Next generation wireless communication systems are expected to support unprecedented extremely high data transfer rates. This objective requires wider bandwidths which are presently only available at the millimeter waves (mm-waves) spectrum (30-300 GHz). Due to stringent propagation impairments, mm-waves mainly rely on the line of sight communication links which require high gain and wide angle beamsteeering smart antennas to maintain their performance. Owing to the complexity and losses in array beamformers, the realization of a high gain wide angle electronic beamsteering antenna solution at mm-waves becomes a key challenge. This research provides a potentially competing novel high gain electronic beamsteering antenna solution for mm-waves in the form of a phase quantized smart reflectarray consisting of high performance reconfigurable unit cells. Novel contributions of this research are: (a) Analysis of mm-wave reflectarray unit cells including the effects of fringing fields, surface waves, finite metal conductivity and metal surface roughness. (b) New measurement techniques for mm-wave reflectarray unit cells to ease the alignment, orientation, and DC biasing issues. (c) Characterization of PIN diodes at 10 GHz and 60 GHz for their ON/OFF state models extraction from measurements. (d) Design of three state implicit phase shifter reflectarray unit cell at 60 GHz, reduction in its DC bias lines, and an optimization technique to improve polarization purity of a multi-state reconfigurable unit cell. (e) A fast algorithm to prepare the electromagnetic simulation model of large reflectarrays. (f) Conception and measurement based validation of phase quantized reflecarrays and their performance matrix. (g) Conception and measurement based analytical solution of low DC power consuming smart reflectarrays. The resulting solution is agile, simple to implement, do not necessarily require multiple RF chains, enables wide angle electronic beamsteering (+-78 degree), is scalable for any gain/frequency requirements, can be made foldable for smaller satellite platforms, is very reliable, and consumes low DC power. This smart reflectarray platform can implement any phase only synthesis technique for radiation pattern control including single/multiple pencil beams, contoured beams, and their scanning over wider angles. Findings of this research would potentially benefit next generation terrestrial/air/space communication systems and radars.
Reflectarrays are becoming a potentially attractive replacement of parabolic reflectors for high gain requirements. A large reflectarray consists of thousands of elements. To predict their performance a simulation model is required which is very cumbersome to build manually due to a large number of elements. It takes exhaustive efforts, keen attention to details and significant amount of time to build such a simulation model. When several iterations of modelling are required it worsens the issue even further. We have presented here an algorithm as an automated solution to this problem by interfacing Matlab® with an electromagnetic simulation software. It is very generic, time efficient and makes the modelling easy with least intervention of the designer.
This article reports two contributions related to reflectarray antenna design at millimeter waves (mm-waves). First, a closed form analytical formulation is provided for the prediction of reflection properties of square/rectangular mm-waves reflectarray unit cells based on various quality factors and the theory of waveguide coupled resonators. To ensure a high accuracy at mm-waves, the effects of fringing fields, surface waves, metal conductivity, and metal surface roughness are included in the analysis. This analysis program greatly facilitates the parametric studies of a unit cell's constituting parameters to converge on an optimum design solution. Secondly, the concept of phase quantization is proposed for a cost effective realization of mm-waves reflectarrays. The developed formulation in the first contribution was used to design two 3 bit phase quantized, single layer, 19 wavelength, passive reflectarrays at 60 GHz. The test results are compared with simulations and a very good agreement was observed. These findings are potentially useful for the realization of high gain antennas for mm-wave inter-satellite links in small satellite platforms.
Millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands are becoming potentially attractive candidates for next generation communication systems. It is envisioned that high gain smart antennas will be one of the key enabling technologies for such systems. At mm-wave bands, where electrical size of an individual antenna becomes very small, the inclusion of a reconfigurable mechanism in the antenna becomes a great challenge due to real estate constraints. In these scenarios a designer has to decide on the number of bits in a phase shifter for antenna beam steering which will result in an optimum design. This contribution addresses the issue of phase quantization in mm-wave high gain reflectarray smart antennas to achieve an optimum performance. Implementing coarse phase quantization greatly reduces the complexity at mm-wave bands. A case study is presented to highlight the effects of coarse phase quantization using various numbers of bits.
This paper presents the design and development of a dual-band switched-beam microstrip array for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications such as ocean reflectometry and remote sensing. In contrast to the traditional Butler matrix, a simple, low cost, broadband and low insertion loss beam switching feed network is proposed, designed and integrated with a dual band antenna array to achieve continuous beam coverage of ±25° around the boresight at the L1 (1.575 GHz) and L2 (1.227 GHz) bands. To reduce the cost, microstrip lines and PIN diode based switches are employed. The proposed switched beam network is then integrated with dual-band step-shorted annular ring (S-SAR) antenna elements in order to produce a fully integrated compact-sized switched beam array. Antenna simulation results show that the switched beam array achieves a maximum gain of 12 dBic at the L1 band and 10 dBic at the L2 band. In order to validate the concept, a scaled down prototype of the simulated design is fabricated and measured. The prototype operates at twice of the original design frequency i.e. 3.15 GHz and 2.454 GHz and the measured results confirm that the integrated array achieves beam switching and good performance at both bands.
Microstrip printed reflectarrays are becoming a potential replacement of parabolic reflector and phased array antennas due to their simple design, low cost and ease of manufacture to attain high gain and wide angle beam pointing at millimeter waves (mm-waves). Significant challenges are faced while implementing continuous phase reflectarrays at mm-waves. However, discretizing the required reflection phase provides a practically implementable solution. This contribution addresses the selection of phase states and its scattering in a phase discretized mm-wave reflectarray. The performance of two 1.5 bit phase quantized reflectarrays having closely spaced geometrical features is analyzed at 60 GHz. This study provides a better understanding to achieve a wider bandwidth response in practically implementable mm-wave reflectarrays.
A novel dual-polarized broadband antenna array for S-band is presented. This antenna is composed of 6 × 2 microstrip antenna elements with a hybrid feed-line network providing an isolation ≥ 18.6 dB between the H- and V-ports. The operative bandwidth is from 3.15 to 3.25 GHz, and the peak measured gain is approximately 19 dBi. The array is suitable for spacecraft operation because of the selected materials, its low profile (~8 mm thickness), and light weight. It has potential applications in synthetic aperture radar (SAR), remote sensing, and wireless communications.
Reflectarray antennas are a potential candidate solution to realize high gains at millimetre waves (mm-waves). A reflectarray contains a large number of spatially illuminated unit cells. The performance of a good reflectarray design is manifested by the behaviour of its comprising unit cells. An established technique to characterise a unit cell is by placing it inside a waveguide to achieve periodic boundary conditions. This usually requires custom waveguide products; making the tests difficult and expensive. Additionally, when the unit cells are reconfigurable as in a smart reflectarray it is hard to take the DC bias lines out of the waveguide without using custom made waveguide parts. This contribution address the issue of unit cell placement inside the waveguide and proposes simple unit cell structures to avoid custom made waveguide parts. The idea was verified by measuring a series of unit cells at mm-waves in various configurations and a practically acceptable agreement was found. The proposed structures greatly simplify the reconfigurable unit cell testing.
A steady increasing trend towards millimetre waves (mm-waves) for next generation communication has initiated an intensive research in the field of mm-wave antenna technologies. Reflectarray antennas being one of the potential candidates offer significant advantages over parabolic and phased array antennas at mm-wave bands. In a well-designed reflectarray, the overall performance is mainly determined by its comprising unit cell(s). Most of the recent reflectarray designs are based on printed microstrip technology. It is well known that surface waves get generated in printed microstrip technology and contribute to loss in the radiated signal power in the intended direction. This paper analyses the effect of surface waves in the reflection properties of a printed microstrip millimetre wave reflectarray unit cell. The analytical results are compared with measured data at 32 GHz and an excellent agreement was observed. It was observed that surface waves, though generally considered to have malign effects in antennas, play a significant positive role in the reduction of reflection loss magnitude at unit cell level.
This thesis presents the feasibility of liquid metal in reconfigurable antenna applications. Unlike conventional reconfigurable antennas, liquid metal possesses the ability to reconfigure an antenna aperture in new ways largely undiscovered. In this work, the design, analysis and measurement of two liquid metal reconfigurable antennas are carried out bringing together research on materials, microfluidics and electromagnetics. In addition, a like for like comparison of applying liquid metal and PIN diode in pattern reconfigurable antennas is presented. On the RF characterisation, test fixtures are designed, analysed and measured to evaluate liquid metal and copper up to 67 GHz, and PIN diode up to 6 GHz. While various liquid metal antennas exist, the current state of the art has mainly implemented liquid metal in point-like contacts or limited confined areas. On how liquid metal can be used to connect/disconnect large areas of metalisation and achieve radiation performance not possible by using conventional switches is demonstrated in a frequency bandwidth reconfigurable antenna. The antenna results in a 2 dB gain and 24% efficiency enhancement. The second antenna presents a frequency tunable patch antenna formed from liquid metal. The antenna reconfigures its resonance in a continuous manner. A measured total usable spectrum of 73% is achieved. In the like for like pattern reconfigurable antennas comparison, the liquid metal shows no effect on resonance whereas PIN diodes cause 27% resonance shift. The liquid metal antenna shows up to 1.4 dB gain and 13% efficiency higher than that of the PIN diode antenna. In the RF characterisation, the diode shows up to 6.5 dB higher insertion loss than liquid metal. Liquid metal measurements up to 67 GHz show identical behaviour as of copper. Results conclude that liquid metal has a high feasibility in reconfigurable antenna applications and its RF performance is as of a typical conductor.
A conformal transmitarray with thinned control is presented, operating at 28 GHz. Its side panels are rotated to align with the maximum steering angle, increasing the gain and reducing the scan loss. The transmitarray is fed by an 8-element linear phased array antenna. Beam focusing to +/- 53 degrees is demonstrated for two different directions, using combinations of crossed-slot unit cells. A unit cell placement rule is proposed to significantly reduce (i.e. thin) the required number of reconfigurable unit cells. A filling factor of 43% was achieved compared to a fully populated design. This reduces the cost and biasing complexity. By minimising scan loss, this antenna could improve the performance of 5G small-cell access points.
This paper presents two different designs for frequency reconfigurable antennas capable of continuous tuning. The radiator, for both antenna designs, is a microstrip patch, formed from liquid metal, contained within a microfluidic channel structure. Both patch designs are aperture fed. The microfluidic channel structures are made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The microfluidic channel structure for the first design has a meander layout and incorporates rows of posts. The simulated antenna provides a frequency tuning range of approximately 118% (i.e. 4.36 GHz) over the frequency range from 1.51 GHz to 5.87 GHz. An experimental result for the fully filled case shows a resonance at 1.49 GHz (1.3% error compared with the simulation). Experienced rheological behavior of the liquid metal necessitates microfluidic channel modifications. For that reason, we modified the channel structure used to realise the radiating patch for the second design. Straight channels are implemented in the second microfluidic device. According to simulation the design yields a frequency tuning range of about 77% (i.e. 3.28 GHz) from 2.62 GHz to 5.90 GHz.
Beam steering impairments adversely affect antenna performance at wider steering angles. Scan loss degrades the antenna gain, and hence the link budget. To address this problem, antennas designs based on phased arrays, lenses, and transmitarrays are proposed. Millimetre wave beamforming within 5G cell sectors is considered as an application scenario. Feed networks for an 8-element phased array, operating at 28 GHz, were designed using unequal power dividers. A Taylor amplitude distribution was applied to reduce the sidelobe level to -15.2 dB at boresight. Prototypes were fabricated in microstrip, using meanders to steer the beam. Cascaded Fresnel lenses were placed around the array, to enhance the gain. By tilting the lenses to align with the steered beam, the lenses increased the gain by 3.19 dB at ±52°, and by a further 1.5 dB when repositioned in simulation. Asymmetric amplitude distributions were applied to the array to prevent the main lobe from splitting. Diffraction theory was used to analyse the focusing properties of the lens arrangement. The fabricated prototype exhibited a bandwidth of 1.75 GHz. Antennas were designed and simulated for line-of-sight MIMO scenarios. An envelope correlation coefficient below 0.0356 was maintained for both designs. 2D SISO beam steering was also simulated. Achievable data rates were estimated from the antenna parameters, and the effect of interference was evaluated. Scan loss was mitigated for the two antenna rows within the focal region. A conformal transmitarray was designed, using 1-bit unit cells based on crossed-slots. A unit cell placement rule was proposed to reduce the number of electronically reconfigurable cells by 59%. A measured gain of 12.5 dBi and a simulated total efficiency of 75% were obtained at boresight and the maximum steering angle of 53°. By combining reconfigurable lenses with phased arrays, the focusing directivity is able to mitigate scan loss.
To support the responsible implementation of next-generation wireless communications networks such as 5G, the efficiency of power amplifiers located in both base-stations and mobile handsets must be improved. This improvement will also benefit other areas of wireless innovation such as satellite communications, military and civilian short-range radar (automotive and gesture tracking), and future submillimetre-wave communications. Significant efficiency gains can be obtained by using nonlinear amplifier techniques, however these cause undesired distortion to the signal. Methods used to mitigate these effects rely on accurate models extracted from the internal transistors, which circuit simulators interrogate to predict the performance of new amplifier designs. This thesis presents the first evaluation of measurement uncertainty propagated into a nonlinear behavioural model, X-parameters, and used within a circuit simulator to provide confidence in the results. This uncertainty evaluation can also reveal the relative uncertainty contributions from different aspects of the measurement setup, the knowledge of which can be used to make informed improvements in manufacturing test laboratories. The evaluation was tested on a millimetre-wave amplifier designed for communications use, which showed encouraging results when simulated in a test circuit to provide figures for gain and PAE. During development of this uncertainty evaluation, a standard guidance document was reviewed and found to contain ambiguities which significantly affect scattering-parameter measurements commonly used in RF laboratories. This ambiguity is highlighted to inform those working on revisions that is must be addressed. Finally, traditional uncertainty evaluation techniques for vector network analyser measurements in coaxial transmission lines are applied to rectangular metallic waveguide setups to investigate their success. Waveguide concerning frequencies up to 750 GHz are considered, covering E-band and higher which are being developed for future high-bandwidth communications. Although the uncertainty evaluation techniques work well for most waveguides tested, mechanical issues in WR-1.5 prohibits the feasibility of the technique.
Linear Angular Momentum Multiplexing is a new method for providing highly spectrally efficient short range communication between a transmitter and receiver, where one may move at speed transverse to the propagation. Such applications include rail, vehicle and hyperloop transport systems communicating with fixed infrastructure on the ground. This paper describes how the scientific concept of linear angular momentum multiplexing evolves from orbital angular momentum multiplexing. The essential parameters for implementing this concept are: a long array at least at one of the ends of the link; antenna element radiation characteristics; and the array element spacing relative to the propagation distance. These parameters are also backed by short range measurements carried out at 2.4GHz used to model the Rice fading channel and determine resilience to multipath fading.
In this paper, a compact, broadband, planar array antenna with omnidirectional radiation in horizontal plane is proposed for the 26 GHz fifth-generation (5G) broadcast applications. The antenna element is composed of two dipoles and a substrate integrated cavity (SIC) as the power splitter. The two dipoles are placed side-by-side at both sides of the SIC and they are compensated with each other to form an omni-directional pattern in horizontal plane. By properly combing the resonant frequencies of the dipoles and the SIC, a wide impedance bandwidth from 24 to 29.5 GHz is achieved. To realize a large array while reducing the complexity, loss and size of the feeding network, a novel dual-port structure combined with radiation and power splitting functions is proposed for the 1st time. The amplitude and phase on each element of the array can be tuned, and therefore, the grating lobes level can be significantly reduced. Based on the dual-port structure, an 8-element array with an enhanced gain of over 12 dBi is designed and prototyped. The proposed antenna also features low profile, low weight and low cost, which is desirable for 5G commercial applications. Measured results agree well with the simulations, showing that the proposed high-gain array antenna has a broad bandwidth, omni-directional pattern in horizontal plane, and low side-lobes.
A novel circular polarized antenna structure capable of high radiation efficiency, and suitable for use in multilayer microwave circuits is presented. The antenna uses dual ring feed system to enhance radiation. Data is provided for a prototype antenna working at 10 GHz.
Wireless connectivity needs to be high capacity and reliable for present and future high speed land transportation systems, including rail, road and hyperloop. All such moving platforms transport a substantial number of passengers, creating high data demands in often remote areas. This paper proposes how to re-think the means by which wireless connectivity is implemented to provide wireless services to a dense number of users on a fast moving platform. The proposed concept evolves from orbital angular momentum radio modes for data multiplexing to linear or planar angular momentum instead. In this study, the wireless link is placed underneath the moving platform, a promising low-cost method that potentially could achieve 9Gbps with 15MHz bandwidth and 10dB signal to noise ratio from initial analysis carried out.
This paper presents an assessment of how successful an eavesdropping attack on a contactless payment transaction can be in terms of bit and frame error rates, using an easily concealable antenna and low-cost electronics. Potential success of an eavesdropping attack largely depends on the correct recovery of the data frames used in the ISO 14443 standard. A near-field communication inductive loop antenna was used to emulate an ISO 14443 transmission. For eavesdropping, an identical inductive loop antenna as well as a shopping trolley modified to act like an antenna were used. The authors present and analyse frame error rates obtained with the authors equipment over a range of distances, up to 100 cm, well above the official maximum operating distance depending on the magnetic field strength.
Orthogonal static or fixed links with polarization multiplexing can be formed by using dual polarized antennas with a low cross coupling from one polarization to the other. This is limited by the level of achievable polarization purity of two orthogonal dual polarized antennas. Any practical antenna is inherently elliptically polarized, resulting in either circular or linear polarization impurity. This work exploits such impurity where simple semi directional elliptically polarized antennas are designed to have minimal cross coupling. Results show a dual polar static link can reach the capacity limit using elliptical polarization, which is not reached with linear polarization. Channel measurements both in free space and indoor environments were carried out from 2.2 to 2.4 GHz using a derived cross polar ratio to quantify the impact of multipath scattering on static links.
This paper investigates the effects of Ground Plane on the Performance of Multipath Mitigating Antennas for GNSS.
A new simple and accurate model defined as shield edge diffraction is derived and validated suitable for frequencies above 10GHz diffracting around obstructions that are narrow compared to the Fresnel zone width. The model includes new simple Fresnel diffraction parameters similar to those used with traditional knife edge diffraction, which can in the same way be integrated into deterministic and empirical path loss models. Capability of the model extends beyond current single and double knife edge models whereby it includes the effects of the antennas’ far field distances as well as their gain and phase patterns, which subsequently have a severe effect on the diffraction loss in short range links. The models are validated using both anechoic chamber as well as real environment based measurements at 10-12GHz and 26GHz.
The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipments radiating electromagnetic-fields(EMF)and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate,better quality of service(QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points,i.e.densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices,e.g. internet of things(IoT)devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating,limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.
Detection of packages or storage containers relies heavily on the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging, though such technology provides no means to determine the quantity of items within them. This paper presents a comprehensive study of ultra wideband (UWB) detection in the reactive near field as a low cost, low power way of detecting solid items within a package to complement RFID. For proof of concept, egg boxes within a smart fridge are used as a chosen test case. Simulations and measurements are carried out to evaluate the filtering of the UWB impulse response from which it can resolve the quantity of eggs in a box, using an array of sensors either attached to the package or placed underneath. Correlation coefficients are derived as a metric of this filtering in a reactive near field detection scenario. The robustness of the approach is further evaluated by considering other food cluttered around and above the egg box. The results show smart packages which detect an item directly above the sensor are not affected by surrounding clutter.
Future communication systems employing massive multiple input multiple output will not have the ability to use channel state information at the mobile user terminals. Instead, it will be necessary for such devices to evaluate the downlink signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) with interference both from the base station serving other users within the same cell and other base stations from adjacent cells. The SINR will act as an indicator of how well the precoders have been applied at the base station. The results presented in this paper from a 32 x 3 massive MIMO channel sounder measurement campaign at 2.4 GHz show how the received bit error rate and error vector magnitudes can be used to obtain a prediction of both the average and dynamically changing SINR.
The increasing interest in using the Near Field Communications (NFC) technology  at 13.5MHz is growing rapidly in the area of contactless payments, as well as numerous other applications, between devices that are within 10cm distance apart. However, there is growing concern that the use of such devices for contactless payments invites problems with regards to using metallic objects in the vicinity of the two devices to act as “rogue” antennas and eavesdrop information whilst a financial transaction is taking place. This paper will present aspects of designing H-antennas both for the two devices while also identifying the means by which rogue antennas can be designed from real life metallic structures such as a trolley.
A new modelling method suited to the dual circular polarised (MIMO) channel applicable to land mobile satellite (LMS) communications in line of sight cases is presented. In this scenario, it is necessary to apply correlated fading to the co-polarised and cross- polarised channels separately in order to model the evident polarization multiplexing in such channels found from measurement data. Comparisons between model and measured data for satellite elevations of 30o are presented for validation. Influence of the vehicle interior on the channel model is also analysed.
Measurements in the range of 10-20GHz, 22- 30GHz and 50-67GHz are presented in this paper that show the benefit of using gaps in building infrastructure to substantially improve the penetration loss in the order of 10dB or more. Increasing the frequency substantially improves the opportunity to penetrate through the same size gap as it becomes electrically larger. The measurement setup used in this work involves the use of a ground floor infrared reflector glass door whereby the effect of the gaps can be compared both by closing the door and sealing the gaps with a conductor in order to identify the difference in penetration. Simulations were also carried out to verify the waveguiding and standing wave effects in the gaps.
A new method of meandered variable pitch angle printed Quadrifilar Helix Antenna (MVPQHA) is described. This type of antenna helps in reducing the size of the printed quadrifilar helix antenna (PQHA) and makes the bandwidth of the antenna broader. The new type of antenna is compared with other existing types of printed quadrifilar helix antenna in terms of size, return loss and bandwidth.
A new model of inductively coupled high frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) reader antennas is presented in this paper based on the idea of using the self resonance frequency (SRF) of a small multi turn coil. The introduced multi turn small self resonant coil (MT SSRC) antenna is mathematically analyzed in terms of SRF, number of turns, dimensions and dielectric characteristics of the insulation, where present. Based on the analysis, a compact planar version of MT SSRC antennas having two turns, the two turn planar SSRC (TTP SSRC), is investigated and the dependency of the SRF to the antenna dimension is observed. A TTP SSRC antenna operating at 13.56 MHz is fabricated and is compared with an old model of HF RFID antennas; an optimized Q factor and a more uniform near field pattern is obtained for the new antenna. The benefits of the obtained optimized Q factor and uniform near pattern is explained for smart shelf application. Also, a number of TTP SSRC antennas operating at a distinct frequency, 13.56MHz here, are fabricated on different substrates and it is shown that the Q factor and dimension of the TTP SSRC antenna could be controlled and adjusted based on the dielectric characteristics of the substrate. The new antenna prototype has a beneficial application to smart shelf applications in HF RFID.
This paper presents a machine learning (ML) based model to predict the diffraction loss around the human body. Practically, it is not reasonable to measure the diffraction loss changes for all possible body rotation angles, builds and line of sight (LoS) elevation angles. A diffraction loss variation prediction model based on a non-parametric learning technique called Gaussian process (GP) is introduced. Analysed results state that 86% correlation and normalised mean square error (NMSE) of 0.3 on the test data is achieved using only 40% of measured data. This allows a 60% reduction in required measurements in order to achieve a well-fitted ML loss prediction model. It also confirms the model generalizability for non-measured rotation angles.
A compact-size planar antenna with ultra-wideband (UWB) bandwidth and directional patterns is presented. The antenna can be fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB). On one side of the PCB, it has a circular patch, and on the other side it has a slot-embedded ground plane with a fork-shaped feeding stub in the slot. Directional radiation is achieved by using a reflector below the antenna. To reduce the thickness of the antenna, a new low-profile antenna configuration is proposed. Three types of directional UWB antennas are analyzed. The distance between the antenna and the reflector is 12 mm (0.16 λ0, λ0 is the free space wavelength at the lowest frequency). In order to validate the design, a prototype is also fabricated and measured. Measured results agree well with the simulated ones. The measured results confirm that the proposed antenna features a reflection coefficient below -10 dB over the UWB range from 4.2 GHz to 8.5 GHz, a maximum gain around 9 dBi, a front-to-back ratio over 17 dB and pulse fidelity higher than 90% in the time domain. Thus it is promising for see-through-wall imaging applications.
This paper presents empirically based ultrawideband and directional channel measurements, performed in the Terahertz (THz) frequency range over 250 GHz bandwidth from 500 GHz to 750 GHz. Measurement setup calibration technique is presented for free-space measurements taken at Line-of-Sight (LoS) between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver(Rx) in an indoor environment. The atmospheric effects on signal propagation in terms of molecular absorption by oxygen and water molecules are calculated and normalized. Channel impulse responses (CIRs) are acquired for the LoS scenario for different antenna separation distances. From the CIRs the Power Delay Profile (PDP) is presented where multiple delay taps can be observed caused due to group delay products and reflections from the measurement bench.
A novel, multi-slope dual breakpoint model for predicting path-loss in Ultra-Wideband (UWB) off-body communication channels, is proposed. This model is based on real-body measurements, carried out in the frequency range between 3.5GHz-6.5GHz, in an anechoic chamber. New parameters that describe this specific propagation environment are presented and evaluated. Results show that the first breakpoint point angle lies in the lit region of the transmitter and increases exponentially with distance until it rises to its threshold value. Based on this finding the near and far field areas for BAP (Body to Access Point) channels are defined. In addition, newly estimated decay coefficients suggest severe degradation as the receiver moves in between the two critical angles. Finally, techniques for model expansion in two dimensions are discussed.
Millimeter wave lens antennas will be essential for future wireless access. Conventionally, they increase the gain in the boresight direction only. In this paper, cascaded Fresnel zone plate lenses are combined with a phased array to increase the gain at wide steering angles of ±52°. The side lenses are tilted to align with the maximum steering angle, and cascaded to increase the focusing gain. The inner lenses increase the gain by 2.45 dB at boresight, and by 3.19 dB at the maximum steering angle. When the side lenses are repositioned, the simulated focusing gain increases to 4.69 dB. Asymmetric amplitude distributions are proposed to prevent the main lobe from splitting. An 8-dement 7-lens prototype operating at 28 GHz achieved a gain from 12.96 dBi to 15.35 dBi with a bandwidth of at least 1.3 GHz for all measured beam directions. The maximum measured azimuthal beamwidth was 27°. A design procedure and a theoretical analysis of diffraction through the lenses are provided. By increasing the SNR, this beamfonning antenna could improve the coverage of 3-sector 5G microcell base stations, and support gigabit wireless links for vehicular, rail, and satellite communications.
Antenna diversity has been used as a method to mitigate multipath fading. For mobile communications, this has usually been at the base station, but there is an increasing demand for diversity antennas to be implemented at the mobile. In this case, there is often a main antenna, as in any other handset, and also a smaller diversity antenna. With such antennas, it is difficult for both to maintain high mean effective gain (MEG), which is a disadvantage to the overall system performance. Also, implementing more than two elements usually increases the handset volume. An intelligent quadrifilar helix antenna (IQHA) (see Leach, S.M. et al., IEE Proc. on Microwaves, Antennas and Propag., vol.147, no.3, p.219-23, 2000) is based on four helix antenna elements that can be combined to allow beam steering towards satellites and terrestrial base stations. Combining the elements in an appropriate fashion gives scope for a four-branch diversity system. The paper investigates why an IQHA provides good diversity potential. An IQHA is primarily an angular diversity system and it is shown that the equal gain combining (EGC) method (see Saunders, S.R., "Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems", Wiley, 1999) provides the highest system gain since there is a significant increase in MEG. The analysis is carried out both for the standard sized IQHA and the reduced-size meandered IQHA.
Improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems may be achieved either by increasing the signal amplitude or by decreasing the noise. The noise has multiple origins – not all of which are strictly “noise”: incoherent thermal noise originating in the probe and pre-amplifiers, probe ring down or acoustic noise and coherent externally broadcast radio frequency transmissions. The last cannot always be shielded in open access experiments. In this paper, we show that pulsed, low radio-frequency data communications are a significant source of broadcast interference. We explore two signal processing methods of de-noising short
This project was dedicated to the development of solution-processed nanomaterials-based high-performance field-effect transistors (FETs) suitable for a new application area of printed reconfigurable antennas. The focus of research was on implementing solution processed high electron mobility InAs nanowires (NWs) as semiconducting channel in field effect transistors. The key direction of this work was the development of InAs NWs FETs with a designated high frequency waveguide geometry to enable they operation as microwave switch elements. Initially, InAs NW FETs were developed and tested in direct – current mode to allow evaluation and extraction of key transistor performance parameters such charge carrier mobility, threshold, on/off ratio, transconductance, subthreshold swing, and on-channel resistance. The InAs NW were assembled from nanowire ‘inks’ in the FETs channel via electric -field assisted assembly technique, dielectrophoresis. Nanowires were directly incorporated in FETs with bottom-gate architecture on Si/SiO2 substrates, and with top-gate architecture on quartz substrates with polymeric gate dielectrics. Current-voltage characteristics were measured both in controlled dry nitrogen atmosphere and ambient environment, and demonstrated an instability of unprotected InAs NW in ambient air. Protection of nanowire channel with Al2O3 layers has resulted in significant improvement of device stability. Optimised InAs NW FET devices demonstrated electron mobility over 1000 cm2/Vs and on-off current ratios up to 1000. Finally, a proof of principle for solution processed InAs NW field-effect transistors operating as microwave switches in 5-33GHz frequency range have been demonstrated. FET devices were implemented in co-planar waveguide (CPW) microwave transmission line geometry, providing efficient transmission or reflection of microwave signal. The FETs demonstrated high performance with transistor ON-state resistance as small as ≈50 Ω providing an excellent impedance match to that of microwave waveguide. Bringing FETs to the OFF state provided 1000 times resistance increase, resulting in FET microwave switch behaviour, characterised by ~10 dB change in scattering (S)-parameters, such as difference in transmission coefficient S21 between on/off switching states.
Millimetre wave beam and polarization reconfigurable antennas for future wireless communications are investigated in this thesis. The millimetre wave frequency spectrum has recently attracted large attention from researchers and the industry of wireless communications. Millimetre wave frequencies is considered to be the frequency spectrum between 30 GHz and 300 GHz. However, the industry considers the spectrum above 10 GHz as millimetre wave, due to the fact that it shows similar propagation characteristics with the spectrum above 30 GHz. The aforementioned spectrum of frequencies offers a lot of advantages compared to lower frequency spectrum, due to the fact that it offers large and mostly unexploited bandwidths. The need for very high data rates, in future wireless communications, increases the need for bandwidth. Millimetre wave frequencies can be used to fulfill future bandwidth demands. Although millimeter wave frequencies offer several advantages and good potential for future wireless communications, they also impose several challenges. This thesis discusses the need for highly directive and beam reconfigurable antennas for such high frequencies. It also discusses how an antenna design can benefit from being circularly polarised for several wireless communication applications and how antennas for future wireless communications must be able to reconfigure several parameters, without compromising the performance, cost and size, giving the exibility to a wireless terminal to operate in several different modes. This thesis proposes novel reconfigurable antennas for portable devices, which can be used at millimetre wave frequencies, and which offer high gain, wide steering range, low scan loss and multi-parameter reconfigurability; essential characteristics that antennas designed for future wireless communications should offer.
In this digital era, the usage of smart phones and mobile devices is becoming a norm in society with mobile communication quickly transitioned from voice oriented transmission to picture transmission to a more complex live video streaming. This latest development has demanded more capacity and higher bandwidth in communication links. Static links, which are the focus of this thesis, are an integral part of this mobile system in delivering high capacity data transmission using backhauls or nomadic links. Multi polarised antennas with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiplexing can be employed to greatly enhance the capacity of a mobile system, especially at frequencies lower than 6 GHz, using their compact size. A practical antenna inherently exhibits elliptical polarisation though it may be designed to form linear or circular polarisation. Little attention has been given to this aspect of polarised waves as they have always been deemed as unwanted polarisation, although in practice, any antenna is elliptically polarised as it can never be perfectly circularly or linearly polarised. This work therefore aims to deliberately exploit this opportunity by forming antennas with elliptical polarisation to identify the advantages of doing so in order to improve orthogonality in comparison with linear polarisation. It was found that in order to achieve perfect orthogonality, it was more practical to set the magnitudes and phases of the co-polar and cross-polar linear components, which resulted in an improved co to cross polar ratio more than 20 dB better than linear polarisation in free space. A dual elliptically polarised antenna prototype was designed and evaluated in this work, which was evaluated both in free space and within an indoor measurement campaign. Results concluded that at short distances with low scattering in the channel and directional antennas, elliptically polarised antennas provide improved multiplexing gain over dual linear polarisations. Key words: Elliptical Polarisation, MIMO, Multiplexing, static wireless links, degrees of freedom, dual polarised antenna.
Most ultra wideband (UWB) target detections are mainly carried out in the radiated near field or far field. However, the success of the detection mainly relies on the distance between the sensor and the target which may require a large measurement space. This research investigates the ability to sense targets in the reactive near field in case that the measurement space is constrained. Food detection in a smart fridge is chosen as the main application and test platform. At present, food can be detected by leveraging radio frequency identification (RFID) technology for intelligent fridge. Despite promising results have been shown, it may cause potential health risk and be costly due to tags being affixed to the food to obtain detailed information. Besides, RFID technology lacks of the ability to know the exact food amount such as the level of drink. There is therefore a need for developing new approaches being self content-aware in a low cost and reliable manner. Due to the nature of low cost, relatively high accuracy and immunity to noise, UWB technology provides the potential to detect food as an alternative to RFID. Egg quantity determination, which is an initial and accessible platform of intelligent fridge will be investigated in this thesis. Egg quantity can be well determined in terms of polarisation information in the far field region. However, the challenges arise by taking practical fridge size into account in which the information of eggs will be known in the reactive near field. New approaches are proposed based on investigation of reflection and coupling coefficient correlation of in fridge sensors. Both simulations and measurements are conducted to study the feasibility of sensing the number of egg in the free space environment. Further to this, the effect of other food placed around and above the egg box is investigated in order to verify the robustness of the proposed approaches. Finally, the study is extended to examine the capability of determination of liquid volume. In which, S-parameters are measured related to a variety type of drink in their unique topology and liquid level. The correlation coefficients are evaluated and analysed in both magnitude and phase domain exploiting the amount of liquid information that will be of great significant in the development of future smart fridge. Key words: Reactive near field UWB, smart fridge, egg quantity detection, reflection coefficient correlation, coupling coefficient correlation, liquid level detection
Small cell networks (SCN) have emerged as a viable solution for improving the spectral efficiency in order to satisfy the growing demand for high data rate mobile network. SCNs consist of multiple short range base station (BS) to cover small areas. The BS is typically known as femtocell BS. Polarisation mismatch loss between the BS and mobile station (MS), and inter-cell interference between BSs can be the performance limiting factors for SCN deployment in non-cluttered open space. This work covers the antenna design for the femtocell BS and channel characterisations within a SCN environment. Two designs for quadrifilar helix antenna (QHA) gain improvement using parasitic loop have been proposed. The designs are based on parasitic meandered loop (PML) and parasitic quadrifilar helix loop (PQHL). These parasitic loops are able to improve the boresight gain by up to 1.8 dB. Another design that is evaluated in this work is the switched parasitic QHA (SPQHA). By using parasitic elements at the side of the QHA, it gives a low complexity beam steering capability with up to 35° beam tilt. This feature is useful in cooperative SCNs to improve coverage and minimise interference. The performance of BS antennas with different polarisations against mobile station (MS) under random human handling in a real environment has been evaluated. Results show that polarisation mismatch between the BS and MS can be severe due to lack of signal depolarisation in short range communication. Results also show that a circular polarised BS antenna can be a good compromise to minimise polarisation mismatch loss in a SCN environment. A second field measurement has been conducted to evaluate the performance of the SPQHA in a real environment. Results have shown that SPQHAs are able to provide a high diversity gain. With local parasitic switching on one BS, 8 dB diversity gain can be achieved. With global parasitic switching on two BSs, 13 dB diversity gain is obtained. Furthermore, MIMO antenna selection using SPQHAs has also been shown to be able to match the performance of a 8-elements QHA-based MIMO setup. As a result, MIMO SPQHA can reduce the number of RF-chains required as compared to a full MIMO setup.