Professor Sabine Braun
I am Professor of Translation Studies and Director of the Centre for Translation Studies at the University of Surrey. In addition, I am currently Associate Dean (Research) for the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences.
My research focuses on technology-assisted methods, modalities and socio-technological practices of translation and interpreting, especially:
- Videomediated interpreting (e.g. its system design and implementation; how it changes the professional practice of interpreting; especially its impact on interpreting quality, ergonomics, interactional dynamics, user satisfaction; its use interpreter education);
- Audio description as a form of intermodal translation, how it can be used to improve media access for visually impaired people and to improve visual machine perception.
I am also interested in
- The design of multimodal corpora and the use of corpusbased methods to inform the field of interpreting studies and to improve interpreter education;
- The application of educational technologies such as video platforms and 3D virtual worlds to the field of interpreting.
Areas of specialism
Intersemiotic and audiovisual translation;
Corpus-based interpreting studies;
University roles and responsibilities
- Professor of Translation Studies
- Director of the Centre for Translation Studies
- Associate Dean (Research)
My research focuses on technology-assisted methods and modalities and socio-technological practices of translation and interpreting.
I have a long-standing interest in video-mediated interpreting, i.e. all methods and modalities of distance interpreting that involve the use of video links ('remote interpreting', 'videoconference interpreting') and that are increasingly to deliver interpreting services in business, legal and healthcare contexts; I have adopted discourse analytic, cognitive-pragmatic and sociological approaches, and have combined qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate and inform the integration of videoconferencing technologies into professional interpreting practice as a means of improving access to public services.
A related area of interest is audio description, an important media access service for blind and partially sighted people and an emergent modality of intermodal translation; I have worked on developing a theoretical framework for an in-depth understanding audio description and am interested in the application of audio description to multimodal content analysis and visual machine perception, and in the (semi-)automatic generation of audio description.
I am interested in the use of multimodal corpora and corpus-based methods to inform the field of interpreting studies and to improve interpreter education.
In relation to interpreter education, I am interested more broadly in the application of educational technologies such as video platforms and 3D virtual worlds to the field of interpreting; I have created a multimodal corpus of spoken English (ELISA) for pedagogical purposes and have led a multidisciplinary team that developed the first 3D virtual learning environment for interpreting students and interpreter clients.
Over the past few years, I have investigated the use of video-mediated interpreting in legal settings. I have led several multinational European projects in this area (AVIDICUS 1-3) and have contributed knowledge on video-mediated interpreting to other European projects relating to interpreter certification and training for legal professionals. I have also worked closely with the European Council Working Party on e-Law (e-Justice) to develop guidelines for video-mediated interpreting in legal proceedings and have advised institutions including the Metropolitan Police Service in London and the London Probation Trust on the introduction of videoconferencing and interpreting (read more). In earlier research in this field, I have analysed the adaptation strategies which interpreters develop in this unfamiliar and difficult form of interpreting. Currently I am a partner in the European SHIFT project which develops resources for the teaching of remote interpreting, and a Co-Investigator in the Video-Enabled Justie project, which investigates the use of video-mediated communication (incl. interpreter-assisted video links) in the justice sector. Follow me on Twitter for updates on this research (@vr_interpreting).
- Video-Enabled Justice (Office of the Sussex Police & Crime Commissioner, 2018-20; Principal investigator: N Fielding, Dept of Sociology) Role: Co-Investigator
- SHIFT in Orality: Shaping the Interpreters of the Future & Today (European Commission, 2015-18; co-ordinator: University of Bologna in Forli) Role: Project partner | http://www.shiftinorality.eu
- AVIDICUS 3 Assessing videoconference interpreting in the Criminal Justice System: Assessing the implementation (European Commission, DG Justice, 2014-16) Role: Project leader | http://www.videoconference-interpreting.net
- AVIDICUS 2 Assessment of Videoconference Interpreting in the Criminal Justice System (European Commission, DG Justice, 2011-13) Role: Project leader | http://www.videoconference-interpreting.net
- AVIDICUS 1 Assessment of Videoconference Interpreting in the Criminal Justice System (European Commission, DG Justice, 2008-2011) Role: Project leader | http://www.videoconference-interpreting.net
- Understanding Justice (European Commission, DG Justice, 2014-16, co-ordinator: Middlesex University) Role: Project partner | http://www.understandingjusticeproject.com
- Building Mutual Trust 2 (European Commission, DG Justice, 2011-13; co-ordinator: Middlesex University) Role: Project partner | http://www.buildingmutualtrust.eu/
- QUALITAS Ensuring Interpreter Quality through Testing and Certification (European Commission, DG Justice, 2011-2013; co-ordinator: University of Alicante) Role: Project partner | http://www.qualitas-project.eu/
My interest in multimodality and audiovisual media has also led me to conduct research into audio description, an emergent practice helping blind and partially sighted people to follow and enjoy audiovisual content (e.g. films, TV programmes, theatre plays). I am particularly interested in interdisciplinary approaches to audio description as a complex form of intermodal mediation. In 2007, Margaret Rogers and I organised an interdisciplinary research seminar on Audio Description for Visually Impaired People: Towards an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda to contribute to developing audio description as an academic discipline. More recently, I have become interested in the application of audio description to other fields, especially to Multimodal Content Analysis, Computer vision and Machine perception, and in the (semi-)automatic generation of audio descriptive content.
Educational technologies in interpreting
The thought of interpreting in a 3D virtual world is an interesting expansion of more forms of remote interpreting via telephone or video link. Apart from that, virtual worlds are also useful for simulating interpreter-mediated communication and can therefore be used in educational contexts. However, many questions remain regarding the educational affordances of 3D virtual learning environments compared to other, more traditional virtual learning environments. To investigate some of these questions, I have recently led two multinational research projects. The first (IVY) focussed on the development of the first bespoke 3D virtual environment in the interpreting context, whilst the second (EVIVA) evaluated the benefits of different types of virtual learning environments including the IVY 3D world, videoconferencing and video corpus environments through the lens of constructivist principles of learning and especially using the key notion of situated learning, which is crucial in the context of interpreting. Find out more.
- EVIVA Evaluating the Education of Interpreters and their Clients through Virtual Learning Activities (European Commission, Lifelong Learning Programme, project leader, 2013-14) Role: Project leader | http://www.virtual-interpreting.net
- IVY Interpreting in Virtual Reality (European Commission, Lifelong Learning Programme, 2011-12)Role: Project leader | http://www.virtual-interpreting.net
Corpus-based interpreting studies
I am particularly interested in how we can make spoken corpora and corpus analysis techniques fruitful in the context of communication, language and interpreter education. Some years ago, I developed the ELISA corpus, a small video-based multimodal corpus of spoken professional English, as a resource for second-language learners and interpreters, and a method for the pedagogical exploitation of such corpora. In the European project BACKBONE, this idea was expanded to create further video corpora for English and other languages, and to develop additional tools and resources for interpreter training. Find out more.
The use of corpus-based methods to inform interpreter education and interpreting studies is a continued interest of mine.
- BACKBONE Content and Language Integrated Learning (European Commission, Lifelong Learning, 2009-10, co-ordinator: University of Tuebingen) Role: project partner | http://projects.ael.uni-tuebingen.de/backbone/moodle/)
- SACODEYL Compilation and Open Distribution of European Youth Language (European Commission, Sokrates-Minerva, 2005-08, partner; co-ordinator: University of Murcia) Role: Project partner
- ELISA Exploration of an English-Language Interview Corpus as a Second-Language Application (University of Tuebingen Early Career Researcher Grant, 2003-04) Role: project leader | http://www.corpora4learning.net
Academic consultancies and advisory work
Advocacy Training Council 2013-15: Design of a training module for trainee advocates in how to work effectively with interpreters (http://www.advocacytrainingcouncil.org/interpreters)
London Probation Trust (2012-13) Analysis of videoconference communication and interpreting in European cross-border resettlement cases, contribution to the European DUTT Project
Metropolitan Police Service, London 2010-11: customised training for police-certified interpreter in video-mediated interpreting
Workshops and seminars
I have also held numerous workshops and seminars on video-mediated interpreting and previously on the use of corpora for pedagogical purposes.
Recent keynotes and invited lectures
2015 Using mixed methods to research new modalities of interpreting. Insights from the AVIDICUS projects. Interpreter-mediated justice: Different languages, different research methodologies. Heriot-Watt University, 7/11/2015.
2015 Videoconference and Remote interpreting: new challenges and new research questions. International Postgraduate Conference in Translation and Interpreting (IPCITI), Edinburgh University, 28-30/10/2015.
2015 Remote interpreting: current insights and future research directions. Keynote. 5th International Conference of the International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies (IATIS), Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 7-10/072015.
2014 Videodolmetschen. Von der Forschung zur Lehre. Chancengleichheit Migration Gesundheit. Abschlusstagung des Pilotprojektes Videodolmetschen im Gesundheitswesen. Ãsterreichischen Plattform Patientensicherheit & Instituts fr Ethik und Recht in der Medizin; Universit Wien. 9/12/2014.
2014 On video interpreting. Translation research seminar. Centre for Translation Studies. University of Stockholm (Sweden) 10/10/2014.
2014 Interpreter Education in an Avatar-based 3D Virtual World. Collaborative and innovative approaches to Bringing technology into interpreter education classrooms. Seminar organised by the Higher Education Academy and AHRC. Heriot Watt University Edinburgh (UK), 06/02/2014.
2013 Disruptive innovation? The introduction of remote interpreting in police interviews. International research seminar Traduzione e interpretazione per la societe le istituzioni. Trieste (Italy), 21-22/11/2013.
2013 Interpreter education in 3D virtual reality. New modes of learning. 17th Annual Conference of the DG Interpretation, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium), 21-22/03/2013.
2012 Keep your distance? Remote interpreting in legal proceedings: a critical assessment of a growing practice. Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies, University of Manchester, 29/11/2012.
2012 Video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings: research findings and initial recommendations. European TRAFUT workshop. Antwerp (Belgium), 18-20/10/2012
2012 Keep your distance? The use of videoconference technology for remote interpreting in legal settings - a critical assessment of a growing practice. Videoconferencing in courts. International research seminar organised by L'Institut des Hautes Etudes sur la Justice, Sorbonne Law School and University of Western Sydney, Paris (France), 28-29/06/2012
2012 Video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings: findings from the AVIDICUS project. Seminar on European e-Justice “Videoconferencing in court proceedings organised by the Danish Ministry of Justice. Copenhagen (Denmark), 16-17/02/2012
2011 Video-mediated interpreting: potential and challenges. Seminar on intercultural mediation organised by the Belgian Ministry of Health. Brussels, 18/11/2011.
2011 Recommendations and guidelines for videoconference and remote interpreting in legal/criminal proceedings. Outcomes of the AVIDICUS project. Presentation to the European working party on eLaw (eJustice). Brussels, 16/10/2011.
2011 The Experience of Remote Translation. Seminar A Virtual Day in Court, organised by Cisco and the Royal Academic Society. London, 14/07/2011
2011 The use of videoconference technology to provide interpreting in criminal proceedings: Findings from the EU project AVIDICUS. Conference on The Future in the Present: Public Service Interpreting and Translation in a Wild Wired World. Alcala (Spain), 13/04/2011.
2010 Bridging the gap: onsite and remote interpreting in dialogue situations. International Symposium: New Insights into the Study of Conversation. Granada (Spain), 28/05/10.
2010 Videoconference and remote interpreting in criminal proceedings: experience from the AVIDICUS project. Chartered Institute of Linguists, CPD seminar. London, 09/10/2010.
I have taught a range of different modules including Interpreting Studies, Public Service Interpreting, Interpreting Technologies and Audiovisual Translation at postgraduate level. I am also supervising a range of PhD projects in the areas of Interpreting and Audiovisual Translation in the Centre for Translation Studies.
Postgraduate research supervision
I am interested in supervising PhD projects in the following areas:
- Interpreting, all modalities
- Interpreting technologies, especially video-mediated interpreting
- Intersemiotic and audiovisual translation, especially audio description
- The discursive and cognitive-pragmatic foundations of translation and interpreting
- Corpus-based interpreting studies
- Technologies in interpreter education
- Education of interpreter clients.
Current PhD students
- Bouchrara, Cheima. Persuasion in Curtroom Discourse: A critical discourse analysis of closing arguments in US criminal cases
- Carloni, Arianna. The role of continued dance training in the reception of audio description
- Delfani, Jaleh. Creativity in audiovisual translation
- Gabrych, Marta. Quality in police interpreting
- Merakchi, Khadidja. Metaphors in popular science discourse
- Starr, Kim. Audio description as a means of encouraging autistic audiences to engage with emotions
- Zhang, Wei. Patient-centred approaches in medical interpreting.
- Ninrat, Rangsima. Translation of allusions
- Zhang, Shasa. Documentary translation and ideology
Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised
- Al-Jabri, Hanan (2017). TV Simultaneous Interpreting of Arabic Presidential Speeches into English During the Arab Spring.
- Daniel WIlson (2017). An Investigation into the Comprehensive Development of L2 Pragmatic Competence in the EFL Classroom: A Case of Advanced Serbian EFL Learners.
- Perdikaki, Katerina (2016). Film adaptation as translation.
- Gough, Joanna (2016). The patterns of interaction between professional translators and online resources.
- Dicerto, Sara (2015). Multimodal Pragmatics: Building a new model for source text analysis.
- Bale, Richard (2014). Spoken corpus-based resources for undergraduate initial interpreter training and lexical knowledge acquisition: empirical case studies.
- McGonigle, Frances (2013). Audio Description and Semiotics: The translation of films for visually-impaired audiences.
- Unal, Melis (2013). Coherence in consecutive interpreting: a comparative study of short and long consecutive interpretations of English texts into Turkish.
- Yeung, Ho Man (Oscar) (2012). An applied genre analysis of the discursive practices in insurance contexts.
- De Leo, Davide (2011). The translation of judgments in different and similar legal systems and languages / language varieties: an empirical study.
in Criminal Proceedings" pp. 301-328 Intersentia
in Criminal Proceedings pp. 99-117 Intersentia
an asset management system for the oral les and permit users (mentors of the training interpreters) to easily upload and customize the 3D environment and observe which scenario is being used by a student. In this article we present the design and development of the IVY Virtual Environment and the asset management system. Finally we make discussion over our plans for further development.
non-existence of training in video-mediated legal interpreting per se, both
from the point of view of the legal interpreters themselves, and that of the
legal professionals who work with interpreters, the AVIDICUS Project
included as one of its core objectives to devise and pilot three training
modules on video-mediated interpreting: one for legal practitioners,
including the police; one for interpreters working in the legal services; and
one for interpreting students.
This chapter presents the three training modules, designed and developed
by the AVIDICUS Project. Following a discussion of the background context
to the need for training and the technological of such training, the module for
student interpreters is presented, followed by the legal interpreters? module,
and finally the module aimed at legal practitioners and police officers.
At face value, the enthusiasm of the research community seems to be increasingly shared by practising teachers. At many teacher training seminars at which I have discussed the use(fulness) of corpus resources, I have met teachers who?at the end of the seminar?were eager to use corpora with their students and were especially interested in the growing number of easily accessible web-based resources. But in spite of everyone?s best intentions, the use of corpora in language classrooms remains the exception, and the question of what it takes to get past ?Groundhog Day? in corpus-based language learning and teaching is far from being solved.
Spoken corpora may not be the obvious solution. The use of Spoken corpora in Applied Linguistics (Campoy / Luzón 2007) is usually considered to be more challenging than the use of written corpora, since spoken language is often perceived to be ?messy?, grammatically challenging and lexically poor. Moreover, spoken corpora have traditionally been more difficult to build and distribute. However, multimedia technologies have not only made this easier but they have also opened up new ways of exploiting corpus data.
Against this backdrop, this paper will argue that spoken multimedia corpora are not simply an interesting type of corpus for language learning, but that they can in fact lead the way in bringing corpus technology and language pedagogy together (Braun et al. 2006). After a brief review of some of the prevailing obstacles for a more wide-spread use of corpora by students and some common approaches and solutions to the problems at hand (in section 2), one approach to designing a pedagogically viable corpus will
in Criminal Proceedings pp. 69-98 Intersentia
The use of corpora in the second-language learning context requires the availability of corpora which are pedagogically relevant with regard to choice of discourse, choice of media, annotation and size. I here describe a pedagogically motivated corpus design which supports a direct and efficient exploitation of the corpus by learners and teachers. One of the major guidelines is Widdowson's (2003) claim that the successful use of corpora requires a learner's (and teacher's) ability to 'authenticate' the corpus materials. In line with this, I argue for the development of small and pedagogically annotated corpora which enable us to combine two methods of analysis and exploitation to mutual benefit: a corpus-based approach (i.e. 'vertical reading' of e.g. concordances), which provides patterns of language use, and a discourse-based approach, which focuses on the analysis of the individual texts in the corpus and of linguistic means of expression in relation to their communicative (situational) and cultural embedding. To illustrate my points, I use a small multimedia corpus of spoken English which is currently being developed as a model corpus with pedagogical goals in mind.
gaining access to an interpreter who is in another room, building, city or country and
who is linked to the primary participants by telephone or videoconference. RI by
telephone is nowadays often called TELEPHONE INTERPRETING or over-the-phone
interpreting. RI by videoconference is often simply called remote interpreting when it
refers to spoken-language interpreting. In SIGNED LANGUAGE INTERPRETING, the term
VIDEO REMOTE INTERPRETING has become established. RI is best described as a modality
or method of delivery. It has been used for SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETING, CONSECUTIVE
INTERPRETING and DIALOGUE INTERPRETING. This entry focuses on RI by
videoconference in spoken-language interpreting.
The present study seeks to investigate how second language (L2) pragmatic competence can be comprehensively developed in the ordinary EFL classroom, using an explicit teaching method which fundamentally integrates assessment into the instructional process. To conduct this investigation, a novel method was designed and implemented with the participation of advanced Serbian EFL learners. Data sources, including role-play and video-based assessments, interviews, discussions and observations, were then obtained for the purposes of cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to address three research questions. The first two questions explore how the components of pragmatic competence develop as a result of the instructional method and the role of pragmatic awareness in this. The third question investigates the practicality (validity and feasibility) of incorporating such a method in the classroom context.
Findings suggest that the assessment-integrated instructional method constitutes a practical and effective means of comprehensively developing L2 pragmatic competence in the ordinary EFL classroom, as evidenced by the demonstrable development of participants? conscious knowledge and ability to apply contextually appropriate Head act and External modification strategies. L2 pragmatic awareness appears to be key to the process of developing particular pragmatic sub-competences. Findings also serve to indicate further implications for pragmatics-related instructional methods, such as the phenomenon of ?pragmatic fossilisation?.
A model for a systematic adaptation analysis seems to be currently missing in Adaptation Studies. Translation Studies can also benefit from a closer look into the workings of cultural production. An analysis of adaptation as intersemiotic and intermedial translation can give rise to the factors that condition the flow of narratives across media and cultures. Such an analysis can also shed light on the relationship between cultural products and the socio-temporal context that accommodates them.
To this end, the present project aims at examining the film adaptation process from a hermeneutic point of view, looking into both textual and contextual parameters that monitor the adaptation process. A model towards the systematic analysis and interpretation of the changes occurring in the adaptation process (i.e. adaptation shifts) is also developed to fulfil this aim. The model draws upon insights from Translation Studies, Film Studies and Narratology and has a descriptive/comparative and an interpretive component. The former is used to examine adaptation as an audiovisual text in relation to its source material and the latter deconstructs the adaptation process in relation to the agents and contexts involved. The model can thus contribute to a systematic study of adaptations and to a better understanding of the adaptation/translation process.
a bespoke approach to facilitating access to the emotional content in multimodal narrative texts for autistic audiences.,
This study explores the application of bespoke AD for emotion recognition purposes, from the perspective of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experiencing comorbid alexithymia (emotion recognition difficulties). It aims to establish the suitability of audio description as a vehicle for delivering emotion-based cues to assist with access to affective markers in film narrative.
A study of AD for sight-impaired individuals undertaken by the British Broadcasting Corporation found evidence suggesting AD helped ASD individuals to engage with affective narrative (Fellowes, 2012). Studies of affect with autistic spectrum individuals commonly employ multimodal materials for the purposes of measuring emotion identification (Golan, Baron-Cohen & Golan, 2008), but have not yet incorporated supplementary AD, either as an entertainment or pedagogical resource. Addressing the gap, this project pairs AD remodelling techniques with an intervention study, to test for enhanced affective accessibility in ASD audiences.
Applying a functionalist, skopos-based (Nord, 1997; Vermeer, 2012; Reiss & Vermeer, 2014) approach to modelling AD in the first phase of the study (S1), two new emotion recognition difficulties (ERD) modalities were developed, emoto-descriptive (EMO-AD) and emoto-interpretative (CXT-AD). These were subsequently tested, alongside standard (BVI) AD and a ?zero? AD modality (Z-AD), in an intervention study with young ASD individuals (S2). Results suggested that BVI-AD might represent a confound for this particular audience. Since ?ceiling? effect was observed in the other modalities (EMO-AD, CXT-AD and Z-AD), the efficacy of bespoke AD for emotion recognition applications remains unproven. However, the results indicate that affect-oriented AD, per se, is unlikely to confound ASD audiences. This study represents the first trial of tailor-made AD for audiences with cognitive accessibility needs, representing an interdisciplinary approach bridging the fields of audiovisual translation (Translation Studies) and psychology. As such, it opens up the debate for broader application of AD to aid accessibility in the cognitive arena.
Here or There presents cutting edge, empirical research that informs the professional practice of remote interpreting, whether it be video relay service, video conference, or video remote interpreting. The research is augmented by the perspectives of stakeholders and deaf consumers on the quality of the interpreted work. Among the topics covered are professional attitudes and motivations, interpreting in specific contexts, and adaptation strategies. The contributors also address potential implications for relying on remote interpreting, discuss remote interpreter education, and offer recommendations for service providers.
videoconferencing in legal proceedings: Findings from the AVIDICUS projects., In: Proceedings of the conference ?Elektroniczny protokóB ? szans? na transparentny i szybkiproces? (Electronic Protocol ? a chance for transparent and fast trial) pp. 21-34 Polish Ministry of Justice
Against this backdrop, the main aim of AVIDICUS 3 was to identify institutional processes and practices of implementing and using video links in legal proceedings and to assess them in terms of how they accommodate and support bilingual communication mediated through an interpreter. The focus was on spoken-language interpreting. The project examined 12 European jurisdictions (Belgium, Croatia, England and Wales, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). An ethnographic approach was adopted to identify relevant practices, including site visits, in-depth and mostly in-situ interviews with over 100 representatives from different stakeholder groups, observations of real-life proceedings, and the analysis of a number of policy documents produced in the justice sector.
The chapter summarises and systematises the findings from the jurisdictions included in this study. The assessment focuses on the use of videoconferencing in both national and cross-border proceedings, and covers different applications of videoconferencing in the legal system, including its use for links between courts and remote participants (e.g. witnesses, defendants in prison) and its use to access interpreters who work offsite (see Braun 2015; Skinner, Napier & Braun in this volume).
This thesis aims to investigate metaphors in American popular science articles dealing with astronomy and astrophysics published in Scientific American and their Arabic translations published in Majallat-Al-Oloom. The thesis focuses more particularly on metaphors fulfilling a pedagogical role which are embedded in culture specific domains. Although English is argued to be the global lingual franca of the sciences nowadays, the use of culture specific metaphors might raise difficulties in disseminating the scientific content in English and in its translations.
The field of astronomy and astrophysics has been chosen because of the complex and often abstract nature of its concepts that requires an appropriate discourse strategy to bring abstract concepts closer to the general reader?s understanding. It is also a domain that is visible in the public understanding of the sciences through its large diffusion. In this scientific communication metaphor fulfils not only a terminological function but is also used as a pedagogical tool to achieve popularisation. Despite its role in disseminating scientific content, metaphor in the discourse of astronomy and astrophysics has remained so far unexplored from both metaphor studies and translation perspectives.
To achieve these aims, a multidimensional framework combining a conceptual approach with linguistic and functional elements was devised to capture the complexity of metaphor from a translation perspective, especially between languages of differing diffusion where English is a global lingua franca. A bilingual corpus was compiled (circa 150,000 words) and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The updated version of the metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) was further adapted to allow the identification of the linguistic metaphors and their functions. The methodology also accounted for how the conceptual metaphors are implied from the linguistic data, a step that is often unaccounted for in the literature.
The study shows that linguistic metaphors used in the source texts fulfil mainly a pedagogical function and are often embedded in culture-specific domains, presenting challenges for translation.
A wide range of strategies was identified in the translation of these metaphors, where the same conceptual metaphor is often reproduced in the target text by combining many strategies (couplets). This results in new metaphors in the target system that are argued to achieve a dual purpose: they facilitate access to scientific concepts communicated in the source text by unpacking the metaphorical images for a new audience; and they contribute to the enrichment of the target-language system.