Dr Kathrin Cohen Kadosh

Senior Lecturer in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Thur 1-4pm (during semester)



Research interests


SBD lab @ Surrey

My publications


Journal articles

Johnstone, N., & Cohen Kadosh, K. (in press). Why a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach may be key for future-proofing microbiota-gut-brain research: commentary on Microbiota-gut-brain research: a critical analysis. Brain and Behavioural Sciences. 

Staunton, G.P., & Cohen Kadosh, K. (2019). A systematic review of the psychological factors that influence neurofeedback learning outcomes. NeuroImage. 15: 545-555. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.021.

Cohen Kadosh, K., Haller, S. P. W., Schliephake, L., Duta, M. D., Scerif, G., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2018). Subclinically anxious adolescents do not display attention biases when processing emotional faces - an eye-tracking study. Frontiers: Cognition. 9: 1584. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01584. pdf

Haller, S.P.W., Mills, K.L., Hartwright, C.E., David, A. S., & Cohen Kadosh, K. (2018). When change is the only constant: The promise of longitudinal neuroimaging in understanding social anxiety disorder. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 33: 73-82. doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.05.005. pdf

Steinbeis, N, Crone, E., Blakemore, S-J., & Cohen Kadosh, K. (2017). Development holds the key to understanding the interplay of nature versus nurture in shaping the individual. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 25: 1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.006.

Haller, S.P.W., Doherty, B., Duta., M., Cohen Kadosh, K., Lau, J.Y.F., & Scerif, G., (2017). Attention allocation and social worries predict interpretations of peer-related social cues in adolescents. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 25: 105-112. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.004. pdf

Fuhrmann, D., Knoll, L.J., Sakhardande, A.L., Speekenbring, M., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Blakemore S.-J. (2017). Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence. Scientific Reports. 6. 33497 doi:10.1038/srep33497. pdf

Shore, T., Cohen Kadosh, K., Lommen, M., Cooper, M., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2017). Investigating the effectiveness of brief cognitive reappraisal training to reduce fear in adolescents. Cognition and Emotion. 31(4): 806-815. doi:10.1080/02699931.2016.1159542.

Cohen Kadosh, K., Lisk, S., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2016). The Ethics of (Neuro) Feeding Back to the Developing Brain. American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience. 7(2): 132-133, doi:10.1080/21507740.2016.1189979. pdf

Shore, T., Cohen Kadosh, K., Lommen, M., Cooper, M., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2016). Investigating the effectiveness of brief cognitive reappraisal training to reduce fear in adolescents. Cognition and Emotion. doi:10.1080/02699931.2016.1159542pdf

Haller, S.P.W., Cohen Kadosh, K., Scerif, G., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2016). Measuring online interpretations and attributions of social situations: links with adolescent social anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 50: 250-256. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.09.009. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Luo, Q., De Burca, C., Sokunbi, M., Feng, J., Linden, D.E.J., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2016).Using real-time fMRI to influence effective connectivity in the developing emotion regulation network. NeuroImage. 15(125): 616-26. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.070. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Krause, B., King, A., Near, J., & Cohen Kadosh, R. (2015). Linking GABA and glutamate to cognitive skill acquisition in development. Human Brain Mapping. 36(11): 4334-4345. doi:10.1002/hbm.22921. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Haddad, A.D.M., Heathcote, L.C., Murphy, R.A., Pine, D.S., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2015). High trait anxiety during adolescence interferes with discriminatory context and safety learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 123: 50-57. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2015.05.002. pdf

Fonville, L., Cohen Kadosh, K., Drakesmith, M., Zammit, S., Reichenberg, A., Mollon, J., Lewis, G., Jones, D.K., & David, A. (2015). Psychotic Experiences, Working Memory and the Developing Brain: a Multimodal Neuroimaging Study. Cerebral Cortex. 25 (12): 4828. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv181. pdf

Haller, S.P.W., Cohen Kadosh, K., Scerif, G., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2015). Social anxiety disorder: a new developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to uncover risk factors during adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 13: 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.02.002. pdf

Haller, S.P., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2014). A developmental angle to understanding the mechanisms of biased cognition in social anxiety. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 7: 846.doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00846. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Heathcote, L.C., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2014). Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: How does this impact emotion regulation capacities? Frontiers in Psychology. 5, 111. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00111. pdf

Platt, B., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2013). The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. Depression and Anxiety. 30(9): 809-821. doi:10.1002/da.22120. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Linden, D.E.J., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2013). Plasticity during childhood and adolescence: innovative approaches to investigating neurocognitive development. Developmental Science. 6(4): 574-83. doi:10.1111/desc.12054. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Johnson, M.H., Henson, R.N.A., Dick, F., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2013). Differential face-network adaptation in children, adolescents and adults. Neuroimage. 69C, 11. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.11.060. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Johnson, M.H., Dick, F., Cohen Kadosh, R., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2013). Effects of age, task performance, and structural brain development on face processing. Cerebral Cortex. 3(7): 1630-42. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.11.060. pdf

Benn, Y., Wilkinson, I. D., Zeng, Y., Cohen Kadosh, K., Romanowski, C.A.J., Siegal, M., & Varley, R. (2013). Differentiating core and co-opted mechanisms in calculation: The neuroimaging of calculation in aphasia. Brain and Cognition. 82(3): 254-264. doi:10.1111/desc.12054. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K. (2012). Differing processing abilities for specific face properties in mid-childhood and adulthood. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology. 2(400). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00400. pdf

Burnett, S., Sebastian, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2011). The social brain in adolescence: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 35(8), 1654-1564. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.10.011. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K. (2011). What can emerging cortical face networks tell us about mature brain organisation?Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 1(3), 246-255. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2011.02.001. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Cohen Kadosh, R., Dick, F., & Johnson, M.H. (2011). Developmental changes in effective connectivity in the core face network. Cerebral Cortex. 21: 139-1394. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhq215. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Walsh, V., & Cohen Kadosh, R.(2011). TMS to the right OFA impairs the processing of specific face properties. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.6(1): 58-65. doi:10.1093/scan/nsq015. pdf

Mercure, E., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Johnson, M.H. (2011). The N170 shows differential repetition suppression effects for faces, objects and orthographic stimuli. Human Frontiers in Neuroscience. 5, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00006. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., Henson, R.N.A., Cohen Kadosh, R., Johnson, M.H., & Dick, F. (2010). Task-dependent activation in face-sensitive cortex: an fMRI adaptation study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 22(5): 903–917. pdf

Johnson, M.H., Grossmann, T., & Cohen Kadosh, K.(2009). Mapping functional brain development: Building a social brain through Interactive Specialization. Developmental Psychology. 45: 151-159.  doi:10.1037/a0014548. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, R., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Henik, A. (2008). When Brightness Counts: The Neuronal Correlate of Numerical-Luminance Interference. Cerebral Cortex.18: 337-343. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm058. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, R., Cohen Kadosh, K., Henik, A., & Linden, D.E.J. (2008). Processing conflicting information: Facilitation, interference, and functional connectivity. Neuropsychologia. 46(12): 2872-2879. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.05.025. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., & Johnson, M.H. (2007). Developing a cortex specialized for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11(9): 367-369. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.06.007. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, R., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Henik, A. (2007). The Neural Correlate of Bi-Directional Synaesthesia. A combined ERP and fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 19: 2050-2059. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, R., Cohen Kadosh, K., Kaas, A., Henik, A., & Goebel, R. (2007). Notation-dependent and independent representations of numbers in the parietal lobes. Neuron. 53(2): 307-314. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.12.025. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, R., Cohen Kadosh, K., Linden, D.E.J., Gevers, W., Berger, A., & Henik, A. (2007). The brain locus of interaction between number and size: A combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 19: 957-970. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, R., Cohen Kadosh, K., Schumann, T., Kaas, A., Goebel, R., Henik, A., & Sack, A.T. (2007). Virtual dyscalculia induced by parietal lobe TMS impairs automatic magnitude processing. Current Biology. 17(8): 689-693.  doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.02.056. pdf

Bledowski, C., Cohen Kadosh, K., Wibral, M., Rahm, B., Bittner, R.A., Hoechstetter, K., Scherg, M., Maurer, K., Goebel, R., & Linden, D. E. J. (2006). Mental Chronometry of Working Memory Retrieval: A Combined fMRI and ERP approach. Journal of Neuroscience. 26(3): 821-829. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3542-05.2006. pdf

Book chapters

Haller, S.P., & Cohen Kadosh, K. (in press). A developmental approach to understanding psychiatric disorders: mapping etiological pathways. In: Savulescu, J.  Rethinking Biopsychosocial Psychiatry. (1st edition, pp).Oxford: University Press.

Pittner, K., Cohen Kadosh, K., & Lau, J.Y.F. (2016). Child and adolescent anxiety: Does fear conditioning play a role?. In: Murphy, R.A., & Honey, R.C. The Wiley Handbook on the Cognitive Neuroscience of Learning. (1st edition, pp.). Wiley: NJ USA. pdf

Cohen Kadosh, K., & Haller, S. P. (2015). The Social Brain in Childhood andAdolescence. In: Arthur W. Toga, editor. Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference. (1st edition, vol. 3, pp.171-175). Academic Press: Elsevier. pdf

Blakemore, S.-J., Cohen Kadosh, K., Sebastian, C., Grossmann, T., & Johnson, M.H. (2014). Development of the social brain. In: Mareschal, Butterworth & Tolmie: The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Educational Neuroscience. (1st edition, pp: 268-297). Wiley-Blackwell. pdf

Burnett, S, Sebastian, C., & Cohen Kadosh, K (2012). Brain development and the emergence of social function. In: Andersen & Beauchamp: Developmental social neuroscience and childhood brain insult: Implications for theory and practice. (1st edition, pp: 45-65). New York: Guilford Press.


20.06.2019 Talk, Conference on Developmental Changes in Paediatric Neurodisability, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Title: Development in childhood and adolescence- from brain to behaviour and back.

28.03.2019 Talk, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, USA. Title: Real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback and the developing brain.

31.10.2018 Talk, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel. Title: The role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in brain development and mental health.

12.12.2017  Talk, Birkbeck College, London. Title: Using fMRI-based neurofeedback to train emotion-regulation networks in adolescents.

17.10.2017  Talk, Annual Meeting, Braintrain Consortium, Leipzig, Germany. Title: Functional connectivity-based neurofeedback and the developing brain.

11.10.2017 Talk, World Congress of Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany. Title: Using neurofeedback to train emotion-regulation networks in high-anxious adolescents.

26.05. 2017 Teacher training session, Haberdashers Aske's School for Boys and Girls, Elstree. Title: Development in childhood and adolescence- from brain to behaviour and back. 

19.05.2017  Talk, Society for Biological Psychiatry, San Diego, USA. Title: FMRI-based neurofeedback under the microscope.

31.01.2017  Public lecture, Cafe Scientifique, Bradfield College, Bradfield. Title: Is youth wasted on the young?

09.01.2017  Teacher training session, St Catherine's School, Bramley. Title: The developing social brain in childhood and adolescence: challenges and opportunities.

04.01.2017 University of Surrey, ExciTeS 2017,Discussion round with K. Zajacova. Title:  Road map through the glass ceiling: teaching students to self-guide towards achieving better grades.  

28.09.2016 Opening keynote address, Project meeting 'Unge med erhvervet hjerneskade, helping young people with acquired brain injury'. Aalborg, Denmark. Title: The developing brain in childhood and adolescence

23.02.2016 Opening keynote address, GSA Deputy Heads & Senior Leaders Conference. Nottingham. Title: The developing social brain in childhood and adolescence

09.02.2016 Talk, University of Sussex, School of Psychology, Brighton. Title: Plasticity and excitability in the developing brain

02.02.2016 Talk, University of Birmingham, Department of Psychology, Birmingham. Title: Cortical excitability and plasticity in developing brain networks during childhood and adolescence

26.01.2016 Talk, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Title: Neuro-cognitive development in adolescence: the case of social functioning

22.11.2016  Talk 2 Ur Brain Symposium Tel Aviv, Israel. Title: FMRI-based neurofeedback and the developing emotion network

11.11.2015  One-day workshop, Organization for Childneuropsychologist, Copenhagen, Denmark. Title:The social brain in adolescence

16.10.2015 Talk, University of Sheffield. Department of Psychology, Sheffield. Title: Investigating cortical excitability and plasticity in developing brain networks during childhood and adolescence

27.09.2015   Names Not Numbers, Panel Discussion, Oxford. Title: Understanding Generation Z

18.09.2015 Talk, Flux Conference, Leiden, The Netherlands. Title: FMRI-based neurofeedback and the developing emotion network

20.04.2015 - 24.04.2015  Participant in ‘I’m a scientist, get me out of here’, funded by the Wellcome Trust and the National Science Foundation.

18.10.2014  Keynote address 3rd International Congress on Borderline Personality Disorder, European Society for the Study of Personality Disorders, Rome, Italy. Title:Neuro-cognitive development during childhood and adolescence

18.06.2014 Talk, Summer school: ‘What faces can reveal about social and cognitive processes, Milan, Italy. Title: Face processing abilities: a model for studying brain development during childhood and adolescence

02.04.2014 Talk, ESRC workshop: ‘'Mechanisms of social perception in adolescence, Goldsmiths College, London. Title: Face processing in childhood and adolescence.

28.11.2013  Talk, Annual Congress, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Nervenheilkunde, Berlin, Germany. Title: Combining real-time fMRI neurofeedback and cognitive training in adolescence

23.05.2013  Talk, 5th European Meeting on Human Fear Conditioning, Affligem, Belgium. Title: Trait anxiety levels modulate threat-learning during adolescence

18.01.2013   Opening keynote address, Annual retreat, Centre for Mental Health, Freudenstadt, Germany. Title: Neurocognitive development during childhood and adolescence

08.09.2011   One-day seminar for the Danish Psychological Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. Title: The social brain in adolescence.

27.03.2011  Keynote lecture, BioVision 2011, Lyon, France. Title: The social brain during adolescence.

09.03.2011  Talk, University of Reading, Department of Psychology, Reading. Title: The developing social brain

23.02.2011  Talk, Brunel University, Uxbridge. Title: The developing social brain: the case of face processing

8.12.2010  Talk, The Hebrew University, Department of Psychology, Jerusalem, Israel. Title: The developing social brain: childhood through adolescence

17.11.2010  Talk, University of Oxford, Department of Psychology, Oxford. Title: Pinpointing the emerging cortical networks for face processing from childhood through adulthood

19.10.2010  Talk, University of York, Department of Psychology, York. Title: The developing social brain: the case of face processing

14.05.2010  Talk, Section of Development and Affective Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Title: Emerging patterns of cortical specialisation: the case of face processing

09.-11.09.2009  Symposium organised for the BPS Developmental Section Conference, University of Nottingham. Title: Becoming a face expert: developmental evidence for the emergence of face-processing abilities in infants, children and young chicks

19.5.2009   Workshop for Developmental Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Title: Developmental trajectories of cortical specialisation: the case of face processing. 

31.10.2008   University of Salzburg, Department of Psychology, Salzburg, Austria. Title: Cortical specialisation for face processing skills

17.09.2008   Talk, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Institute for Child Health, University College London, London. Title: Developing a cortex specialised for face perception: an fMRI study

01.09.2008   Talk, BPS Developmental Section Conference, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford. Title: The emergence of face specialised cortical areas: An fMRI study

18.07.2003   Talk, University of Würzburg, Arbeitskreis Bildgebung und EEG in der   Psychiatrie (AKBE) Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Würzburg, Germany. Title: P300 Generation - Towards the Localisation of the Categorizational Network

01.01.2002   Talk, Ben-Gurion University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Beer- Sheva, Israel. Title: P300 and Working Memory - Investigating Retrieval Activity with ERP and fMRI


Cohen Kadosh R, Cohen Kadosh K, Schuhmann T, Kaas A, Goebel R, Henik A, Sack AT (2007) Virtual Dyscalculia Induced by Parietal-Lobe TMS Impairs Automatic Magnitude Processing, Current Biology17(8)pp. 689-693
People suffering from developmental dyscalculia encounter difficulties in automatically accessing numerical magnitudes [1-3]. For example, when instructed to attend to the physical size of a number while ignoring its numerical value, dyscalculic subjects, unlike healthy participants, fail to process the irrelevant dimension automatically and subsequently show a smaller size-congruity effect (difference in reaction time between incongruent [e.g., a physically large 2 and a physically small 4] and congruent [e.g., a physically small 2 and a physically large 4] conditions), and no facilitation (neutral [e.g., a physically small 2 and a physically large 2] versus congruent) [3]. Previous imaging studies determined the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as a central area for numerical processing [4-11]. A few studies tried to identify the brain dysfunction underlying developmental dyscalculia but yielded mixed results regarding the involvement of the left [12] or the right [13] IPS. Here we applied fMRI-guided TMS neuronavigation to disrupt left- or right-IPS activation clusters in order to induce dyscalculic-like behavioral deficits in healthy volunteers. Automatic magnitude processing was impaired only during disruption of right-IPS activity. When using the identical paradigm with dyscalculic participants, we reproduced a result pattern similar to that obtained with nondyscalculic volunteers during right-IPS disruption. These findings provide direct evidence for the functional role of right IPS in automatic magnitude processing. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen Kadosh K, Henson RNA, Cohen Kadosh R, Johnson MH, Dick F (2010) Task-dependent activation of face-sensitive cortex: An fMRI adaptation study, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience22(5)pp. 903-907
  Face processing in the human brain recruits a widespread cortical network based mainly in the ventral and lateral temporal and occipital lobes. However, the extent to which activity within this network is driven by different face properties versus being determined by the manner in which faces are processed (as determined by task requirements) remains unclear. We combined a functional magnetic resonance adaptation paradigm with three target detection tasks, where participants had to detect a specific identity, emotional expression, or direction of gaze, while the task-irrelevant face properties varied independently. Our analysis focused on differentiating the influence of task demands and the processing of stimulus changes within the neural network underlying face processing. Results indicated that the fusiform and inferior occipital gyrus do not respond as a function of stimulus change (such as identity), but rather their activity depends on the task demands. Specifically, we hypothesize that, whether the task encourages a configuralor a featural-processing strategy determines activation. Our results for the superior temporal sulcus were even more specific in that we only found greater responses to stimulus changes that may engage featural processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the functional anatomy of face processing and provide insights into possible compensatory mechanisms in face processing.   © 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cohen Kadosh K, Haddad ADM, Heathcote LC, Murphy RA, Pine DS, Lau JYF (2015) High trait anxiety during adolescence interferes with discriminatory context learning, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory123pp. 50-57
© 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Persistent adult anxiety disorders often begin in adolescence. As emphasis on early treatment grows, we need a better understanding of how adolescent anxiety develops. In the current study, we used a fear conditioning paradigm to identify disruptions in cue and context threat-learning in 19 high anxious (HA) and 24 low anxious (LA) adolescents (12-17. years). We presented three neutral female faces (conditioned stimulus, CS) in three contingent relations with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, a shrieking female scream) in three virtual room contexts. The degree of contingency between the CSs and the UCSs varied across the rooms: in the predictable scream condition, the scream followed the face on 100% of trials; in the unpredictable scream condition, the scream and face appeared randomly and independently of each other; in the no-scream condition the CS was presented in the absence of any UCS. We found that the LA adolescents showed higher levels of fear-potentiated startle to the faces relative to the rooms. This difference was independent of the contingency condition. The HA adolescents showed non-differential startle between the CSs, but, in contrast to previous adult data, across both cue types displayed lowest startle to the unpredictable condition and highest startle to the no-scream condition. Our study is the first to examine context conditioning in adolescents, and our results suggest that high trait anxiety early in development may be associated with an inability to disambiguate the signalling roles of cues and contexts, and a mislabelling of safety or ambiguous signals.
Cohen Kadosh K, Johnson MH (2007) Developing a cortex specialized for face perception, Trends in Cognitive Sciences11(9)pp. 367-369
Recent developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence that the cortical specialization for face perception observed in adults emerges only gradually over the first decade of childhood. These developmental results provide a middle-ground view on the long-standing debate in the literature from adults about the specificity or otherwise of face-sensitive areas of cortex. According to this developmental perspective, certain cortical regions become specialized for face perception in adults, partly as a result of a decade or more of experience and partly as a result of initial biases. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen Kadosh K, Krause B, King A, Near J, Cohen Kadosh R (2015) Linking GABA and Glutamate Levels to Cognitive Skill Acquisition During Development,Human Brain Mapping36pp. 4334-4345 Wiley
Developmental adjustments in the balance of excitation and inhibition are thought to constrain the plasticity of sensory areas of the cortex. It is unknown however, how changes in excitatory or inhibitory neurochemical expression (glutamate, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) contribute to skill acquisition during development. Here we used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) to reveal how differences in cortical glutamate vs. GABA ratios relate to face proficiency and working memory abilities in children and adults. We show that higher glutamate levels in the inferior frontal gyrus correlated positively with face processing proficiency in the children, but not the adults, an effect which was independent of age-dependent differences in underlying cortical gray matter. Moreover, we found that glutamate/GABA levels and gray matter volume are dissociated at the different maturational stages. These findings suggest that increased excitation during development is linked to neuroplasticity and the acquisition of new cognitive skills. They also offer a new, neurochemical approach to investigating the relationship between cognitive performance and brain development across the lifespan.
Cohen Kadosh K, Lisk S, Lau JYF (2016) The Ethics of (Neuro) Feeding Back to the Developing Brain, AJOB Neuroscience7(2)pp. 132-133
Haller SPW, Cohen Kadosh K, Scerif G, Lau JYF (2015) Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience13pp. 11-20
© 2015 The AuthorsSocial anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may â¬bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Cohen Kadosh K, Cohen Kadosh R, Dick F, Johnson MH (2011) Developmental changes in effective connectivity in the emerging core face network, Cerebral Cortex21(6)pp. 1389-1394
Little is currently known about the postnatal emergence of functional cortical networks supporting complex perceptual and cognitive skills, such as face processing. The present study examined the emergence of the core cortical network underlying face processing in younger and older school-age children as well as young adults. Participants performed 3 functional magnetic resonance imaging target detection tasks where they either had to detect a specific facial identity, expression, or direction of eye gaze in a stream of consecutively presented faces. We compared the connectivity of the face network using dynamic causal modelling and observed that it emerges gradually during childhood. Further, we found that while the relative strength of functional network connections were differentially modulated by task demands in adults, there was no such modulation of this network in either older or younger children. These results were independent of the behavioral performance in the 3 age groups. We suggest that the emergence of the face network is due to continuous specialization and fine-tuning within the regions of this network. The current results have important implications for future studies investigating trajectories of brain development and cortical specialization both in typically and atypically developing populations. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Cohen Kadosh R, Cohen Kadosh K, Kaas A, Henik A, Goebel R (2007) Notation-Dependent and -Independent Representations of Numbers in the Parietal Lobes, Neuron53(2)pp. 307-314
It is a commonly held view that numbers are represented in an abstract way in both parietal lobes. This view is based on failures to find differences between various notational representations. Here we show that by using relatively smaller voxels together with an adaptation paradigm and analyzing subjects on an individual basis it is possible to detect specialized numerical representations. The current results reveal a left/right asymmetry in parietal lobe function. In contrast to an abstract representation in the left parietal lobe, the numerical representation in the right parietal lobe is notation dependent and thus includes nonabstract representations. Our results challenge the commonly held belief that numbers are represented solely in an abstract way in the human brain. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fonville L, Cohen Kadosh K, Drakesmith M, Dutt A, Zammit S, Mollon J, Reichenberg A, Lewis G, Jones DK, David AS (2015) Psychotic Experiences, Working Memory, and the Developing Brain: A Multimodal Neuroimaging Study, Cerebral Cortex25(12)pp. 4828-4838 Oxford University Press
Burnett S, Sebastian C, Cohen Kadosh K, Blakemore SJ (2011) The social brain in adolescence: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews35(8)pp. 1654-1664
Social cognition is the collection of cognitive processes required to understand and interact with others. The term 'social brain' refers to the network of brain regions that underlies these processes. Recent evidence suggests that a number of social cognitive functions continue to develop during adolescence, resulting in age differences in tasks that assess cognitive domains including face processing, mental state inference and responding to peer influence and social evaluation. Concurrently, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show differences between adolescent and adult groups within parts of the social brain. Understanding the relationship between these neural and behavioural observations is a challenge. This review discusses current research findings on adolescent social cognitive development and its functional MRI correlates, then integrates and interprets these findings in the context of hypothesised developmental neurocognitive and neurophysiological mechanisms. © 2010.
Cohen Kadosh K (2011) What can emerging cortical face networks tell us about mature brain organisation?, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience1(3)pp. 246-255
This opinion paper suggests that developmental neuroimaging studies investigating emerging cortical networks for specific cognitive functions can contribute substantially to our understanding of mature brain organisation. Based on a review of the literature on the neural correlates of face processing abilities, this paper shows how developmental neuroimaging can help resolve outstanding issues, such as whether specific brain regions actually start out by responding to specific stimulus classes, and how this response changes with development. It has been suggested for example, that improving specialisation in a particular brain regions may be the result of increasing connectivity with other network regions supporting the same cognitive function. Developmental neuroimaging studies are particularly well suited to disentangle the interplay between changes at different network levels, such as improving behavioural proficiencies and functional and structural brain development, as well as overall network configuration changes. However, much of the future progress will depend on whether developmental changes are assessed by combining multiple network observations. This paper makes specific suggestions as to how such a multifaceted approach may look like by exploring the suitability of different theoretical frameworks, such as the neural re-use theory or the neuroconstructivist approach for providing guiding principles for future research. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haller SPW, Raeder SM, Scerif G, Cohen Kadosh K, Lau JYF (2016) Measuring online interpretations and attributions of social situations: Links with adolescent social anxiety, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry50pp. 250-256
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Objective We evaluated the utility of a novel, picture-based tool to measure how adolescents interpret and attribute cause to social exchanges and whether biases in these processes relate to social anxiety. Briefly presented ambiguous visual social scenes, each containing a photograph of the adolescent as the protagonist, were followed by three possible interpretations (positive, negative, neutral/unrelated) and two possible causal attributions (internal, external) to which participants responded. Method Ninety-five adolescents aged 14 to 17 recruited from mainstream schools, with varying levels of social anxiety rated the likelihood of positive, negative and unrelated interpretations before selecting the single interpretation they deemed as most likely. This was followed by a question prompting them to decide between an internal or external causal attribution for the interpreted event. Results Across scenarios, adolescents with higher levels of social anxiety rated negative interpretations as more likely and positive interpretations as less likely compared to lower socially anxious adolescents. Higher socially anxious adolescents were also more likely to select internal attributions to negative and less likely to select internal attributions for positive events than adolescents with lower levels of social anxiety. Conclusions Adolescents with higher social anxiety display cognitive biases in interpretation and attribution. This tool is suitable for measuring cognitive biases of complex visual-social cues in youth populations with social anxiety and simulates the demands of daily social experiences more closely. Limitations As we did not measure depressive symptoms, we cannot be sure that biases linked to social anxiety are not due to concurrent low mood.
Fuhrmann D, Knoll LJ, Sakhardande AL, Speekenbrink M, Cohen Kadosh K, Blakemore S-J (2016) Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence, Scientific Reports633497 Nature Publishing Group
Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3?5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27?13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39?15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90?18.00 years); and adults (18.01?33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life.
Haller SPW, Cohen Kadosh K, Lau JYF (2014) A developmental angle to understanding the mechanisms of biased cognitions in social anxiety, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience7 Frontiers Media
Cohen Kadosh R, Cohen Kadosh K, Henik A, Linden DEJ (2008) Processing conflicting information: Facilitation, interference, and functional connectivity, Neuropsychologia46(12)pp. 2872-2879
When a conflict task involves congruent, neutral, and incongruent conditions, it is possible to examine facilitation (neutral vs. congruent) and interference (incongruent vs. neutral) components. Very few studies investigated the brain areas that are specifically involved in facilitation or interference. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants performed a magnitude conflict task (the size congruity paradigm). We observed four findings: (1) while most of the brain areas that were activated by conflict tasks showed interference effects, the intraparietal sulcus was the only region activated for both interference and facilitation components. (2) Two groups of participants could be distinguished based on the pattern of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, one with classical facilitation (congruent < neutral), one with reverse facilitation. (3) Functional connectivity analysis of the areas that were modulated by the conflict task revealed an anterior cingulate - lateral prefrontal cortex network and a dorsal parietal - premotor cortex network. We suggest that the former plays a role in cognitive control and conflict detection, whereas the latter participates in top-down selection of task-relevant stimuli and response mapping. (4) These networks were modulated by the two groups that we distinguished based on the ACC activation. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen Kadosh K, Heathcote LC, Lau JYF (2014) Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: how does this impact emotion regulation capacities?, Frontiers in Psychology5 Frontiers Media
Cohen Kadosh K, Johnson MH, Dick F, Cohen Kadosh R, Blakemore SJ (2013) Effects of age, task performance, and structural brain development on face processing, Cerebral Cortex23(7)pp. 1630-1642
In this combined structural and functional MRI developmental study, we tested 48 participants aged 7-37 years on 3 simple face-processing tasks (identity, expression, and gaze task), which were designed to yield very similar performance levels across the entire age range. The same participants then carried out 3 more difficult out-of-scanner tasks, which provided in-depth measures of changes in performance. For our analysis we adopted a novel, systematic approach that allowed us to differentiate age-from performance-related changes in the BOLD response in the 3 tasks, and compared these effects to concomitant changes in brain structure. The processing of all face aspects activated the core face-network across the age range, as well as additional and partially separable regions. Small task-specific activations in posterior regions were found to increase with age and were distinct from more widespread activations that varied as a function of individual task performance (but not of age). Our results demonstrate that activity during face-processing changes with age, and these effects are still observed when controlling for changes associated with differences in task performance. Moreover, we found that changes in white and gray matter volume were associated with changes in activation with age and performance in the out-of-scanner tasks. © 2012 The Author.
Cohen Kadosh K, Johnson MH, Henson RNA, Dick F, Blakemore SJ (2013) Differential face-network adaptation in children, adolescents and adults, NeuroImage69pp. 11-20
Faces are complex social stimuli, which can be processed both at the categorical and the individual level. Behavioral studies have shown that children take more than a decade of exposure and training to become proficient at processing faces at the individual level. The neurodevelopmental trajectories for different aspects of face-processing are still poorly understood. In this study, we used an fMR-adaptation design to investigate differential processing of three face aspects (identity, expression and gaze) in children, adolescents and adults. We found that, while all three tasks showed some overlap in activation patterns, there was a significant age effect in the occipital and temporal lobes and the inferior frontal gyrus. More importantly, the degree of adaptation differed across the three age groups in the inferior occipital gyrus, a core face processing area that has been shown in previous studies to be both integral and necessary for individual-level face processing. In the younger children, adaptation in this region seemed to suggest the use of a predominantly featural processing strategy, whereas adaptation effects in the adults exhibited a more strategic pattern that depended on the task. Interestingly, our sample of adolescents did not exhibit any differential adaptation effects; possibly reflecting increased heterogeneity in processing strategies in this age group. Our results support the notion that, in line with improving behavioral face-processing abilities, core face-responsive regions develop throughout the first two decades of life. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Neurofeedback using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging is a technique which supports participants to modify their own brain activity for therapeutic benefit. It has gained attention for its potential as an alternative intervention for a range of mental health issues. However, there is considerable variance in participant success. Understanding the factors involved in this variance could assist with the prediction of outcomes and personalised support. Here, the results of a literature review on this topic and a subsequent secondary data analysis for a therapeutically significant population are presented. Specifically, in Zich and colleagues (under review), adolescent female participants (n = 28) learned to modulate healthy patterns of emotional regulation in a study which collected pre-intervention data on variables to do with mood, IQ, development, initial functional connectivity (IFC) and control beliefs. The current analysis aimed to predict outcomes based on these measures. Differences between participants who improved (learners) and declined (non-learners) in performance were also explored. Principal components analysis reduced the measures into the factors ?Control? (mood and control beliefs) and ?Maturity?, (age, puberty and IQ). Multiple regression analysis with these factors and IFC did not significantly predict performance or change. However, IFC significantly predicted performance (² =-415.75, p = .004, CI = -415.75, -92.37). At a group level, non-learners initially performed above the mean but could not sustain this success. Learners had significantly higher thought control ability and verbal comprehension scores than non-learners. These results and other findings from the literature require confirmation with larger samples. It was concluded that predicting outcomes for individuals may be challenging as individual factors are likely to have complex roles, though initial connectivity readings may predict performance effectively. Implications include the potential for personalised support to improve outcomes for non-regulators. Individual factors should be routinely considered to develop the efficacy of neurofeedback.