siblings, to the influence of communication with peers over the internet. Throughout the chapters an age-old issue is addressed through a contemporary, empirically focused perspective-namely the nature and extent of equality between the genders, and how difficult it is for attitudes, perceptions and stereotypes to change. Key social issues are covered, including pro-social behaviour, career choice and academic competencies.Gender and Development brings together some of the latest research in this important and enduring field of study. It is a timely and invaluable collection, and will be essential reading for all students and research in developmental psychology, social psychology and gender studies.
    The present study was designed to investigate gender patterns in early adolescents' and their parents' verbal expression of three gender-stereotyped emotions: anger, sadness, and frustration. Parents and their early adolescent children discussed four interpersonal dilemmas and answered questions regarding those dilemmas in mother-child and father-child dyads. Consistent with previous literature regarding gender stereotypes in emotion expression, daughters used a higher frequency of emotion words than sons did during conversations with their mothers and fathers. Additional analyses regarding the three specific emotions under investigation, however, revealed findings that were inconsistent with conventional gender stereotypes. Contrary to expectations, in conversations with fathers, sons used a higher proportion of references to sadness than did daughters. Daughters used a higher proportion of references to frustration than did sons in their conversations with both mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers used a higher proportion of references to frustration with daughters than with sons. No gender differences were found in parents' or children's references to anger. The results call into question culturally accepted gender stereotypes about sadness, anger, and frustration. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
    Robnett Rachael D, Wertheimer Marielle, Tenenbaum Harriet (2017)Does a Woman's Marital Surname Choice Influence Perceptions of Her Husband? An Analysis Focusing on Gender-Typed Traits and Relationship Power Dynamics, In: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research79(1-2)pp. 59-71 Springer Verlag
    Within Western cultures, most women in heterosexual relationships adopt their husbands’ surnames after marriage. In attempting to explain the enduring nature of this practice, researchers have noted that women tend to encounter stereotypes when they break with tradition by retaining their own surnames after marriage. A complementary possibility is that stereotypes are also directed toward men whose wives violate the surname tradition. The current research provides initial insight into this possibility through three studies that were conducted in the United States and United Kingdom with undergraduate and community samples (total n = 355; 254 women and 101 men). Study 1 revealed that participants predominantly referenced expressive traits when describing a man whose wife retained her surname. Study 2 built on these findings with an experimental design. Relative to a man whose wife adhered to the surname tradition, a man whose wife retained her surname was rated as less instrumental, more expressive, and as holding less power in the relationship. In Study 3, participants high in hostile sexism were particularly likely to rate a man as lower in power when his wife retained her surname. Collectively, findings provide insight into attitudes that may help to explain the longevity of the marital surname tradition. Findings also join with prior research in revealing links between commonplace marriage traditions and gendered power dynamics.
    Tenenbaum Harriet (2019)How Effective is Peer Interaction in Facilitating Learning? A Meta-Analysis, In: Journal of Educational Psychology American Psychological Association
    Decades of research indicate that peer interaction, where individuals discuss or work on a task collaboratively, may be beneficial children’s and adolescents’ learning. Yet we do not know which features of interaction may be related to learning from peer interaction. This meta-analysis examined results from 62 articles with 71 studies into peer interaction, involving a total of 7,103 participants aged 4 to 18 years. Peer interaction was effective in promoting learning in comparison with other types of learning conditions, Hedges' g = 0.40, 95% CI [0.27, 0.54], p < .0001, across different gender and age groups. In contrast, however, peer interaction was not more effective than child-adult dyadic interaction. Moderator analyses also indicated that peer interaction is more effective when children are specifically instructed to reach consensus than when they are not. Findings extend theoretical considerations by teasing apart the processes through which children learn from peer interactions and offer practical implications for the effective use of peer interaction techniques in the classroom.
    Hirst Shannon L., Hepper Erica G., Tenenbaum Harriet R. (2019)Attachment dimensions and forgiveness of others: A meta-analysis, In: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships36(11-12)pp. pp 3960-3985 SAGE Publications
    Forgiveness, as a response to interpersonal transgressions, has multiple societal and individual benefits. Individual differences in attachment have been identified as a predictor not only of forgiveness but of state responses frequently associated with forgiveness. The current meta-analysis is the first systematic analysis of the effect of attachment dimensions (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) on forgiveness of others. Analysis of published and unpublished studies (k = 26) identified significant, small-to-medium effects of attachment anxiety (r = −.25) and attachment avoidance (r = −.18) on forgiveness of others. No significant difference was obtained between measures of state and trait forgiveness. The moderating effects of study paradigm, attachment measure, publication type, and sample population were also investigated. The findings of a stable negative effect of insecure attachment dimensions on forgiveness of others provide a base for future research that may focus on reducing attachment anxiety and avoidance to support forgiveness.
    Fidalgo A, Tenenbaum Harriet, Aznar A (2017)Are There Gender Differences in Emotion Understanding? Analysis of the Test of Emotion Understanding, In: Journal of Child and Family Studies Springer US
    This article examines gender differences in emotion understanding as measured by the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Answers to the TEC given by 353 English-speaking children (172 girls, 181 boys; age range = 3 to 8 years) were examined. First, the nine components of the TEC were analysed for differential item functioning (DIF), using gender as the grouping variable. To evaluate DIF, the Mantel-Haenszel method and logistic regression analysis were used applying the Educational Testing Service DIF classification criteria. Results showed that the TEC did not display gender DIF. Second, when absence of DIF had been corroborated, gender differences in the total TEC score and its components were examined. Girls scored higher than boys on the belief component. Several hypotheses are discussed that could explain the differences found between boys and girls in the belief component.
    Ruck MD, Tenenbaum HR, Willenberg I (2011)South African Mixed-race Children's and Mothers' Judgments and Reasoning about Children's Nurturance and Self-determination Rights, In: Social Development20(3)pp. 517-535 Wiley-Blackwell
    This study examined the understanding of children's rights in 63 (9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds) mixed-race South African children and their mothers. In individual semi-structured interviews participants responded to hypothetical vignettes in which children's nurturance and self-determination rights conflicted with parental authority in the home. Participants were required to decide whether they should support the story characters' rights and provide justifications for their responses. Findings indicated that both children and mothers were more likely to endorse children's nurturance than self-determination rights. In contrast to previous research, no significant differences were found between children and mothers in terms of support for either type of right. In terms of reasoning, both children's and mothers' responses revealed distinct patterns of thinking influenced by the type of right under consideration. The findings are discussed with reference to the available western and non-western literature on children's understanding of rights. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are considered.
    Tenenbaum HR, Porche MV, Snow CE, Tabors P, Ross S (2007)Maternal and child predictors of low-income children's educational attainment, In: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology28(3)pp. 227-238
    Much research has investigated maternal and child predictors of educational attainment. This longitudinal study builds on past research by examining how everyday mother-child conversations about decision-making in early adolescence predict adolescents' decisions to drop out of high school, terminate their education with a high school degree, or complete high school and enroll in tertiary education. Forty-four mothers' use of emotionally enabling speech and willingness to allow their 7th grade children (25 girls; 19 boys) to select their friends predicted children's later decisions about educational attainment in high school. In contrast, children's reported intrinsic motivation, receptive vocabulary scores, and mothers' education did not predict children's educational attainment. These findings underscore the importance of going beyond status variables such as maternal education, to incorporate measures of parent-child interaction in predicting adolescents' educational trajectories. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Willenberg IA, Tenenbaum HR, Ruck MD (2014)'It's not like in Apartheid': South African children's knowledge about their rights, In: International Journal of Children's Rights22(3)pp. 446-466
    This study explored declarative knowledge about children's rights in 67 South African children between 9 and 14 years old, using semi-structured interviews addressing the following questions: What is a right? Who has rights? Do children have rights? What rights do children have? Why should children have rights? Can anyone take away your rights? Who can take away your rights? Data were analysed quantitatively to examine age and gender differences. Qualitative content analyses explored salient themes. There were no gender differences for any of the questions and significant age differences only for the question: What rights do children have? Although the children's responses shared some similarities with other research findings, their perspectives on rights strongly reflected their specific social context, especially the prevalence of crime and child abuse. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and specific features of the South African socio-cultural landscape.
    Ruck MD, Tenenbaum HR, Sines J (2007)Brief report: British adolescents' views about the rights of asylum-seeking children., In: J Adolesc30(4)pp. 687-693
    The present study examined 60 (30 early-to-middle adolescents and 30 late adolescents) British adolescents' understanding of the rights of asylum-seeker children. Participants completed semi-structured interviews designed to assess judgments and evaluations of hypothetical asylum-seeker children's nurturance and self-determination rights in conflict with the practices of authority. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to endorse asylum-seeker children's nurturance rights over their self-determination rights. Reasoning about both types of rights was multifaceted and focused on moral, social-conventional and psychological considerations. In addition, significant differences were found between males and females with regard to both endorsement and reasoning. The limitations of the study are discussed and future research is considered.
    Tenenbaum HR, Ford S, Alkhedairy B (2011)Telling stories: Gender differences in peers' emotion talk and communication style, In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology29(4)pp. 707-721 Wiley
    Eighty girls and 64 boys (M= 6 years; 8 months, SD = .65) narrated a wordless picture book in mixed- or same-gender dyads. In mixed-gender as well as same-gender dyads, girls used more emotion explanations than did boys. Combined across dyad type, girls used more emotion labels than did boys. Girls used a higher proportion of collaborative speech acts than did boys in same-gender dyads, but girls and boys used the same amount in mixed-gender dyads. Whereas girls used a higher proportion of informing acts in mixed-gender dyads than did boys, boys used more than did girls in same-gender dyads. The findings support contextual models of gender and suggest that speaker as well as partner gender influence emotion expression and conversational style. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
    Crowley K, Callanan MA, Tenenbaum H, Allen E (2001)Parents explain more often to boys than to girls during shared scientific thinking, In: Psychological Science12pp. 258-261
    Tenenbaum Harriet (2013)Editorial, In: British Journal of Educational Psychology83(1)pp. 1-2 Wiley
    As the incoming editor for the British Journal of Educational Psychology, I would first like to thank Professor Andy Tolmie for his hard work on BJEP. Under his editorship, the impact factor of BJEP has risen, and the journal has become even better known internationally. Following from Andy’s outstanding editorship, I will set out my vision for BJEP for the next 3 years.
    This study examined British young people's understanding of the rights of asylum-seeking young people. Two hundred sixty participants (11-24years) were read vignettes involving asylum-seeking young people's religious and nonreligious self-determination and nurturance rights. Religious rights were more likely to be endorsed than nonreligious rights. In general, younger participants were more likely than older participants to endorse the rights of asylum-seeking young people. Supporting a social cognitive domain approach, patterns of reasoning varied with the type of right and whether scenarios involved religious or nonreligious issues. Few developmental differences were found regarding participants' reasoning about asylum-seeking young people's religious or nonreligious rights. The findings are discussed with reference to available theory and research on young people's conceptions of rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
    Strohmeier Dagmar, Barrett Martyn, Bora Carmen, Caravita Simona C. S., Donghi Elisa, Dragoti Edmond, Fife-Schaw Christopher, Gómez-López Mercedes, Kapéter Eszter, Mazzone Angela, Rama Rudina, Roşeanu Gabi, Ortega-Ruiz Rosario, Steiner Hanna, Trip Simona, Tenenbaum Harriet, Urhane Detlef, Viejo Carmen (2017)Young People’s Engagement with the European Union: The Importance of Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe, In: Journal of Psychology / Zeitschrift für Psychologie225(4)pp. 313-323 Hogrefe
    This study investigated whether demographic variables, efficacy beliefs, visions and worries are associated with four different forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union: intended voting in the 2019 EU elections, non-conventional political engagement, psychological engagement, and the wish that one’s own country should leave the EU. The sample comprised 3.764 young people aged 16 to 25 years living in seven European countries: Albania, Austria, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and UK. Economic challenges, human rights and the environment were the most important future visions; unemployment and poverty, climate change, civil unrests and the collapse of the EU were the most important future worries. The four forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union were differentially associated with predictors, although internal efficacy and future vision of economic challenges predicted all forms. Implications for future EU policy are discussed.
    Tenenbaum HR, Ruck MD (2007)Are teachers' expectations different for racial minority than for European American students? A meta-analysis., In: Journal of Educational Psychology99(2)pp. 253-273
    Four quantitative meta-analyses examined whether teachers' expectations, referrals, positive and neutral speech, and negative speech differed toward ethnic minority students (i.e., African American, Asian American, and Latino/a) as compared with European American students. Teachers were found to hold the highest expectations for Asian American students (d = -.17). In addition, teachers held more positive expectations for European American students than for Latino/a (d =.46) or African American (d =.25) students. Teachers made more positive referrals and fewer negative referrals for European American students than for Latino/a and African American students (d =.31). Although teachers directed more positive and neutral speech (e.g., questions and encouragement) toward European American students than toward Latino/a and African American students (d =.21), they directed an equal amount of negative speech (e.g., criticism) to all students (d =.02). In general, teachers' favoring of European American students compared with African American and Latino/a students was associated with small but statistically significant effects. The meta-analyses suggest that teachers' expectations and speech vary with students' ethnic backgrounds. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
    Frisina PG, Borod JC, Foldi NS, Tenenbaum HR (2008)Depression in Parkinson's disease: Health risks, etiology, and treatment options, In: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment4(1)pp. 81-91 Dove Medical Press
    Depression is found in about 30%-40% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but only a small percentage (about 20%) receive treatment. As a consequence, many PD patients suffer with reduced health-related quality of life. To address quality of life in depressed PD patients, we reviewed the literature on the health correlates of depression in PD (eg, cognitive function), etiology of depression in PD, and treatment options (ie, antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy). The current review is unique in its focus on psychosocial aspects, as well as neuropathological factors, of depression in PD. Overall, we conclude that neurochemical (eg, serotonin) and psychosocial factors (eg, coping style, self-esteem, and social support) contribute to the affective disturbances found in this neuropsychiatric population. Therefore, we recommend that a multidisciplinary (eg, pharmacotherapeutic, psychoeducational, and/or psychotherapeutic) approach to treatment be taken with depressed PD patients. © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved.
    To Cheryl, Tenenbaum Harriet, Wormald Daniel (2016)What do Parents and Children talk about at a Natural History Museum?, In: Curator: The Museum Journal59(4)pp. 369-385 Wiley
    This study investigated the ways in which families constructed an understanding of evolution exhibits at a natural history museum. We examined museum visitors’ use of exhibit text and the types of evolution-related talk in parent-child conversations while visiting the chimp/human and the artiodactyl exhibits. Participants were 52 families with children aged 2- to 11-years who agreed to be digitally recorded. Analyses of parent-child conversations indicated that families who read exhibit text were more likely to stay longer at the exhibits and to encounter the intended content of the exhibits than families who did not read the text. On-topic conversations tended to focus on labelling and describing the exhibit content rather than talking about evolutionary concepts. Physical descriptions of exhibit displays allowed children to make inferences about novel entities (i.e., those in the exhibits) based on prior knowledge.
    Tenenbaum HR, Alfieri L, Brooks PJ, Dunne G (2008)The effects of explanatory conversations on children's emotion understanding, In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology26(2)pp. 249-263 Wiley
    Ninety-three children ranging in age from 5 to 8 years (M = 82:46 months, SD = 13:20) participated in a training study designed to improve their emotion understanding. Children either explained (self-explanation condition) or listened to an experimenter who explained (experimenter-explanation condition) the causes of protagonists' hidden and ambivalent emotional reactions in nine different vignettes. Compared to a control group who listened to the vignettes and answered questions unrelated to emotions, children assigned to the self-explanation and experimenter-explanation conditions increased from pre- to post-test in their emotion understanding. The educational implications of explanatory conversations in facilitating children's emotion understanding and general learning are discussed. © 2008 The British Psychological Society.
    Tenenbaum HR, To C, Wormald D, Pegram E (2015)Changes and Stability in Reasoning After a Field Trip to a Natural History Museum, In: SCIENCE EDUCATION99(6)pp. 1073-1091 WILEY-BLACKWELL
    Tenenbaum Harriet R., Leman Patrick J., Aznar Ana, Duthie Rachel (2018)Young People's Reasoning about Exclusion in Novel Groups, In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology175pp. 1-16 Elsevier
    This study examined children’s and adolescents’ reasoning about the exclusion of others in peer and school contexts. Participants (80 8-year-olds, 85 11-year-olds, 74 14-year-olds, and 73 20-year-olds) were asked to judge and reason about the acceptability of exclusion from novel groups by children and school principals. Three contexts for exclusion between two groups were systematically varied: unequal economic status, geographical location, or a control (no reason provided for group differences). Regardless of condition, participants believed that exclusion was less acceptable in peer than school contexts, and when children excluded rather than principals. Participants also used more moral and less social conventional reasoning for peer than school contexts. In terms of condition, whereas 8-year-olds rated exclusion based on unequal economic status as less acceptable than when based on geographical location or no reason when enacted by a principal, 14-year-olds rated the unequal economic condition as more acceptable than the other two contexts. Eleven- and 20-year-olds did not distinguish economic status differences. The findings suggest that children and adolescents are sensitive to context and take multiple variables into account, including the type of group difference (socioeconomic status or other reasons), authority status of the perpetrator of exclusion, and setting (school or peer). Patterns may have differed from past research because of the socio-cultural context in which exclusion was embedded and the contexts of group differences.
    Tenenbaum Harriet, Hohenstein JM (2016)Parent-Child Talk about the Origins of Living Things, In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology150pp. 314-329 Elsevier
    This study examined relations between 124 British children’s and their parents’ endorsements about the origins of three living things (human, non-human animal, plant) as reported on questionnaires. In addition to completing questionnaires, half of the sample discussed the origins of entities (n = 64) in parent-child dyads before completing the questionnaires. The 7-year-old age group endorsed creationism more than evolution and the 10-year-old age group endorsed both concepts equally for all three living things. Children’s endorsements were correlated with their parents’ endorsements for all three living things. Children’s endorsement of evolutionary theory was more closely related to parent-child conversational mentions of evolution than to parents’ endorsement of evolutionary theory in questionnaires. A similar pattern was found for children’s endorsement of creationism. Parent-child conversations did not consistently invoke evolution or creationism even when parents endorsed a particular theory. Findings are interpreted in relation to the pivotal role of joint collaborative conversation in children’s appropriation of scientific content.
    Since the nearly universal ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (U.N. General Assembly, ), children's rights have received increasing empirical attention. While there is an established body of research on how youth view their own rights, few studies have examined their views about the rights of out-group members. Employing a social-cognitive domain approach, the current study investigated British young people's (N = 260) views regarding the rights of asylum seekers. The data come from a secondary analysis of interviews on British young people's views about the religious and nonreligious rights of asylum seeker youth. Rather than being influenced by broader variables such as age, participants' judgments, and reasoning took into account the features of the specific rights situation under consideration. Moreover, the use of moral justifications was related to endorsing the rights of asylum seekers while social conventional justifications pertained to rejecting asylum seeker's rights. The implications for theory, future research and social policy are discussed. © 2014 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
    Aznar A, Tenenbaum HR (2016)Parent-Child positive touch: Gender, task, and age differences, In: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior Springer
    This study examined gender, age, and task differences in positive touch and physical proximity during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50 months, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07 months, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Positive touch was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past emotions). Fathers touched their children positively more frequently during the play-related storytelling task than did mothers. Both mothers and fathers were in closer proximity to their 6-year-olds than their 4-year-olds. Mothers and fathers touched their children positively more frequently when reminiscing than when playing. Finally, 6-year-olds remained closer to their parents than did 4-year-olds. Implications of these findings for future research on children’s socioemotional development are discussed.
    Frisina PG, Tenenbaum HR, Borod JC, Foldi NS (2008)The effects of antidepressants in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis, In: International Journal of Neuroscience118(5)pp. 667-682 Informa Healthcare
    This study explored the therapeutic effect of antidepressants in Parkinson's disease (PD) using a meta-analysis. Altogether, 24 placebo-controlled trials qualified for inclusion and revealed that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) had a greater antidepressant effect relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), Qb(1) = 8.87, p <.01, and the mono-amine-oxidase inhibitor, selegiline, Qb(1) = 7.90, p <.01. Whereas TCAs produced a significant side effect profile (odds ratio = 3.07), adverse events were negligible with SSRIs (odds ratio = 1.83) and selegeline (odds ratio = 1.63). Antidepressants can be beneficial for patients with PD. However, the choice of antidepressants needs to take depressive symptomatologies into account while monitoring side effects. Copyright © 2008 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
    Alsamih Munirah, Tenenbaum Harriet (2018)Saudi Arabian Children's Reasoning About Religion-based Exclusion, In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology36(3)pp. 508-513 Wiley
    The present study examined how Saudi Arabian children (M = 10.50 years, SD = 1.61, Range = 8 to 10 years) evaluate peer exclusion based on religion when the perpetrator of exclusion was a peer or a father. Children believed that it was more acceptable for fathers than for peers to enforce exclusion and were more likely to use social conventional reasons to justify exclusion when the perpetrator was a father. The discussion focuses on how social domain theory needs to take children’s cultural community into account.
    Tenenbaum Harriet Motor skills predict faux pas understanding in middle childhood, In: Infant and Child Developmente2172 Wiley
    This study examined emotion understanding (as assessed by the Test of Emotion Comprehension; Pons, Harris, & DeRosnay, 2004) and motor skills (as assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children; Henderson, Barnett, & Sudgen, 2007) as predictors of children’s understanding of faux pas (Banerjee, Watling, & Caputi, 2011). Faux paus situations are those in which someone causes unintentional offence or behaves inappropriately. Understanding of faux pas requires knowledge of social norms in specific situations as well as emotion understanding. Misunderstanding faux pas can prevent smooth social functioning. Fifty-six children (aged 7;0 to 9;11 years) completed a measure of faux pas understanding, emotion understanding, and motor skills. Children’s faux pas understanding, emotion understanding, and motor skills were all related to each other. However, when age, motor skills, and emotion understanding were entered into a regression to predict faux pas understanding, only motor skills predicted understanding of faux pas. The findings are discussed in relation to potential pathways between motor skills and social understanding.
    Van Herwegen J, Aznar A, Tenenbaum H (2014)The use of emotions in narratives in Williams syndrome, In: Journal of Communication Disorders50pp. 1-7
    Although individuals with Williams syndrome are very sociable, they tend to have limited contact and friendships with peers. In typically developing children the use of positive emotions (e.g., happy) has been argued to be related to peer relationships and popularity. The current study investigated the use and development of emotion words in Williams syndrome using cross-sectional developmental trajectories and examined children's use of different types of emotion words. Nineteen children with Williams syndrome (WS) and 20 typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological age told a story from a wordless picture book. Participants with WS produced a similar number of emotion words compared to the control group and the use of emotion words did not change when plotted against chronological age or vocabulary abilities in either group. However, participants with WS produced more emotion words about sadness. Links between emotion production and friendships as well as future studies are discussed.Learning outcomes: After reading this article, readers will be able to: explain the development of positive and negative emotions in Williams syndrome and recognize that emotion production is atypical in this population. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
    Lindell AK, Tenenbaum Harriet, Aznar A (2015)Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3-7 years., In: Lateralitypp. 1-14
    As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.
    This thesis proposes to make a significant contribution to the conceptual change literature. I investigate, from a developmental perspective, the manner in which students’ knowledge about evolution is constructed. Research in theories of conceptual change has taken two general directions: the coherent theory view (e.g., framework theory) or the fragmented knowledge view (e.g., “knowledge in pieces”). Much research on how people construct knowledge about evolution has taken a coherent theory perspective (Evans, 2000, 2001, 2008, et al., 2010; 2013; Gelman & Legare, 2011; Shtulman & Calabi, 2013). More recently however, Nehm and colleagues have argued that the nature of people’s emerging understanding about evolution is more fragmented than research has first suggested (Nehm & Ha, 2011; Ha & Nehm, 2014). Over a series of four studies, evidence suggests that people’s emerging understanding about evolution is developmentally staggered and that knowledge exists as fragmented knowledge rather than as coherent theories. The first study examined parent-child conversations from 52 families (with children aged 2- to 12-years) in a natural history museum. This study found that family museum visitors do not spontaneously discuss evolutionary concepts while visiting the natural history museum. For this reason, evolutionary exhibits that primarily use static displays need to make the topic of evolution much more apparent for parents and children to learn the intended contents. They would also benefit by including suggestions of wh- questions that parents could use to direct children’s attention to salient aspects of the museum displays. In the second study, I have adapted an existing coding scheme such that it would be more suitable to be used with novice learners, i.e., secondary school students (ages 12, 14 and 16, N = 106) when coding for their understanding about evolution. This study found that learning about evolution is context dependent where students are more likely to apply their knowledge about evolution to microevolutionary events than macroevolutionary events. These findings suggest that in teaching evolution, teachers and educators need to make the meanings of evolutionary terms (e.g., evolve, adapt, fittest) more explicit and use more different examples to support students in learning about evolution. In the third study, I report the findings of a teaching intervention that was aimed at helping students improve their understanding of evolutionary processes. One-hundred-fifty-nine students (ages 16 to 19) participated in this study. Comparing peer and individual learning strategies, this study found that peer learning was superior to individual leaning, but only when low level cognitive processes were involved. For cognitively more complex tasks, all students would benefit from receiving timely feedback from teachers or a more knowledgeable peer. Finally, the fourth study investigated whether or not understanding evolution was related to other aspects of everyday life (e.g., pro-environmental worldviews, affect about nature). There were a total of 148 adults who were included in this study. A positive relationship was found between people’s understandings about evolution and pro-ecological attitudes. This finding has potential implications on teaching for science literacy. Understanding how evolution works may be a gateway to people endorsing more environmentally friendly attitudes and behaviours. Evidence from the four studies suggests that there is a clear developmental trend throughout early childhood and mid- to late-adolescence in the way people reason about evolution. Whereas some concepts such as variation and selection are understood first, other concepts such as selection and time are less well understood. This is true even for young people 16 years and older. Potential implications on pedagogy are discussed.
    Abstract This thesis contains three related studies in the general field of educational psychology and in the specific area of behaviour, educational achievement and educational needs in mainstream schooling. The work investigated relationships between behaviour and achievement in the educational context of Kuwait, where poor behaviour has been argued to be a primary cause of low education achievement levels. Using a systemic approach, the first study sought to establish patterns of behaviour and educational achievement among Kuwaiti pupils in grades 4 and 5 of primary schools. The results indicated associations between some behavioural traits (particularly hyperactivity) and measures of literacy and numeracy. The second study took advantage of an inclusion project undertaken in Kuwait to improve classroom management practices and increase awareness of, and support for, students with learning problems. Using the same methods as in Study 1, the second study investigated levels of behaviour and educational achievement among pupils in grades 4 and 5 taught by teachers who had been inclusion trained in comparison with non-inclusion trained teachers in an adjacent educational district. Results suggested that the hypothesised associations between behaviour and academic attainment existed but there were no significant differences in the measures between schools where teachers had been inclusion trained and those where they had not. Thus, relations between behaviour and academic achievement are important and may be impervious to change. The third study explored the comparative attitudes, practices and beliefs of inclusion and non-inclusion trained teachers and identified one significant difference, which was in terms of the educational structures of Kuwait. The thesis has the potential to make contributions to knowledge in several areas, both theoretical and practical. One is that there is a relative lack of similar studies that are set within a Middle Eastern context generally and within a Kuwaiti context specifically. Others include a systemic approach (something that differentiates it from a majority of work in this area of educational psychology) and the potential to inform future policies and interventions in Kuwaiti primary schools that are focused on behaviour and its associations with academic attainment.