University roles and responsibilities
- Director of Learning and Teaching
Business, industry and community links
Member of British Psychology Society Developmental Committee
In the media
My main line of research focuses on children’s discrimination in everyday situations. I examine how children are embedded in social systems in which varying levels of discrimination occur at the socio-cultural level (e.g., religious laws, state single-gender schools) and the microsystem of everyday conversations (e.g, parents explaining science to boys more than to girls). My work combines cognitive domain and socio-cultural theories to understand how children negotiate discrimination, rights, and politics daily in relationships.
My other lines of research examine the development of emotion understanding and children's scientific theories. Finally, I am interested in topics related to teaching and learning.
Teaching gender equality: A toolkit
According to the UN, our sustainable future relies on gender equality. One of their Millenium Goals was to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education no later than 2015, a goal which still requires a lot of work to be done.
Children’s toy choices, play styles, subject choices, self-esteem and academic achievement are impacted by stereotypes which can affect their behaviour and learning. Educational and occupational opportunities of children can be limited by gender stereotyping and it can also affect their mental health. It has been shown that children who feel atypical for their gender are teased and victimised more frequently than gender typical peers.
For all of the above reasons, we still need to work hard to create environments where children (and adults) are helped to critically evaluate gender norms.
Dr Tenenbaum’s previous research in this area has included piloting a collaborative method for working with schools to develop and evaluate gender equality lessons. Her ESRC project will turn the results of this research into societal impact by creating an online toolkit of activities for teachers and education providers.
Lessons will be rigorously tested by teachers in classrooms to ensure quality, and the toolkit will include easy-to-use videos and infographics that explain the psychology behind gender equality, as well as blogs and testimonials to motivate teachers.
The Council of Europe has developed a Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC), which is a comprehensive set of materials that has been developed by the Council of Europe to promote and enhance citizenship education in the national school systems of European countries. This Erasmus+ project will develop and test the efficacy of school curriculum designed to teach democratic and intercultural competence in school children in Year 3 (aged 8 years) in five countries (Italy, Spain, Bulgaria, Romania, and Norway).
Project partners may be found here: https://www.cvs-project.eu/project-partners/.
Our emotions influence how we view the world. Positive emotions may support young people in being more tolerant. In our past work (Tenenbaum, Capelos, Lorimer, & Stocks, 2018), induction of happiness was related to being more tolerant toward asylum-seeking youth. In a follow-up study with Dr. Tereza Capelos (https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/staff/profiles/gov/capelos-tereza.aspx), we are examining whether mood influences how people reasons about rights.
The aim of the study is to examine the link between adolescents’ (aged 11 to 17) understanding of heterosexual marriage traditions and their beliefs about sexism. Previous research has demonstrated such a link for college students, and thus our research focuses on adolescents to ascertain how and when such a connection is made.
This study involves a 20-minute interview conducted over skype.
We would ask questions on marriage between men and women such as “Can you tell me about what happens when people get married?” and “Do you want to have the same surname as your spouse? Why/why not?”
We will also collect participants’ demographic information (e.g., gender, age, and ethnicity).
If your children is interested in participating, please send me an email at email@example.com and we will arrange a time over skype.
Children and Inequality
Seminar Series conducted by Drs. Julie Dickinson, Michaela Gummerum, and Harriet Tenenbaum in JAN 2020 at Birkbeck University, JUNE 2020 at University of Surrey, and JAN 2021 at University of Warwick.
A plethora of reports by governmental agencies, think tanks, international organizations, and newspapers chart the development and stubborn persistence of income inequality in the UK. Epidemiological research has shown that societies with greater income inequality score lower than more equal societies in common public health indicators (e.g., morbidity, infant mortality; Wilkinson & Pickett, 2006), but also well-being and mental health (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2015). Thus, income inequality has adverse effects for individuals and societies at large. The purpose of this seminar series is to understand how children reason about inequalities at societal and interpersonal levels and how inequality affects them at a personal level.
The scientific goals are to understand the developmental sequence of children’s understanding and awareness of inequality reconciling different research traditions. We will have three streams of focus. Stream 1 will focus on children’s experiences of inequality, whether they experience inequality, and associated outcomes. Stream 2 will focus on children’s understanding of system justification in relation to income inequality. Finally, stream 3 will look at boundary conditions of children’s equal and unequal behaviour, such as the influence of socio-economic status or social power.
By the conclusion of the seminar series, we aim to have compiled and written a systematic review and meta-analysis on the topic on children’s evaluation of inequality. Second, we will develop the methodology and design for future empirical studies.
We will try to reinvigorate research on this topic by holding an open one-day conference the day after our one-meeting at Warwick. The one-day conference is open to anyone who wants to present a poster or give a talk.
We have funding to offset some of the travel costs for three people to join us.
If you would like to be part of this seminar series, please email Harriet Tenenbaum (firstname.lastname@example.org) with a 200 word explanation of why you would like to join and a CV by 1 NOV 2019.
Please note that you must be able to commit to all three seminar dates. Early career researchers are especially encouraged to apply.
Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised
2013 Ana Aznar, PhD (first supervisor)
2015 Cheryl To, PhD (first supervisor)
2016 Yusuf Alazmi, PhD (third supervisor)
2018 Munirah Alsamih, PhD (first supervisor)
2018 Shannon Hirst (second supervisor)
2019 Daniel Noon, PhD (third supervisor)
2020 Anna-Stiina Wallinheimo (first supervisor)
2020 Tom Stocks (ESRC-DTC University of Birmingham, second supervisor)
2020 Alfred Lovelace (second supervisor)
Postgraduate research supervision
2016-present Charlotte Mills (second supervisor)
2019-present Silvia Miele (first supervisor)
2019-present Jazmin Bhangoo (second supervisor)
2019-present Mafalda Batista de Costa (second supervisor)
2019-present Yao Wu (joint first supervisor)
2020-present Rose Brett (joint first supervisor)
2020-present Nana-Fatima Taini Ozeto (first supervisor)
2020-present Jessica Dark (Birkbeck, second supervisor)
2021-present Andrea Kocis (Marie-Curie funded, first supervisor)
2021-present Federica Case (Marie-Curie funded based at Edge, first supervisor academic supervisor)
2021-present Ali Whitehouse (second supervisor)
- Developmental Psychology 1
- Research Methods for DClin
- Psychology in the Real World
- Developmental Psychology 2 (module leader)
Courses I teach on
Aznar, A., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Russell, P.S. (in press). Is moral disgust socially learned? Emotion.
Ingoglia, S., Musso, P., Inguglia, C., Barrett, M., Tenenbaum, H., Cassibba, R., Albiero, P., Bartolo, M. G., Burns, B., Canale, R., Costabile, A., Elia, G., Liga, F., Palermiti, A., Pichardo, M. C., Servidio, R. C., Verrastro, V., Wiium, N., & Lo Coco, A. (in press). Aligning Personal and Collective Interests in Emerging Adults during the COVID-19 Emergency in Italy. Journal of Community Psychology.
Spinner, L., Cameron, L., & Tenenbaum, H. R., (in press). Gender stereotypes in young children’s magazines. Mass Communication and Society.
Spinner, L., Tenenbaum, H. R., Cameron, L., Wallinheimo, A. (in press). A school-based intervention to reduce gender-stereotyping. School Psychology International.
Evans, S. L., Alkan, E., Bhangoo, J., & Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ng-Knight, T. (2021). Effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on mental health, wellbeing, sleep, and alcohol use in a UK student sample. Psychiatry Research.
Alsamih, M., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Rusconi, P. (in press). How do Saudi children and their mothers evaluate religion-based exclusion? Journal of Child and Family Studies.
Ingoglia, S., Barrett, M. B., Iannello, N., Inguglia, C., Liga, F., Grazia Lo Cricchio, M., Tenenbaum, H. R., Wiium, N., Lo Coco, A. (2021). Promoting democratic and intercultural competences in the primary school context: The experience of “Children’s Voices for a new Human Space.” Journal of Clinical and Developmental Psychology, 3 (1), 45-57.
Cameron, L., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (in press). Lessons from developmental science to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 restrictions on social development. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leonard, H. C. (in press). Motor skills predict faux pas understanding in childhood. Infant and Child Development.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Winstone, N. E., Leman, P. J., & Avery, R. E. (in press). How effective is peer learning? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology.
Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (in press). Gender comparisons in mother-child emotion talk: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles.
Hirst, S., Hepper, E., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (in press). Attachment dimensions and forgiveness of others: A meta-analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.
Gilles, J. K., Elisha, I., Ruck, M. R., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Willenberg, I. (in press). Does situation matter in conceptions of children's nurturance and self-determination rights? An examination of South African children's and mothers' perspectives. International Journal of Children’s Rights.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Leman, P. J., Aznar, A., Duthie, R., & Killen, M. (2018). Young people’s reasoning about exclusion in novel groups. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 175, 1-16.
Alsamih, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2018). Saudi Arabian children's reasoning about religion-based exclusion. British Journal of Developmental Psychology.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Capelos, T., Lorimer, J., & Stocks, T. (2018). Positive thinking elevates tolerance: Experimental effects of happiness on adolescents’ attitudes towards asylum seekers. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Robnett. R. D., Wertheimer, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2018). Does a woman’s marital surname choice influence perceptions of her husband? An analysis focusing on gender-typed traits and relationship power dynamics. Sex Roles.
Fidalgo, A. M., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Aznar, A. (2018). Are there gender differences in emotion comprehension? Analysis of the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 1065-1074.
Strohmeier, D., Barrett, M. D., Bora, C., Caravita, S., Donghi, E., Dragoti E., Fife-Schaw, C. R., Gómez-López, M., Kapéter, E., Mazzone, A., Rama R., Roşeanu G., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Steiner H., Trip, S., Tenenbaum, H. R., Urhane, D., &Viejo, C. (2017). Young people’s engagement with the European Union: The importance of visions and worries for the future of Europe. Journal of Psychology / Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225, 313-325.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Leman, P. J., & Aznar, A. (2017). Children’s reasoning about peer and school segregation in a diverse society Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 358-365.
To, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., and Hogh, H. (2017). Secondary school students’ reasoning about evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54, 247-273.
Lindell, A. K., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Aznar, A. (2017). Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3 – 7 years. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 22, 17-30.
To, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Wormald, D. (2016). What do parents and children talk about at a natural history museum? Curator, 59, 369-385.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Hohenstein, J. M. (2016). Parent-child talk about the origins of living things. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150: 314-329.
Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2016). Parent-child positive touch: Gender, age, and task differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40, 317-333.
Tenenbaum, H. R., To, C., Wormald, D., Pegram, E. (2015). Changes and stability in reasoning after a field trip to a natural history museum. Science Education, 99, 1073-1091.
Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2015). Gender differences in parent-child emotion talk. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33,148-155.
Willenberg, I. A., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2014). “It’s not like in apartheid”: South African children’s knowledge of their rights. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 22, 446–466.
Van Herwegen, J., Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2014). The use of emotions in narratives in Williams Syndrome. Journal of Communication Disorders, 50, 1-7.
Ruck, M. D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2014). Does moral and social conventional reasoning predict British young people’s judgments about the rights of asylum-seeker youth? Journal of Social Issues, 70, 47-62, DOI: 10.1111/josi.12046.
Aznar, A., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2013). Spanish parents’ emotion talk and their children’s understanding of emotion. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00670.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2012). British adolescents' and young adults' understanding and reasoning about the religious and non-religious rights of asylum-seeker youth. Child Development, 83, 1102-1115.
Møller, S. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Danish majority children’s reasoning about exclusion based on gender and ethnicity. Child Development, 82, 520-532.
Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., Aldrich, N. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning?, Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 1-18.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Ford, S., & Alkhedairy, B. (2011). Telling stories: Gender differences in peers’ emotion talk and communication style, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 707-721.
Ruck, M. D., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Willenberg, I. (2011). South African mixed-race children’s and mothers’ judgments and reasoning about children’s nurturance and self-determination rights. Social Development, 20, 517-535.
Leman, P. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Practising gender: Children’s relationships and the development of gendered behaviour and beliefs. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 153-157.
Aldrich, N. J., Tenenbaum, H. R., Brooks, P. J., Harrison, K., & Sines, J. (2011). Perspective-taking in children's narratives about jealousy, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 86-109.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Prior, J., Dowling, C., & Frost, R. E. (2010). Supporting parent-child conversations in a history museum. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 241-254.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Hill, D. B., Joseph, N., & Roche, E. (2010). "It's a boy because he's painting a picture": Age differences in children's conventional and unconventional gender schemas. British Journal of Psychology,101, 137-154.
Tenenbaum, H. R. (2009). “You’d Be Good at that”: Gender patterns in parent-child talk about courses. Social Development, 18, 447-463.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Callanan, M. A. (2008). Parents’ science talk to their children in Mexican-descent families residing in the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 1-12.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., & Dunne, G. (2008). The role of explanatory conversations in children’s emotion understanding. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 249-263.
Frisina, P.G., Borod, J. C., Foldi, N.S., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2008). Depression in Parkinson’s disease: Health risks, etiology, and treatment options. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4.
Frisina, P. G., Tenenbaum, H. R., Borod, J. C., & Foldi, N. (2008). A meta-analytic study of the effects of TCAs, SSRIs, and MAOs on the health outcomes of Parkinson’s disease patients. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 5, 667-682.
Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., Tenenbaum, H. R., Koepke, M., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). Transient and robust knowledge: Contextual support and the dynamics of children’s reasoning about density. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1, 98-108.
Ruck, M. D., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Sines, J. (2007). Brief report: British adolescents’ views about the rights of asylum-seeking children. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 687-693.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2007). Do teachers hold different expectations for ethnic minority than for European-American children?: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 253-273.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Porche, M. V., Snow, C. E., Ross, S., & Tabors, P. (2007). Maternal and child predictors of low-income children’s educational attainment, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 227-238.
Aldrich, N. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2006). Anger, sadness, and frustration: Gendered patterns in early adolescents’ and their parents’ emotion talk. Sex Roles, 55, (11-12), 775-785.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Snow, C. E., Roach, K., & Kurland, B. (2005). Talking and reading science: Longitudinal data on sex differences in mother-child conversations in low-income families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 1-19.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Visscher, P., Pons, F., & Harris, P. L. (2004). Emotional understanding in Quechua children from an agro-pastoralist village. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 471-478.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., & Zanger, V. V. (2004). Children’s learning about water in a museum and a classroom. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 40-58.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2003). Parent-child conversations about science: Socialization of
gender inequities. Developmental Psychology, 39, 34-47.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (2002). Are Parents' Gender Schemas Related to their Children's Gender-Related Cognitions?: A Meta Analysis. Developmental Psychology, 38, 615-630.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Callanan, M., Alba-Speyer, C., & Sandoval, L. (2002). The Role of Educational Background, Activity, and Past Experiences in Mexican-descent Families' Science Conversations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 225-248.
Crowley, K., Callanan, M.A., Tenenbaum, H.R., & Allen, E. (2001). Parents explain more often to boys than to girls during shared scientific thinking. Psychological Science, 12, 258-261.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Crosby, F. J., & Gliner, M. D. (2001). Mentoring relationships in graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 326-341.
Leaper, C., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Shaffer, T. G. (1999). Communication patterns of African-American girls and boys from low-income, urban backgrounds. Child Development, 70, 1489-1503.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (1998). Mothers' and fathers' responses to their Mexican-descent child: A sequential analysis. First Language, 18, 129-147.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Leaper, C. (1997). Mothers' and fathers' questions to their child in Mexican-descent families: Moderators of cognitive demand during play. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 318-332.
Leman, P. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (Eds.) (2014). Gender and Relationships. Routledge: Psych Press.
Strohmeier, D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (Eds.) (2019). Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.
Strohmeier, D., Barrett, M. D., Bora, C., Caravita, S., Donghi, E., Dragoti E., Fife-Schaw, C. R., Gómez-López, M., Kapéter, E., Mazzone, A., Rama R., Roşeanu G., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Steiner H., Trip, S., Tenenbaum, H. R., Urhane, D., &Viejo, C. (2019). Predictors of young people‘s engagement with the European Union. In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Barrett, M. D., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2019). What predicts British young people’s views of Europe? In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.
Strohmeier, D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2019). Young peoples’ engagement with the European Union and their visions and worries for the future of Europe. In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.
Strohmeier, D., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2019). Recommendations to strengthen young peoples’ engagement with the European Union. In D. Strohmeier & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds.) Young Peoples’ Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe: Findings from the Europe 2038 Project. Routledge: Psych Press.
Tenenbaum, H. R & Aznar, A. (2017). Diferencias de género en la expresión emocional en la infancia. [Gender differences in emotion expression in early childhood]. In Marta Giménez-Dasí and L. Quintanilla. Desarrollo Emocional en la Infancia Temprana: Debates Actuales y Retos Futuros. [Emotional Development in Early Childhood: Current Debates and Future Challenges]. Pirámide.
Aznar, A., Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2017). Bullying of religious minorities and asylum seekers. In H. Cowie and C. Meyers (Eds). School Bullying and Mental Health: Risks, Intervention and Prevention. Routledge.
Ruck, M. D., Peterson-Badali, M., Elisha, E. M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2017). Children’s voices about children’s rights: Thoughts from developmental psychology. In M. D. Ruck (Ed). The Handbook of Children’s Rights. Routledge.
Leman, P. J. & Tenenbaum, H. (2017). Communication in children’s and adolescents’ social groups, in A. Rutland, D. Nesdale, & C. S. Brown (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Leaper, C., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2016). Gender socialization in childhood. In K. Nadal. The Sage Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Leman, P. J., Aznar, A., & To, C. (2016). Studying children’s conversation. In J. Van Herwegen and J. Prior (Eds.), Developmental Methods. Oxford: Psychology Press.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & May, D. (2014). Gender in parent-child relationships. In P. J. Leman & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds), Gender Development. Oxford: Psychology Press.
Leman, P. J. & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2014). Introduction. In P. J. Leman & H. R. Tenenbaum (Eds). Gender Development. Oxford, UK: Psychology Press.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Aznar, A., & Leman, P.J. (2014). Gender differences in language development. In P. J. Brooks & V. Kempe (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Language Development. Sage.
Tenenbaum, H. R. (2013). Editorial. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 1-2.
Joshi, L. H. with Rosen, G., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Raising Children: The Primary Years. Prentice Hall Life.
Roberts, R., Bećirević, M., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2007). Children and war: Making sense of Iraq. (pp. 170-180). In R. Roberts (Ed.), Just War: Psychology, Terrorism, and Iraq. PCCS Books: Ross-on-Wye.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Aldrich, N. (2005). Gender Differences. In N. A. Salkind (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Human Development. Volume 2, 557-563.
Callanan, M. A., Alba-Speyer, C., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2000). Linking home and school through children’s questions that followed family science workshops (Research Brief No. 8). Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence.
Cowie, H., Jones, F., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2021). A School for Everyone: Stories & Lesson Plans to Teach Inclusivity & Social Issues London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Cowie, H., Jones, F., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2019). Emily is Being Bullied, What can she do? London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Hill. D. B. (2006). [Review of Brain Gender]. M. Hines. Oxford, UK: Oxford Press. Feminism and Psychology, 16, 495-501.
Thompson, R. B. & Tenenbaum, H. (2002). [Review of Culturally Speaking: Managing Rapport Through Talk Across Cultures] H. Spencer-Oatey (Ed.). London, England and New York, NY: Continuum Press (2000). Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 183-187.
The present study examined mother-child talk about disgust. A total of 68 mothers and their 4-, (Mage = 55.72 months, SD = 4.13), 6- (Mage = 77.70 months, SD = 5.45), and 8- (Mage = 100.90 months, SD = 4.61) year-old children discussed four tasks relating to moral and pathogen disgust. Tasks comprised labelling facial expressions of emotions, generating items that would make participants disgusted or angry, identifying moral and pathogen transgressions as either causing anger or disgust, and finally rating the degree to which moral and pathogen transgressions were disgusting and justifying their responses. Mother-child dyads recognized the facial expression of happiness more accurately than that of disgust, but disgust was recognized equally well as expressions of sadness and anger across all age groups. Dyads associated moral transgressions with anger, whereas they associated pathogen transgressions with disgust. Finally, mothers and children and mothers individually rated pathogen transgressions as more disgusting than moral transgressions. Taken together, findings show that moral disgust is understood at a later age and is only used metaphorically, if at all, in children as old as 8 years old.
This study investigated the relations of emerging adults’ personal (civic competence and interdependent self-construal) and community-based (sense of community and civic engagement) resources as predictors of appraisal of COVID-19 Public Health Emergency Management (PHEM) and attitudes toward preventing contagion in Italy. Participants were 2,873 Italian emerging adults (71% females) aged 19-30 years (M = 22.67, SD = 2.82). Structural equation modelling revealed both direct and indirect positive associations among study variables. Civic competence and interdependent self-construal were related to sense of community and civic engagement behaviour which, in turn, predicted appraisal of PHEM. Appraisal of PHEM in turn predicted attitudes toward preventing contagion. Overall, findings highlight the importance of examining the alignment between personal and collective interests to understand emerging adults’ evaluative and attitudinal experiences during a period of crisis, such as that created by COVID-19.
Since the Covid-19 pandemic and the resulting social restrictions, children’s peer interactions have been altered. Peer interactions help children learn from each other to develop their understanding of conversation, emotion, and group norms. In addition, friendships can reduce intergroup bias and prejudice and increase independence. In this paper, we review the ways that peers contribute to children’s cognitive and social development in informal and formal settings. Although restrictions are necessary to control the spread of the virus, social restrictions do not have to be the detriment of peer relations.
The purpose of these studies was to investigate the role of distributed cognition in defusing the impact of evaluative pressure caused by performance-approach goals on mental arithmetic performance. Performance-approach goals can generate worrying thoughts that can deplete working memory resources. However, some of these working memory limitations can be compensated by off-loading the internal cognitive process to the external environment. We tested this prediction in two experiments. Participants carried out modular arithmetic tasks in a performance-approach goal or mastery-approach goal condition crossed with interactivity or no interactivity. Performance-approach goal manipulation hampered cognitive performance (accuracies), (Experiment 1). However, these negative effects were defused with the help of interactivity (Experiment 2). Interestingly, the mastery-focused individuals had a performance drop in the interactive condition (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Finally, experiment 2 reported higher maths anxiety levels for the performance-focused individuals. Reasons for the findings and future implications will be discussed.
Children’s adherence to gender stereotypes can be detrimental, yet interventions to tackle stereotyping have achieved mixed success. Few studies have examined interventions developed collaboratively by educators and researchers, and the impact of interventions that focus on increasing perceived similarities between genders has yet to be tested. The present study evaluated an intervention among 6- to 10-year-old British children (47 boys; 37 girls) compared to a control group (61 boys; 47 girls). Led by their class teacher via weekly 30-minute lessons, over a four-month period, children learned to identify and challenge stereotypes, and explored similarities between genders and diversity within gender (e.g., not all girls like pink). Key measures of gender flexibility in relation to toy play, occupations, and perceived similarity to gender groups were utilised. After controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group felt more similar to the other gender and reported that they could do a wider range of occupations in the future. Those who showed less flexibility around toy play at baseline were more flexible after the intervention. Boys in the intervention group reported that gender stereotypes were more unfair than did the control group. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of gender stereotyping and intervention research.
As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.
Mother-child emotion talk is one of the main ways through which children learn about emotions. Some previous research studies have suggested that mother-child emotion talk is a gendered process, influencing how girls and boys talk about emotions. Despite inconsistent findings in establishing if mothers use different amounts of emotion talk with their daughters and sons, there is no known meta-analysis of the literature examining gender differences in the frequency of mother-child emotion talk. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis is to explore gender comparisons in the frequency of mother-child emotion talk as well as the moderators of these differences. Based on 34 independent group samples (samples of unique individuals) consisting of 3649 participants, no gender differences in the frequency of emotion talk between mothers of daughters and mothers of sons were found. Using a random-effects model, the meta-analysis had a mean weighted effect size of Cohen’s d = .04 (95% CI = [−.05, .13], p = .36). It was not heterogeneous, Qw (33) = 39.36, p = .21. Thus, findings of the present meta-analysis suggest that mother-child emotion talk has not been shown to be gendered, which has implications for children’s socialization of emotions.
As the incoming editor for the British Journal of Educational Psychology, I would first like to thank Professor Andy Tolmie for his hard work on BJEP. Under his editorship, the impact factor of BJEP has risen, and the journal has become even better known internationally. Following from Andy’s outstanding editorship, I will set out my vision for BJEP for the next 3 years.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent restrictions imposed by governments worldwide have had profound social and psychological effects, particularly for young adults. This study used longitudinal data to characterise effects on mental health and behaviour in a UK student sample, measuring sleep quality and diurnal preference, depression and anxiety symptoms, wellbeing and loneliness, and alcohol use. Self-report data was collected from 254 undergraduates (219 females) at a UK university at two-time points: autumn 2019 (baseline, pre-pandemic) and April/May 2020 (under 'lockdown' conditions). Longitudinal analyses showed a significant rise in depression symptoms and a reduction in wellbeing at lockdown. Over a third of the sample could be classed as clinically depressed at lockdown compared to 15% at baseline. Sleep quality was not affected across the sample as a whole. The increase in depression symptoms was highly correlated with worsened sleep quality. A reduction in alcohol use, and a significant shift towards an 'evening' diurnal preference, were also observed. Levels of worry surrounding contracting COVID-19 were high. Results highlight the urgent need for strategies to support young people's mental health: alleviating worries around contracting COVID, and supporting good sleep quality, could benefit young adults' mental health as the COVID-19 crisis unfolds.
Background. Museums can serve as rich resources for families to learn about the social world through engagement with exhibits and parent-child conversation about exhibits. Aims. This study examined ways of engaging parents and child about two related exhibits at a cultural and history museum. Sample participants consisted of families visiting the Animal Antics and the Gone Potty exhibits at the British Museum. Methods. Whilst visiting two exhibits at the British Museum, 30 families were assigned to use a backpack of activities, 13 were assigned to a booklet of activities, and 15 were assigned to visit the exhibits without props (control condition). Results. Compared to the families in the control condition, the interventions increased the amount of time parents and children engaged together with the exhibit. Additionally, recordings of the conversations revealed that adults asked more questions related to the exhibits when assigned to the two intervention conditions compared to the control group. Children engaged in more historical talk when using the booklets than in the other two conditions. Conclusions. The findings suggest that providing support with either booklets or activities for children at exhibits may prove beneficial to parent-child conversations and engagement with museum exhibits. © The British Psychological Society.
This article examines gender differences in emotion understanding as measured by the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Answers to the TEC given by 353 English-speaking children (172 girls, 181 boys; age range = 3 to 8 years) were examined. First, the nine components of the TEC were analysed for differential item functioning (DIF), using gender as the grouping variable. To evaluate DIF, the Mantel-Haenszel method and logistic regression analysis were used applying the Educational Testing Service DIF classification criteria. Results showed that the TEC did not display gender DIF. Second, when absence of DIF had been corroborated, gender differences in the total TEC score and its components were examined. Girls scored higher than boys on the belief component. Several hypotheses are discussed that could explain the differences found between boys and girls in the belief component.
Gender, as a topic of study in psychology, can sometimes be treated as a messy inconvenience for researchers who would rather focus on illuminating universal laws of human behaviour.Developmentalists have been no less guilty of this approach than many others. Yet, gender is a topic thatwill not go away, and it will not disappear because it is a ubiquitous and fundamental part of any child’s development. As such, it is hard to imagine how a child can ever develop without gender influencing her behaviour, thinking, or social relationships. Therefore, developmental psychologists should be interested in gender because research demonstrates that from a young age children react to their own and others’ gender and think about gender in complex, subtle, and nuanced ways. By understanding how gender links with relationships across development, we can also come to understand and possibly begin to address an enduring source of inequality in adult social relationships and roles. This Special Issue explores how gender influences children’s and adolescents’ behaviour, communication, and thinking across contexts.
The present study examined 60 (30 early-to-middle adolescents and 30 late adolescents) British adolescents' understanding of the rights of asylum-seeker children. Participants completed semi-structured interviews designed to assess judgments and evaluations of hypothetical asylum-seeker children's nurturance and self-determination rights in conflict with the practices of authority. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to endorse asylum-seeker children's nurturance rights over their self-determination rights. Reasoning about both types of rights was multifaceted and focused on moral, social-conventional and psychological considerations. In addition, significant differences were found between males and females with regard to both endorsement and reasoning. The limitations of the study are discussed and future research is considered.
This study investigated 282 eight- to twelve-year-old Danish majority children's judgments and justifications of exclusion based on gender and ethnicity (i.e., Danish majority children and ethnic-minority children of a Muslim background). Children's judgments and reasoning varied with the perpetrator of the exclusion and the social identity of the target. Children assessed exclusion based on ethnicity as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender and used more moral reasoning for the former than the latter. Children judged it less acceptable for a teacher than a child to exclude a child protagonist. Children were sensitive to status, judging it less acceptable to exclude a less powerful group member. The findings are discussed in relation to intergroup relations in Denmark. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc..
This study investigated whether demographic variables, efficacy beliefs, visions and worries are associated with four different forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union: intended voting in the 2019 EU elections, non-conventional political engagement, psychological engagement, and the wish that one’s own country should leave the EU. The sample comprised 3.764 young people aged 16 to 25 years living in seven European countries: Albania, Austria, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and UK. Economic challenges, human rights and the environment were the most important future visions; unemployment and poverty, climate change, civil unrests and the collapse of the EU were the most important future worries. The four forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union were differentially associated with predictors, although internal efficacy and future vision of economic challenges predicted all forms. Implications for future EU policy are discussed.
This study explored the therapeutic effect of antidepressants in Parkinson's disease (PD) using a meta-analysis. Altogether, 24 placebo-controlled trials qualified for inclusion and revealed that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) had a greater antidepressant effect relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), Qb(1) = 8.87, p
Inducing emotional reactions toward social groups can influence individuals’ political tolerance. This study examines the influence of incidental fear and happiness on adolescents’ tolerant attitudes and feelings towards Muslim asylum seekers. In our experiment, 219 16- to 21-year-olds completed measures of prejudicial attitudes. After being induced to feel happiness, fear, or no emotion (control), participants reported their tolerant attitudes and feelings toward asylum-seeking young people. Participants assigned to the happiness condition demonstrated more tolerant attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people than did those assigned to the fear or control conditions. Participants in the control condition did not differ from participants in the fear condition. The participants in the happiness condition also had more positive feelings toward asylum-seeking young people than did participants in the control condition. The findings suggest that one way to increase positive attitudes toward asylum-seeking young people is to improve general emotional state.
Two studies investigated the development of children's gender knowledge using a procedure designed to tap into children's unconventional gender beliefs. Study 1 revealed a developmental progression with 34 3- to 4-year-old children providing more unconventional reasons than conventional reasons to explain the gender of a series of drawings. By contrast, 39 5- to 6-year-old and 42 7- to 8-year-old children provided more conventional than unconventional reasons. Study 2 found that a second sample of 423- to 4-year-old children mastered a close-ended assessment of gender stereotyping, while they relied on unconventional and conventional reasoning equally when explaining the gender of a series of drawings displaying conventional cues only. This research supports the model that children's conventional gender schemas do not develop before their unconventional gender schemas. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
This study examined gender, age, and task differences in positive touch and physical proximity during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50 months, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07 months, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Positive touch was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past emotions). Fathers touched their children positively more frequently during the play-related storytelling task than did mothers. Both mothers and fathers were in closer proximity to their 6-year-olds than their 4-year-olds. Mothers and fathers touched their children positively more frequently when reminiscing than when playing. Finally, 6-year-olds remained closer to their parents than did 4-year-olds. Implications of these findings for future research on children’s socioemotional development are discussed.
This study examined children’s and adolescents’ reasoning about the exclusion of others in peer and school contexts. Participants (80 8-year-olds, 85 11-year-olds, 74 14-year-olds, and 73 20-year-olds) were asked to judge and reason about the acceptability of exclusion from novel groups by children and school principals. Three contexts for exclusion between two groups were systematically varied: unequal economic status, geographical location, or a control (no reason provided for group differences). Regardless of condition, participants believed that exclusion was less acceptable in peer than school contexts, and when children excluded rather than principals. Participants also used more moral and less social conventional reasoning for peer than school contexts. In terms of condition, whereas 8-year-olds rated exclusion based on unequal economic status as less acceptable than when based on geographical location or no reason when enacted by a principal, 14-year-olds rated the unequal economic condition as more acceptable than the other two contexts. Eleven- and 20-year-olds did not distinguish economic status differences. The findings suggest that children and adolescents are sensitive to context and take multiple variables into account, including the type of group difference (socioeconomic status or other reasons), authority status of the perpetrator of exclusion, and setting (school or peer). Patterns may have differed from past research because of the socio-cultural context in which exclusion was embedded and the contexts of group differences.
Discovery learning approaches to education have recently come under scrutiny (Tobias & Duffy, 2009), with many studies indicating limitations to discovery learning practices. Therefore, 2 meta-analyses were conducted using a sample of 164 studies: The 1st examined the effects of unassisted discovery learning versus explicit instruction, and the 2nd examined the effects of enhanced and/or assisted discovery versus other types of instruction (e.g., explicit, unassisted discovery). Random effects analyses of 580 comparisons revealed that outcomes were favorable for explicit instruction when compared with unassisted discovery under most conditions (d = -0.38, 95% CI [-.44, -.31]). In contrast, analyses of 360 comparisons revealed that outcomes were favorable for enhanced discovery when compared with other forms of instruction (d = 0.30, 95% CI [.23, .36]). The findings suggest that unassisted discovery does not benefit learners, whereas feedback, worked examples, scaffolding, and elicited explanations do. © 2010 American Psychological Association.
This study examined British young people's understanding of the rights of asylum-seeking young people. Two hundred sixty participants (11-24years) were read vignettes involving asylum-seeking young people's religious and nonreligious self-determination and nurturance rights. Religious rights were more likely to be endorsed than nonreligious rights. In general, younger participants were more likely than older participants to endorse the rights of asylum-seeking young people. Supporting a social cognitive domain approach, patterns of reasoning varied with the type of right and whether scenarios involved religious or nonreligious issues. Few developmental differences were found regarding participants' reasoning about asylum-seeking young people's religious or nonreligious rights. The findings are discussed with reference to available theory and research on young people's conceptions of rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
This study examined age differences in young people’s understanding of evolution theory in secondary school. A second aim of this study was to propose a new coding scheme that more accurately described students’ conceptual understanding about evolutionary theory. We argue that coding schemes adopted in previous research may have overestimated students’ grasp of evolutionary concepts.Atotal of 106 students aged 12, 14, and 16 took part in individual interviews investigating their understanding of evolution. Using the newcoding scheme, wefound that while 16-year olds were more likely than 12-year olds to endorse scientific concepts when answering a question about finches, their understanding of natural selection, however, did not generalize to the other four questions. Furthermore, students began to incorporate relevant terminology (e.g., adapt, evolve, etc.) and structure their explanations using relevant language at around age 14. Students often used relevant terminology without having a more advanced understanding of evolutionary theory. Instead, they used the relevant terms in a colloquial rather than a scientific sense. Implications of the current findings for teaching and theory are discussed.
Depression is found in about 30%-40% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but only a small percentage (about 20%) receive treatment. As a consequence, many PD patients suffer with reduced health-related quality of life. To address quality of life in depressed PD patients, we reviewed the literature on the health correlates of depression in PD (eg, cognitive function), etiology of depression in PD, and treatment options (ie, antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy). The current review is unique in its focus on psychosocial aspects, as well as neuropathological factors, of depression in PD. Overall, we conclude that neurochemical (eg, serotonin) and psychosocial factors (eg, coping style, self-esteem, and social support) contribute to the affective disturbances found in this neuropsychiatric population. Therefore, we recommend that a multidisciplinary (eg, pharmacotherapeutic, psychoeducational, and/or psychotherapeutic) approach to treatment be taken with depressed PD patients. © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved.
This study explored declarative knowledge about children's rights in 67 South African children between 9 and 14 years old, using semi-structured interviews addressing the following questions: What is a right? Who has rights? Do children have rights? What rights do children have? Why should children have rights? Can anyone take away your rights? Who can take away your rights? Data were analysed quantitatively to examine age and gender differences. Qualitative content analyses explored salient themes. There were no gender differences for any of the questions and significant age differences only for the question: What rights do children have? Although the children's responses shared some similarities with other research findings, their perspectives on rights strongly reflected their specific social context, especially the prevalence of crime and child abuse. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and specific features of the South African socio-cultural landscape.
This study focuses on Saudi mothers’ and their children’s judgments and reasoning about exclusion based on religion. Sixty Saudi children and their mothers residing in Saudi Arabia and 58 Saudi children and their mothers residing in the United Kingdom were interviewed. They were read vignettes depicting episodes of exclusion based on the targets’ religion ordered by peers or a father. Participants were asked to judge the acceptability of exclusion and justify their judgments. Both groups rated the religious-based exclusion of children from peer interactions as unacceptable. Saudi children and mothers residing in the UK were less accepting of exclusion than were children and mothers residing in Saudi Arabia. In addition, children and mothers residing in the UK were more likely to evaluate exclusion as a moral issue and less likely as a social conventional issue than were children and mothers residing in Saudi Arabia. Mothers in the UK were also less likely to invoke psychological reasons than were mothers in Saudi Arabia. Children’s judgments about exclusion were predicted by mothers’ judgments about exclusion. In addition, the number of times children used moral or social conventional reasons across the vignettes was positively correlated with mothers’ use of these categories. The findings, which support the Social Reasoning Development model, are discussed in relation to how mothers and immersion in socio-cultural contexts are related to children’s judgments and reasoning about social exclusion.
This study examined the parent-child dyad as a context in which children's gender-stereotyped course selections are reinforced. Fifty four children from two age groups (Ms = 10.67 and 12.71 years) and their mothers and fathers selected courses for when children reached secondary school. Afterwards, children and parents discussed their decisions. Parents of sons selected fewer foreign language courses than mathematics, language arts or science courses, whereas parents of daughters selected fewer science and foreign language than mathematics or language arts courses. Girls selected fewer science than language arts courses, whereas boys selected fewer foreign language than mathematics or science courses. Although parents' course selections followed gender-stereotyped patterns for language arts and science, their discouraging comments were not confined to cross-gender-stereotyped domains. Instead, parents made more discouraging comments in general to daughters than to sons. Counter to the hypotheses, daughters made more encouraging comments about science courses than did sons while talking to mothers. The findings suggest that parents and children may show gender-differentiated preferences for children before children are old enough to make course decisions. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2008.
This study examined children's reasoning about single‐gender and single‐faith schools and play contexts. Young people (twenty‐three 8‐ to 10‐year‐olds and fifty‐three 12‐ to 14‐year‐olds) were asked to judge and reason about the acceptability of exclusion based on gender and religion by children and school principals. Participants rated exclusion based on gender as more acceptable than based on religion. Exclusion from school contexts was rated as more acceptable than exclusion from play contexts. Participants tended to invoke moral reasons to condemn exclusion when reasoning about religion, whereas they tended to invoke social conventional reasons when reasoning about gender. Young people's greater support for religiously inclusive schooling compared to gender inclusive schooling suggests that societal and governmental acceptance of religious diversity has support from future generations.
Much research has investigated maternal and child predictors of educational attainment. This longitudinal study builds on past research by examining how everyday mother-child conversations about decision-making in early adolescence predict adolescents' decisions to drop out of high school, terminate their education with a high school degree, or complete high school and enroll in tertiary education. Forty-four mothers' use of emotionally enabling speech and willingness to allow their 7th grade children (25 girls; 19 boys) to select their friends predicted children's later decisions about educational attainment in high school. In contrast, children's reported intrinsic motivation, receptive vocabulary scores, and mothers' education did not predict children's educational attainment. These findings underscore the importance of going beyond status variables such as maternal education, to incorporate measures of parent-child interaction in predicting adolescents' educational trajectories. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Since the nearly universal ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (U.N. General Assembly, ), children's rights have received increasing empirical attention. While there is an established body of research on how youth view their own rights, few studies have examined their views about the rights of out-group members. Employing a social-cognitive domain approach, the current study investigated British young people's (N = 260) views regarding the rights of asylum seekers. The data come from a secondary analysis of interviews on British young people's views about the religious and nonreligious rights of asylum seeker youth. Rather than being influenced by broader variables such as age, participants' judgments, and reasoning took into account the features of the specific rights situation under consideration. Moreover, the use of moral justifications was related to endorsing the rights of asylum seekers while social conventional justifications pertained to rejecting asylum seeker's rights. The implications for theory, future research and social policy are discussed. © 2014 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
Eighty girls and 64 boys (M= 6 years; 8 months, SD = .65) narrated a wordless picture book in mixed- or same-gender dyads. In mixed-gender as well as same-gender dyads, girls used more emotion explanations than did boys. Combined across dyad type, girls used more emotion labels than did boys. Girls used a higher proportion of collaborative speech acts than did boys in same-gender dyads, but girls and boys used the same amount in mixed-gender dyads. Whereas girls used a higher proportion of informing acts in mixed-gender dyads than did boys, boys used more than did girls in same-gender dyads. The findings support contextual models of gender and suggest that speaker as well as partner gender influence emotion expression and conversational style. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
Ninety-three children ranging in age from 5 to 8 years (M = 82:46 months, SD = 13:20) participated in a training study designed to improve their emotion understanding. Children either explained (self-explanation condition) or listened to an experimenter who explained (experimenter-explanation condition) the causes of protagonists' hidden and ambivalent emotional reactions in nine different vignettes. Compared to a control group who listened to the vignettes and answered questions unrelated to emotions, children assigned to the self-explanation and experimenter-explanation conditions increased from pre- to post-test in their emotion understanding. The educational implications of explanatory conversations in facilitating children's emotion understanding and general learning are discussed. © 2008 The British Psychological Society.
The present study was designed to investigate gender patterns in early adolescents' and their parents' verbal expression of three gender-stereotyped emotions: anger, sadness, and frustration. Parents and their early adolescent children discussed four interpersonal dilemmas and answered questions regarding those dilemmas in mother-child and father-child dyads. Consistent with previous literature regarding gender stereotypes in emotion expression, daughters used a higher frequency of emotion words than sons did during conversations with their mothers and fathers. Additional analyses regarding the three specific emotions under investigation, however, revealed findings that were inconsistent with conventional gender stereotypes. Contrary to expectations, in conversations with fathers, sons used a higher proportion of references to sadness than did daughters. Daughters used a higher proportion of references to frustration than did sons in their conversations with both mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers used a higher proportion of references to frustration with daughters than with sons. No gender differences were found in parents' or children's references to anger. The results call into question culturally accepted gender stereotypes about sadness, anger, and frustration. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Four quantitative meta-analyses examined whether teachers' expectations, referrals, positive and neutral speech, and negative speech differed toward ethnic minority students (i.e., African American, Asian American, and Latino/a) as compared with European American students. Teachers were found to hold the highest expectations for Asian American students (d = -.17). In addition, teachers held more positive expectations for European American students than for Latino/a (d =.46) or African American (d =.25) students. Teachers made more positive referrals and fewer negative referrals for European American students than for Latino/a and African American students (d =.31). Although teachers directed more positive and neutral speech (e.g., questions and encouragement) toward European American students than toward Latino/a and African American students (d =.21), they directed an equal amount of negative speech (e.g., criticism) to all students (d =.02). In general, teachers' favoring of European American students compared with African American and Latino/a students was associated with small but statistically significant effects. The meta-analyses suggest that teachers' expectations and speech vary with students' ethnic backgrounds. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
The present study examined how Saudi Arabian children (M = 10.50 years, SD = 1.61, Range = 8 to 10 years) evaluate peer exclusion based on religion when the perpetrator of exclusion was a peer or a father. Children believed that it was more acceptable for fathers than for peers to enforce exclusion and were more likely to use social conventional reasons to justify exclusion when the perpetrator was a father. The discussion focuses on how social domain theory needs to take children’s cultural community into account.
Although individuals with Williams syndrome are very sociable, they tend to have limited contact and friendships with peers. In typically developing children the use of positive emotions (e.g., happy) has been argued to be related to peer relationships and popularity. The current study investigated the use and development of emotion words in Williams syndrome using cross-sectional developmental trajectories and examined children's use of different types of emotion words. Nineteen children with Williams syndrome (WS) and 20 typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological age told a story from a wordless picture book. Participants with WS produced a similar number of emotion words compared to the control group and the use of emotion words did not change when plotted against chronological age or vocabulary abilities in either group. However, participants with WS produced more emotion words about sadness. Links between emotion production and friendships as well as future studies are discussed.Learning outcomes: After reading this article, readers will be able to: explain the development of positive and negative emotions in Williams syndrome and recognize that emotion production is atypical in this population. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
This study examined relations between 124 British children’s and their parents’ endorsements about the origins of three living things (human, non-human animal, plant) as reported on questionnaires. In addition to completing questionnaires, half of the sample discussed the origins of entities (n = 64) in parent-child dyads before completing the questionnaires. The 7-year-old age group endorsed creationism more than evolution and the 10-year-old age group endorsed both concepts equally for all three living things. Children’s endorsements were correlated with their parents’ endorsements for all three living things. Children’s endorsement of evolutionary theory was more closely related to parent-child conversational mentions of evolution than to parents’ endorsement of evolutionary theory in questionnaires. A similar pattern was found for children’s endorsement of creationism. Parent-child conversations did not consistently invoke evolution or creationism even when parents endorsed a particular theory. Findings are interpreted in relation to the pivotal role of joint collaborative conversation in children’s appropriation of scientific content.
Decades of research indicate that peer interaction, where individuals discuss or work on a task collaboratively, may be beneficial children’s and adolescents’ learning. Yet we do not know which features of interaction may be related to learning from peer interaction. This meta-analysis examined results from 62 articles with 71 studies into peer interaction, involving a total of 7,103 participants aged 4 to 18 years. Peer interaction was effective in promoting learning in comparison with other types of learning conditions, Hedges' g = 0.40, 95% CI [0.27, 0.54], p < .0001, across different gender and age groups. In contrast, however, peer interaction was not more effective than child-adult dyadic interaction. Moderator analyses also indicated that peer interaction is more effective when children are specifically instructed to reach consensus than when they are not. Findings extend theoretical considerations by teasing apart the processes through which children learn from peer interactions and offer practical implications for the effective use of peer interaction techniques in the classroom.
This study examined emotion understanding (as assessed by the Test of Emotion Comprehension; Pons, Harris, & DeRosnay, 2004) and motor skills (as assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children; Henderson, Barnett, & Sudgen, 2007) as predictors of children’s understanding of faux pas (Banerjee, Watling, & Caputi, 2011). Faux paus situations are those in which someone causes unintentional offence or behaves inappropriately. Understanding of faux pas requires knowledge of social norms in specific situations as well as emotion understanding. Misunderstanding faux pas can prevent smooth social functioning. Fifty-six children (aged 7;0 to 9;11 years) completed a measure of faux pas understanding, emotion understanding, and motor skills. Children’s faux pas understanding, emotion understanding, and motor skills were all related to each other. However, when age, motor skills, and emotion understanding were entered into a regression to predict faux pas understanding, only motor skills predicted understanding of faux pas. The findings are discussed in relation to potential pathways between motor skills and social understanding.
In two studies, we investigated the prevalence of gender stereotypes in print magazines targeted at 2– to 9-year-olds, analysing three crucial and distinct aspects of children’s magazines: the front cover, the magazine content, and featured activities. Study 1 focused on the front covers of 106 children’s print magazines aimed at audiences of either girls, boys, or both boys and girls. Content analyses revealed that magazines aimed solely at boys or girls displayed gender-stereotypic colours and more same- than other-gender characters. Front covers aimed at girls contained no speaking characters and, compared to front covers aimed at boys, displayed more words related to appearance. Study 2 analysed the content of 42 magazine issues. Magazines aimed at girls were most likely to incorporate the themes of fashion and home, to instruct the reader to ask for an adult’s help with an activity, and less likely to include activities labelled as educational than were magazines aimed at boys or both girls and boys. In contrast, magazines aimed at boys were most likely to incorporate the theme of occupations. Overall, findings suggest that gender stereotypical messages are embedded throughout young children’s magazines, which are tailored in their style and content based on their target audience.
This study investigated the ways in which families constructed an understanding of evolution exhibits at a natural history museum. We examined museum visitors’ use of exhibit text and the types of evolution-related talk in parent-child conversations while visiting the chimp/human and the artiodactyl exhibits. Participants were 52 families with children aged 2- to 11-years who agreed to be digitally recorded. Analyses of parent-child conversations indicated that families who read exhibit text were more likely to stay longer at the exhibits and to encounter the intended content of the exhibits than families who did not read the text. On-topic conversations tended to focus on labelling and describing the exhibit content rather than talking about evolutionary concepts. Physical descriptions of exhibit displays allowed children to make inferences about novel entities (i.e., those in the exhibits) based on prior knowledge.
Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.
© 2014 Patrick J. Leman and Harriet R. Tenenbaum. All rights reserved.Children are born into a world infused with gendered information. An understanding of what it is to be a boy or girl can be critical in forming social relationships, social identities, and learning how to think and behave. Gender and Development is an important new volume that charts how children practice these gendered identities at different ages and in different social contexts.Taking a socio-cognitive approach, and integrating both theoretical and applied perspectives, the book looks at a range of contexts in which gender affects development and socialisation, from the child's place in the family unit and their interaction with parents and siblings, to the influence of communication with peers over the internet. Throughout the chapters an age-old issue is addressed through a contemporary, empirically focused perspective-namely the nature and extent of equality between the genders, and how difficult it is for attitudes, perceptions and stereotypes to change. Key social issues are covered, including pro-social behaviour, career choice and academic competencies.Gender and Development brings together some of the latest research in this important and enduring field of study. It is a timely and invaluable collection, and will be essential reading for all students and research in developmental psychology, social psychology and gender studies.
This study explored relationships between perspective-taking, emotion understanding, and children's narrative abilities. Younger (23 5-/6-year-olds) and older (24 7-/8-year-olds) children generated fictional narratives, using a wordless picture book, about a frog experiencing jealousy. Children's emotion understanding was assessed through a standardized test of emotion comprehension and their ability to convey the jealousy theme of the story. Perspective-taking ability was assessed with respect to children's use of narrative evaluation (i.e., narrative coherence, mental state language, supplementary evaluative speech, use of subjective language, and placement of emotion expression). Older children scored higher than younger children on emotion comprehension and on understanding the story's complex emotional theme, including the ability to identify a rival. They were more advanced in perspective-taking abilities, and selectively used emotion expressions to highlight story episodes. Subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence were predictive of children's elaboration of the jealousy theme. Use of supplementary evaluative speech, in turn, was predictive of both subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.
Everyday parent-child conversations may support children's scientific understanding. The types and frequency of parent-child science talk may vary with the cultural and schooling background of the participants, and yet most research in the USA focuses on highly schooled European-American families. This study investigated 40 Mexican-descent parents' science talk with their children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, range = 2 years 10 months to 8 years 6 months). Parents were divided between a higher schooling group who had completed secondary school, and a basic schooling group who had fewer than 12 years of formal schooling. Parents and children were videotaped engaging with science exhibits at a children's museum and at home. Conversations were coded in terms of parents' explanatory talk. In both contexts, Mexican-descent parents engaged children in explanatory science talk. At the museum, parents in the higher schooling group used more causal explanations, scientific principles explanations, and encouraging predictions types of explanations than did parents in the basic schooling group. By contrast, the only difference at home was that parents in the higher schooling group used more encouraging predictions talk than parents in the basic schooling group. Parents who had been to museums used more explanations than parents who had never visited a museum. The results suggest that while explanatory speech differed somewhat in two groups of Mexican-descent parents varying in formal schooling, all of these children from Mexican-descent families experienced some conversations that were relevant for their developing science literacy. © 2008 Sage Publications.
Forgiveness, as a response to interpersonal transgressions, has multiple societal and individual benefits. Individual differences in attachment have been identified as a predictor not only of forgiveness but of state responses frequently associated with forgiveness. The current meta-analysis is the first systematic analysis of the effect of attachment dimensions (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) on forgiveness of others. Analysis of published and unpublished studies (k = 26) identified significant, small-to-medium effects of attachment anxiety (r = −.25) and attachment avoidance (r = −.18) on forgiveness of others. No significant difference was obtained between measures of state and trait forgiveness. The moderating effects of study paradigm, attachment measure, publication type, and sample population were also investigated. The findings of a stable negative effect of insecure attachment dimensions on forgiveness of others provide a base for future research that may focus on reducing attachment anxiety and avoidance to support forgiveness.
Within Western cultures, most women in heterosexual relationships adopt their husbands’ surnames after marriage. In attempting to explain the enduring nature of this practice, researchers have noted that women tend to encounter stereotypes when they break with tradition by retaining their own surnames after marriage. A complementary possibility is that stereotypes are also directed toward men whose wives violate the surname tradition. The current research provides initial insight into this possibility through three studies that were conducted in the United States and United Kingdom with undergraduate and community samples (total n = 355; 254 women and 101 men). Study 1 revealed that participants predominantly referenced expressive traits when describing a man whose wife retained her surname. Study 2 built on these findings with an experimental design. Relative to a man whose wife adhered to the surname tradition, a man whose wife retained her surname was rated as less instrumental, more expressive, and as holding less power in the relationship. In Study 3, participants high in hostile sexism were particularly likely to rate a man as lower in power when his wife retained her surname. Collectively, findings provide insight into attitudes that may help to explain the longevity of the marital surname tradition. Findings also join with prior research in revealing links between commonplace marriage traditions and gendered power dynamics.
This study examined the understanding of children's rights in 63 (9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds) mixed-race South African children and their mothers. In individual semi-structured interviews participants responded to hypothetical vignettes in which children's nurturance and self-determination rights conflicted with parental authority in the home. Participants were required to decide whether they should support the story characters' rights and provide justifications for their responses. Findings indicated that both children and mothers were more likely to endorse children's nurturance than self-determination rights. In contrast to previous research, no significant differences were found between children and mothers in terms of support for either type of right. In terms of reasoning, both children's and mothers' responses revealed distinct patterns of thinking influenced by the type of right under consideration. The findings are discussed with reference to the available western and non-western literature on children's understanding of rights. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are considered.