Professor Sabine Braun

Professor of Translation Studies, Director of the Centre for Translation Studies, Associate Dean (Research)
MA (Heidelberg), Dr Phil (Tuebingen)


Areas of specialism

Interpreting technologies; Video-mediated interpreting; Intersemiotic and audiovisual translation; Audio description; Corpus-based interpreting studies; Educational technologies

University roles and responsibilities

  • Professor of Translation Studies
  • Director of the Centre for Translation Studies
  • Associate Dean (Research)

    My qualifications

    MA Translation
    University of Heidelberg
    Dr Phil in Applied English Linguisics
    University of Tübingen


    Research interests

    Research collaborations

        External activities

        Academic consultancies and advisory work

        Advocacy Training Council 2013-15: Design of a training module for trainee advocates in how to work effectively with interpreters (

        London Probation Trust (2012-13) Analysis of videoconference communication and interpreting in European cross-border resettlement cases, contribution to the European DUTT Project

        Metropolitan Police Service, London 2010-11: customised training for police-certified interpreter in video-mediated interpreting

        Workshops and seminars

        I have also held numerous workshops and seminars on video-mediated interpreting and previously on the use of corpora for pedagogical purposes.

        Recent keynotes and invited lectures

        2015 Using mixed methods to research new modalities of interpreting. Insights from the AVIDICUS projects. Interpreter-mediated justice: Different languages, different research methodologies. Heriot-Watt University, 7/11/2015.

        2015 Videoconference and Remote interpreting: new challenges and new research questions. International Postgraduate Conference in Translation and Interpreting (IPCITI), Edinburgh University, 28-30/10/2015.

        2015 Remote interpreting: current insights and future research directions. Keynote. 5th International Conference of the International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies (IATIS), Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 7-10/072015.

        2014 Videodolmetschen. Von der Forschung zur Lehre. Chancengleichheit Migration Gesundheit. Abschlusstagung des Pilotprojektes Videodolmetschen im Gesundheitswesen. Ãsterreichischen Plattform Patientensicherheit & Instituts fr Ethik und Recht in der Medizin; Universit Wien. 9/12/2014.

        2014 On video interpreting. Translation research seminar. Centre for Translation Studies. University of Stockholm (Sweden) 10/10/2014.

        2014 Interpreter Education in an Avatar-based 3D Virtual World. Collaborative and innovative approaches to Bringing technology into interpreter education classrooms. Seminar organised by the Higher Education Academy and AHRC. Heriot Watt University Edinburgh (UK), 06/02/2014.

        2013 Disruptive innovation? The introduction of remote interpreting in police interviews. International research seminar Traduzione e interpretazione per la societe le istituzioni. Trieste (Italy), 21-22/11/2013.

        2013 Interpreter education in 3D virtual reality. New modes of learning. 17th Annual Conference of the DG Interpretation, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium), 21-22/03/2013.

        2012 Keep your distance? Remote interpreting in legal proceedings: a critical assessment of a growing practice. Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies, University of Manchester, 29/11/2012.

        2012 Video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings: research findings and initial recommendations. European TRAFUT workshop. Antwerp (Belgium), 18-20/10/2012

        2012 Keep your distance? The use of videoconference technology for remote interpreting in legal settings - a critical assessment of a growing practice. Videoconferencing in courts. International research seminar organised by L'Institut des Hautes Etudes sur la Justice, Sorbonne Law School and University of Western Sydney, Paris (France), 28-29/06/2012

        2012 Video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings: findings from the AVIDICUS project. Seminar on European e-Justice “Videoconferencing in court proceedings organised by the Danish Ministry of Justice. Copenhagen (Denmark), 16-17/02/2012

        2011 Video-mediated interpreting: potential and challenges. Seminar on intercultural mediation organised by the Belgian Ministry of Health. Brussels, 18/11/2011.

        2011 Recommendations and guidelines for videoconference and remote interpreting in legal/criminal proceedings. Outcomes of the AVIDICUS project. Presentation to the European working party on eLaw (eJustice). Brussels, 16/10/2011.

        2011 The Experience of Remote Translation. Seminar A Virtual Day in Court, organised by Cisco and the Royal Academic Society. London, 14/07/2011

        2011 The use of videoconference technology to provide interpreting in criminal proceedings: Findings from the EU project AVIDICUS. Conference on The Future in the Present: Public Service Interpreting and Translation in a Wild Wired World. Alcala (Spain), 13/04/2011.

        2010 Bridging the gap: onsite and remote interpreting in dialogue situations. International Symposium: New Insights into the Study of Conversation. Granada (Spain), 28/05/10.

        2010 Videoconference and remote interpreting in criminal proceedings: experience from the AVIDICUS project. Chartered Institute of Linguists, CPD seminar. London, 09/10/2010.


        Postgraduate research supervision

        Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

        My teaching

        My publications


        Sabine Braun, Elena Davitti, Catherine Slater (2020)'It's like being in bubbles': affordances and challenges of virtual learning environments for collaborative learning in interpreter education, In: The interpreter and translator trainer14(3)pp. 259-278 Routledge
        We report on a study evaluating the educational opportunities that highly multimodal and interactive Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) provide for collaborative learning in the context of interpreter education. The study was prompted by previous research into the use of VLEs in interpreter education, which showed positive results but which focused on preparatory or ancillary activities and/or individual interpreting practice. The study reported here, which was part of a larger project on evaluating the use of VLEs in educating interpreters and their potential clients, explored the affordances of a videoconferencing platform and a 3D virtual world for collaborative learning in the context of dialogue interpreting. The participants were 13 student-interpreters, who conducted role-play simulations in both environments. Through a mix of methods such as non-participant observation, reflective group discussions, linguistic analysis of the recorded simulations, and a user experience survey several dimensions of using the VLEs were explored including the linguistic/discursive dimension (interpreting), the interactional dimension (communication management between the participants), the ergonomic dimension (human-computer interaction) and the psychological dimension (user experience, sense of presence). Both VLEs were found to be capable of supporting situated and autonomous learning in the interpreting context, although differences arose regarding the reported user experience.
        This study examines the translation field in Turkey by examining social, cultural, economic and political factors that impact on translators and translation. It is an attempt to contribute to the literature on the sociology of translation by adopting a Bourdieusian perspective whilst looking at how the translation field, along with various forms of translator capital and (dis)positions can be studied, in a contemporary and Turkish context. At the same time, the study elaborates on Lefevere’s concept of patronage and analyses the forces and control mechanisms which influence the field of translation and literary (fiction and other genres) translators in Turkey. The prosecution of a considerable number of translators in Turkey after they were held responsible for the content of their translations, particularly when these included “insulting Turkishness”, and the lack of research in the field of prosecution of translators in the Turkish context as well as the desire to know Turkish translational culture better by looking at this particular issue led to the carrying out of this study. Yet, neither the scope nor the expected contribution is limited to this. The contribution of the project to Translation Studies will result from its multi-layered, multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary approach to investigating the translator as one of the main agents of the act of translating, before positioning him/her within a wider system of translation, and to uncovering the perceived influence of control factors on the field of translation and translational behaviour in Turkey. While the historical dimension will help us in identifying the developments in translation studies in Turkey, the sociological, cultural, economic, and political perspectives will solidify our understanding of the translator as an individual, with the legal perspective foregrounding the link of this individual, not only with the society in which s/he lives, but also with the political apparatus. The research used a qualitative and exploratory approach for the 16 in-depth interviews conducted. Since the motivation for this study was to understand, in the sociological sense, rather than explain, it mainly attempted to document the world from the point of view of the people studied. The dynamics of the field of translation and the power structures within the field in the context of Turkey were uncovered through a thematic analysis method, where various aspects of the translation world in Turkey were explored under different themes, and political/ ideological, economic and social control factors were found to impact significantly on the field of translation and translational behaviour in Turkey.
        With the rapid growth of the Internet and the recent developments in translation technology, the way translators carry out their translation-oriented research has changed dramatically. Resources used by translators to conduct such research have diversified and largely moved from paper to online. However, whilst the number and the variety of online resources available to translators is growing exponentially, little is known about the interactions between translators and these resources. The present research empirically examines the use of online resources by professional translators during their translation-oriented research activities and it does so from an information behaviour perspective. As a first study of its kind, it focusses on freelance professional translators working at their normal place of work. Specifically, this work addresses the questions of the nature and quantity of resources used by translators as well as the time they spend on research activities. Furthermore, it examines the individual differences between the participants during the research activities. These differences are studied by considering the types of resources used and the ways they are accessed, and by investigating the many volume- and time-related aspects of each translator’s research activities. The main contribution of this study lies in the identification of patterns and their systematisation through a multidimensional analysis, culminating in the formulation of two taxonomies - the Resource Type User Taxonomy (RTUT) and Taxonomy of Translator Research Styles (TTRS). It is argued that whilst RTUT may largely depend on technology developments, TTRS reflects the more innate traits of translators’ information behaviour. By employing a two-stage, multi-method approach (Global Survey, N=540 and Main Study N=16), and by conducting it remotely, through the Internet, the present study represents a quasi-naturalistic research design which aims to observe translation processes as they happen in translators’ natural working environments. This methodology in itself constitutes a contribution to translation process studies.
        Popular science articles are nowadays a key component of the scientific writing landscape: science is popularised through a recontextualization of a primary scientific discourse to fit the knowledge and expectations of a broader audience, but then disseminated further through translation. This recontextualization is often achieved using metaphors to help the non-expert reader to access complex and abstract scientific concepts based on shared author-reader experiences, which are, however, not necessarily shared with the new target-culture audience, potentially endangering cross-linguistic communication of the scientific content. This thesis aims to investigate metaphors in American popular science articles dealing with astronomy and astrophysics published in Scientific American and their Arabic translations published in Majallat-Al-Oloom. The thesis focuses more particularly on metaphors fulfilling a pedagogical role which are embedded in culture specific domains. Although English is argued to be the global lingual franca of the sciences nowadays, the use of culture specific metaphors might raise difficulties in disseminating the scientific content in English and in its translations. The field of astronomy and astrophysics has been chosen because of the complex and often abstract nature of its concepts that requires an appropriate discourse strategy to bring abstract concepts closer to the general reader’s understanding. It is also a domain that is visible in the public understanding of the sciences through its large diffusion. In this scientific communication metaphor fulfils not only a terminological function but is also used as a pedagogical tool to achieve popularisation. Despite its role in disseminating scientific content, metaphor in the discourse of astronomy and astrophysics has remained so far unexplored from both metaphor studies and translation perspectives. To achieve these aims, a multidimensional framework combining a conceptual approach with linguistic and functional elements was devised to capture the complexity of metaphor from a translation perspective, especially between languages of differing diffusion where English is a global lingua franca. A bilingual corpus was compiled (circa 150,000 words) and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The updated version of the metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) was further adapted to allow the identification of the linguistic metaphors and their functions. The methodology also accounted for how the conceptual metaphors are implied from the linguistic data, a step that is often unaccounted for in the literature. The study shows that linguistic metaphors used in the source texts fulfil mainly a pedagogical function and are often embedded in culture-specific domains, presenting challenges for translation. A wide range of strategies was identified in the translation of these metaphors, where the same conceptual metaphor is often reproduced in the target text by combining many strategies (couplets). This results in new metaphors in the target system that are argued to achieve a dual purpose: they facilitate access to scientific concepts communicated in the source text by unpacking the metaphorical images for a new audience; and they contribute to the enrichment of the target-language system.
        This thesis explores the translation of mainstream film imagery in audio description (AD) for visually-impaired audiences, looking specifically at the intersemiotic transfer (from the visual to the verbal mode) of visual constructions important to connotational meaning. The original contribution of this work is the improved qualitative understanding of how viewing value may be enhanced for the users of film AD through the inclusion of imagery that presents wider opportunities for meaning-making. This research was based on the hypothesis that traditional forms of film AD may not adequately provide for visual connotation even though this is an integral part of filmmaking important to the expression of meanings beyond the basic story. Moreover, that visually-impaired people with intact cognitive function have an ability to conceptualise imagery in equivalent ways to sighted people. Traditionally, film AD has been a means of ‘filling in the gaps’ between dialogue and sounds to provide users with simple and coherent stories in the context of what can be heard. However, films are semiotic systems (Mitry, 2000: 15) communicating to audiences via complex patterns of visual and auditory signs, so whilst current practice in AD may respond to the legal requirement of access for all, access may not be equivalent if important elements of imagery are not adequately transferred. Based on three qualitative sources of data: the analysis of film and AD content, the testing of different AD versions and a semi-structured interview with respondents, this research sought to understand whether visual imagery important to wider levels of meaning is adequately handled in film AD in the UK and what this means in terms of value for target users. Whilst it was found that more sophisticated content is sometimes included, transfer is widely inconsistent, with consequential loss in value for AD target users.
        In an age where technological advancements are providing people with new forms of communication, or increasing the communicative potential of forms previously available, translation is an activity which is growing more and more complex and cannot be accounted for in linguistic terms only. Translation Studies has traditionally dealt with meaning as a linguistic product; however, source texts nowadays very often include resources like images and/or sounds, which interact with the linguistically communicated message, considerably affecting meaning. More accurately, it can be said that linguistic, visual and aural meaning influence each other and create a multimodal message whose interpretation requires different types of literacy and the ability to combine them. Appropriate models analysing multimodal texts, however, are still missing. Furthermore, as no area of translation has been left untouched by the multimodal phenomenon, future translators need to be competent ‘readers’ of multimodal texts. However, the theoretical resources available to train translators are mostly concerned with texts in which the message is communicated verbally; this creates a gap between translation theory and practice as well as a gap between the training translators receive and the reality of the translation industry they need to face, in which translators find themselves working on texts where the message is communicated by more than ‘just’ words. Addressing these gaps, the main aim of this work is to develop a new model for source text analysis for translation purposes. The model brings together aspects of meaning production as it is viewed in Pragmatics, Multimodality, Translation and Semiotics and merges them in a single theoretical framework that can be applied to the analysis of any multimodal source text in order to gain a better understanding of how it conveys meaning. The model aims to contribute to a better general understanding of meaning not just as a linguistic, but as a multimodal product and it is also proposed as a theoretical resource for trainee translators.
        Narratives are increasingly intermedial nowadays and adaptation is prominent in the performing arts (e.g. theatre, opera) and in various forms of media (e.g. film, television, radio, video games). The process of adaptation has been paralleled to that of translation, as both deal with the transfer of meaning from one sociocultural context to another. In a similar vein, translation has been viewed as a process of adaptation when the communicated message needs to be tailored to the values of the target culture. Nevertheless, a framework building on the affinities of translation and adaptation remains relatively under-researched. A model for a systematic adaptation analysis seems to be currently missing in Adaptation Studies. Translation Studies can also benefit from a closer look into the workings of cultural production. An analysis of adaptation as intersemiotic and intermedial translation can give rise to the factors that condition the flow of narratives across media and cultures. Such an analysis can also shed light on the relationship between cultural products and the socio-temporal context that accommodates them. To this end, the present project aims at examining the film adaptation process from a hermeneutic point of view, looking into both textual and contextual parameters that monitor the adaptation process. A model towards the systematic analysis and interpretation of the changes occurring in the adaptation process (i.e. adaptation shifts) is also developed to fulfil this aim. The model draws upon insights from Translation Studies, Film Studies and Narratology and has a descriptive/comparative and an interpretive component. The former is used to examine adaptation as an audiovisual text in relation to its source material and the latter deconstructs the adaptation process in relation to the agents and contexts involved. The model can thus contribute to a systematic study of adaptations and to a better understanding of the adaptation/translation process.
        Pragmatic competence is a component of language knowledge; therefore, it is as intrinsic to the ability to successfully communicate for a foreign language (FL) learner as it is for a native speaker, especially where perceptions of politeness may vary between cultures. Despite this, pragmatics is under-represented in FL course materials and assessments, and consequently educators are often left unsure as to how to include it in their classes. The result of this is that learners may achieve proficiency in the linguistic competences (knowledge of lexis, syntax, phonology), but remain pragmatically underdeveloped and susceptible to pragmatic failure. The present study seeks to investigate how second language (L2) pragmatic competence can be comprehensively developed in the ordinary EFL classroom, using an explicit teaching method which fundamentally integrates assessment into the instructional process. To conduct this investigation, a novel method was designed and implemented with the participation of advanced Serbian EFL learners. Data sources, including role-play and video-based assessments, interviews, discussions and observations, were then obtained for the purposes of cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to address three research questions. The first two questions explore how the components of pragmatic competence develop as a result of the instructional method and the role of pragmatic awareness in this. The third question investigates the practicality (validity and feasibility) of incorporating such a method in the classroom context. Findings suggest that the assessment-integrated instructional method constitutes a practical and effective means of comprehensively developing L2 pragmatic competence in the ordinary EFL classroom, as evidenced by the demonstrable development of participants’ conscious knowledge and ability to apply contextually appropriate Head act and External modification strategies. L2 pragmatic awareness appears to be key to the process of developing particular pragmatic sub-competences. Findings also serve to indicate further implications for pragmatics-related instructional methods, such as the phenomenon of ‘pragmatic fossilisation’.
        Despite the vast research on simultaneous interpreting in different settings, little is known about interpreting practices in the field of TV, particularly between Arabic and English. The recent events of the Arab Spring led to more reliance on simultaneous interpreting for broadcasting presidential speeches live to audiences worldwide. Emotive overtones were a salient feature in the Arabic-language speeches and posed challenges to the TV interpreters who had to handle other difficulties and constraints involved in the task. The current study aims to investigate the way TV interpreters, who worked in the simultaneous mode, handled the task of conveying the emotive overtones employed in Arabic-language political speeches into English. It also aims to examine the difficulties and challenges that emerged during this process and might have influenced the interpreters’ choices. The study also evaluates the way the TV interpreters handled this task and whether the original emotive effect was maintained, upgraded, downgraded or abandoned in their renditions. To achieve its aims, the study analysed a corpus of four Arabic presidential political speeches delivered during the Arab Spring, along with their English simultaneous interpretations produced by different international TV stations. The analysis relied on a macro framework and a micro framework. The macro framework presents an overview of the wider context of the Arabic-language speeches and the individual speakers to help understand the linguistic choices made by the speakers. The micro framework investigates the linguistic tools which were employed by the speakers to stir people’s emotions. The study analyses the Arabic-language speeches through applying emotive categories which are based on Shamaa’s (1978) classification of emotive meaning according to their linguistic level: phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic and lexical levels. The micro level also investigates the strategies which were used by the TV interpreters to render the emotive linguistic tools into English. By adopting a qualitative approach, the study aims to contribute to a better understanding of TV simultaneous interpreting between Arabic and English, as well as the practices of TV interpreters when working into their B language and rendering emotiveness.
        Audio description (AD) offers untapped potential for delivering content to new audiences, particularly in the realm of cognitive accessibility. To date, bespoke AD orientations, moving beyond the standard blind and visually impaired modality (BVI-AD), have not been researched. This study explores the application of bespoke AD for emotion recognition purposes, from the perspective of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experiencing comorbid alexithymia (emotion recognition difficulties). It aims to establish the suitability of audio description as a vehicle for delivering emotion-based cues to assist with access to affective markers in film narrative. A study of AD for sight-impaired individuals undertaken by the British Broadcasting Corporation found evidence suggesting AD helped ASD individuals to engage with affective narrative (Fellowes, 2012). Studies of affect with autistic spectrum individuals commonly employ multimodal materials for the purposes of measuring emotion identification (Golan, Baron-Cohen & Golan, 2008), but have not yet incorporated supplementary AD, either as an entertainment or pedagogical resource. Addressing the gap, this project pairs AD remodelling techniques with an intervention study, to test for enhanced affective accessibility in ASD audiences. Applying a functionalist, skopos-based (Nord, 1997; Vermeer, 2012; Reiss & Vermeer, 2014) approach to modelling AD in the first phase of the study (S1), two new emotion recognition difficulties (ERD) modalities were developed, emoto-descriptive (EMO-AD) and emoto-interpretative (CXT-AD). These were subsequently tested, alongside standard (BVI) AD and a ‘zero’ AD modality (Z-AD), in an intervention study with young ASD individuals (S2). Results suggested that BVI-AD might represent a confound for this particular audience. Since ‘ceiling’ effect was observed in the other modalities (EMO-AD, CXT-AD and Z-AD), the efficacy of bespoke AD for emotion recognition applications remains unproven. However, the results indicate that affect-oriented AD, per se, is unlikely to confound ASD audiences. This study represents the first trial of tailor-made AD for audiences with cognitive accessibility needs, representing an interdisciplinary approach bridging the fields of audiovisual translation (Translation Studies) and psychology. As such, it opens up the debate for broader application of AD to aid accessibility in the cognitive arena.
        The present study investigates, from the point of view of translation, the phenomenon of stand-up comedians performing in more than one language, with a specific focus on English and Italian, and on Italian comedians performing in London. This offers the opportunity to address questions of humour translatability, to observe how performing in a native, as opposed to a second, language impacts performance, and to consider the role that humour and translation can play in situations of diaspora. For these purposes, a new type of translation needs to be conceptualised for it to be recognised as taking place in bilingual comedy. In doing this, the starting point is the recognition that stand-up comedy represents a form of oral communication, in which the presence of a written text cannot be assumed. The type of translation putatively involved in bilingual stand-up comedy is thus defined as “oral self-translation”. The notion of “mental text”, borrowed from the ethnographer Honko (1996), is proposed as the source and target text of this type of translation. The concepts of declarative and procedural memories are then deployed to offer a theoretical model for the content of this mental text. These challenges call for a phenomenological approach as the main method of this study, in which the experience of a sample of ten bilingual stand-up comedians is investigated by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The researcher’s own experience in performing stand-up comedy in both Italian and English is also reflexively interrogated and compared with the participants’ experiences, as collected in the interviews. The results extrapolated from this data suggest that translation does occur in bilingual comedy and that its comic efficacy is considered very satisfactory by the performers themselves, in accordance with their interpretation of the audience’s reaction. This success seems to be correlated with the special degree of freedom enjoyed by the self-translating comedian. The choice of language, moreover, seems to be associated with different performing styles and different levels of emotional involvement from the comedian. In its interaction between performers and audience, oral self-translation of stand-up comedy is shown to partake in the process of “identity negotiation” (Swann 1987), particularly when this interaction occurs between members of a diaspora and members of the host community.
        The project set out to conduct a diachronic research to investigate the application of allusions and their translation from English into Thai over the 55-year timeframe between 1960 and 2015 to study how different generation of translators in Thailand perceived and handled allusions and examine socio-cultural factors in history that affect changes in translation of allusions over time. The project was built on the idea of allusion as a potential culture bump raised by Ritva Leppihalme. She suggests that allusion is a challenge for translators to deliver to another language since the device is highly-bound with culture (Leppihalme 1997) even between the cultures that are close to each other (Desmet 2001). Thus, it is intriguing to see how allusions were handled if source culture and target culture are remarkably different from each other, such as between Western and Thai cultures. In this project, allusions in crime fiction novels originally written in English and their corresponding Thai translation published between 1960 and 2015 were identified and analysed. However, to highlight the potential changes occurred during the study timeframe, the 55-year timeframe was divided into 3 periods of an uneven length according to significant events in Thai history, namely, the period of foreign influence (1980-1989), the period of globalisation (2000-2005) and the period of digital age (2010-2015). In each period, five crime fiction novels were randomly selected. The 15 selected novels were analysed in three sequential phases. Firstly, allusions were manually identified. Then, the source-texts allusions were classified according to a three-dimensional classification of allusions which draws on four different classifications of allusions; these are the classifications of allusions according to sources of referent (Killirov 2004), forms of referents (Leppihalme 1997) and modification of allusions (Leppihalme 1997; Bamman & Crane 2008) to thoroughly investigate different dimensions of allusions for the analysis of potential correlations between different dimensions of allusions and their translation. Finally, the translation of the identified allusions was analysed. In this project, a framework of the interpretation of allusions according to their preservation in translation was introduced based on the idea raised by Ruokonen (2010) about the interpretive possibilities of allusions, to examine how translators in different periods of time perceive and interpret allusions according to the presence of allusions and translation strategies used in the translation. The results of the study indicate that over the period of 55 years between 1960 and 2015, the number of allusions employed in the corpus greatly increases over time. Regarding the preservation of allusions, allusions were increasingly retained in the translation. However, the translation strategies used were different over time signifying translators’ different perception and understanding of allusions influenced by changes in knowledge about the source culture and changing ideologies of the target culture over time.
        The preferred mode of audiovisual translation for foreign language programmes on state television and cinemas in Iran is dubbing. Dubbing is done by professionals who are supervised by the authorities, and a considerable part of foreign programmes is being censored. On the other hand, subtitling is not supervised by any formal institutions and is practiced by ‘unofficial’ subtitlers. Although their work does not necessarily follow subtitling norms, some of these subtitlers produce work of high-quality standards and their products are popular among the target audience. In order to shed light on the reason behind this popularity and address this under-researched phenomenon in the Iranian context, the current study focuses on the work of three informally recognised experienced subtitlers, whose works are popular among the audience, by taking animation as a case in point as a genre that has attracted dual audiences of (young) adults/children. The thesis contains a comparative analysis of the subtitles produced by the abovementioned unofficial subtitlers for five popular animated feature films to gauge the most frequently applied strategies by these subtitlers. As cultural elements have widely been recognised by scholars as one of the most challenging aspects of translation, Pedersen’s (2011) taxonomy of transfer strategies for Extralinguistic Cultural References (ECRs) in subtitling has been employed as a tool for analysing the subtitles. Pedersen’s model was adapted through partial redefinitions and extension of the categories to suit the purpose of the present study. The comparison focused on commonalities and differences in the subtitlers’ translation choices regarding the identified ECR instances in the selected animated feature films. The study reveals that unofficial subtitlers have a strong tendency to opt for target-oriented strategies when dealing with the translation of ECRs. Paraphrase was found to be the most frequently used strategy, followed by using a superordinate term and cultural substitution.
        Quality in interpreting has been investigated from different perspectives with the main focus being put on conference interpreting. Little research has been conducted on assessing the quality of interpreting in public service settings, more specifically, in legal settings, and in particular within police interpreting. The introduction of the Directive 2010/64/EU of the European Parliament and the European Council, which was established with the intention of strengthening language rights, was a positive development that put more emphasis on quality in legal interpreting, calling for improved quality standards along with more research into interpreting quality in public service interpreting contexts. In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Framework Agreement for interpreting and translation services has not helped to implement the Directive. The dilution of existing standards and procedures for interpreter recruitment in the legal setting, has had drastic effects on interpreting quality and service provision. Therefore, research is imperative, especially research into factors that influence interpreting quality in public service interpreting, in order to create an evidence base. In this context, this experimental study based on simulated data examines the quality of interpreting in the police setting by analysing the performance of interpreters with different professional profiles. It seeks to determine the factors that influence the quality of interpreting and establish links between interpreters’ profiles and their performance. To achieve its aims, the study includes nine interpreters and adopts a multi-method approach, combining qualitative and quantitative empirical investigations of the interpreters’ performance (output quality) with data elicited in reflective sessions and a questionnaire-based analysis of the interpreters’ profiles. The study employs pre-experiment questionnaires that provide information on interpreters’ backgrounds, it analyses the interpreters’ performance in simulated police-suspect interviews against a set of criteria that were devised to evaluate interpreting quality in the legal context. It also employs post-experiment retrospective think-aloud protocols to gain additional insights into the interpreters’ decision-making mechanisms. Through employing a multi-method approach and by creating a model for assessing the quality in the legal settings, the present study complements and extends recent studies on police interpreting conducted by Böser (2013), Braun (2013) or Gallai (2017) and provides a better understanding of factors which influence the quality of interpreting.
        S Braun, C Slater, R Gittins, PD Ritsos, JC Roberts (2013)Interpreting in Virtual Reality: designing and developing a 3D virtual world to prepare interpreters and their clients for professional practice, In: New Prospects and Perspectives for Educating Language Mediators(5)pp. 93-120 Gunter Narr Verlag
        This paper reports on the conceptual design and development of an avatar-based 3D virtual environment in which trainee interpreters and their potential clients (e.g. students and professionals from the fields of law, business, tourism, medicine) can explore and simulate professional interpreting practice. The focus is on business and community interpreting and hence the short consecutive and liaison interpreting modes. The environment is a product of the European collaborate project IVY (Interpreting in Virtual Reality). The paper begins with a state-of-the-art overview of the current uses of ICT in interpreter training (section 2), with a view to showing how the IVY environment has evolved out of existing knowledge of these uses, before exploring how virtual worlds are already being used for pedagogical purposes in fields related to interpreting (section 3). Section 4 then shows how existing knowledge about learning in virtual worlds has fed into the conceptual design of the IVY environment and introduces that environment, its working modes and customised digital content. This is followed by an analysis of the initial evaluation feedback on the first environment prototype (section 5), a discussion of the main pedagogical implications (section 6) and concluding remarks (section 7). The more technical aspects of the IVY environment are described in Ritsos et al. (2012).
        Sabine Braun, C Slater (2014)Populating a 3D virtual learning environment for interpreting students with bilingual dialogues to support situated learning in an institutional context, In: The Interpreter and Translator Trainer8(3)pp. 469-485 Taylor & Francis
        The point of departure of this paper is an immersive (avatar-based) 3D virtual environment which was developed in the European project IVY – Interpreting in Virtual Reality – to simulate interpreting practice. Whilst this environment is the first 3D environment dedicated to interpreter-mediated communication, research in other educational contexts suggests that such environments can foster learning (Kim, Lee and Thomas 2012). The IVY 3D environment offers a range of virtual ‘locations’ (e.g. business meeting room, tourist office, doctor’s surgery) which serve as backdrops for the practice of consecutive and dialogue interpreting in business and public service contexts. The locations are populated with relevant objects and with robot-avatars who act as speakers by presenting recorded monologues and bilingual dialogues. Students, represented by their own avatars, join them to practise interpreting. This paper focuses on the development of the bilingual dialogues, which are at the heart of many interpreter-mediated business and public service encounters but which are notoriously difficult to obtain for educational purposes. Given that interpreter training institutions usually need to offer bilingual resources of comparable difficulty levels in many language combinations, ad-hoc approaches to the creation of such materials are normally ruled out. The approach outlined here was therefore to start from available corpora of spoken language that were designed with pedagogical applications in mind (Braun 2005, Kohn 2012). The paper begins by explaining how the dialogues were created and then discusses the benefits and potential shortcomings of this approach in the context of interpreter education. The main points of discussion concern (1) the level of systematicity and authenticity that can be achieved with this corpus-based approach; (2) the potential of a 3D virtual environment to increase this sense of authenticity and thus to enable students to experience the essence of dialogue interpreting in a simulated environment.
        Sabine Braun, Elena Davitti, Sara Dicerto (2018)Video-Mediated Interpreting in Legal Settings: Assessing the Implementation, In: Here or there: research on interpreting via video linkpp. 144-179 Gallaudet
        This chapter reports the key findings of the European AVIDICUS 3 project,1 which focused on the use of video-mediated interpreting in legal settings across Europe. Whilst judicial and law enforcement authorities have turned to videoconferencing to minimise delays in legal proceedings, reduce costs and improve access to justice, research into the use of video links in legal proceedings has called for caution. Sossin and Yetnikoff (2007), for example, contend that the availability of financial resources for legal proceedings cannot be disentangled from the fairness of judicial decision-making. The Harvard Law School (2009: 1193) warns that, whilst the use of video links may eliminate delays, it may also reduce an individual’s “opportunity to be heard in a meaningful manner”. In proceedings that involve an interpreter, procedural fairness and “the opportunity to be heard in a meaningful manner” are closely linked to the quality of the interpretation. The use of video links in interpreter-mediated proceedings therefore requires a videoconferencing solution that provides optimal support for interpreting as a crucial prerequisite for achieving the ultimate goal, i.e. fairness of justice. Against this backdrop, the main aim of AVIDICUS 3 was to identify institutional processes and practices of implementing and using video links in legal proceedings and to assess them in terms of how they accommodate and support bilingual communication mediated through an interpreter. The focus was on spoken-language interpreting. The project examined 12 European jurisdictions (Belgium, Croatia, England and Wales, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). An ethnographic approach was adopted to identify relevant practices, including site visits, in-depth and mostly in-situ interviews with over 100 representatives from different stakeholder groups, observations of real-life proceedings, and the analysis of a number of policy documents produced in the justice sector. The chapter summarises and systematises the findings from the jurisdictions included in this study. The assessment focuses on the use of videoconferencing in both national and cross-border proceedings, and covers different applications of videoconferencing in the legal system, including its use for links between courts and remote participants (e.g. witnesses, defendants in prison) and its use to access interpreters who work offsite (see Braun 2015; Skinner, Napier & Braun in this volume).
        Sabine Braun (2015)Remote Interpreting, In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studiespp. 346-348 Routledge
        The term ‘remote interpreting’ (RI) refers to the use of communication TECHNOLOGY for gaining access to an interpreter who is in another room, building, city or country and who is linked to the primary participants by telephone or videoconference. RI by telephone is nowadays often called TELEPHONE INTERPRETING or over-the-phone interpreting. RI by videoconference is often simply called remote interpreting when it refers to spoken-language interpreting. In SIGNED LANGUAGE INTERPRETING, the term VIDEO REMOTE INTERPRETING has become established. RI is best described as a modality or method of delivery. It has been used for SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETING, CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING and DIALOGUE INTERPRETING. This entry focuses on RI by videoconference in spoken-language interpreting.
        Michael Carl, Sabine Braun (2017)Translation, interpreting and new technologies, In: The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies and Linguisticspp. 374-390 Routledge
        The translation of written language, the translation of spoken language and interpreting have traditionally been separate fields of education and expertise, and the technologies that emulate and/or support those human activities have been developed and researched using different methodologies and by different groups of researchers. Although recent increase in synergy between these well-established fields has begun to blur the boundaries, this section will adhere to the three-fold distinction and begin by giving an overview of key concepts in relation to written-language translation and technology, including computer-assisted translation (CAT) and fully automatic machine translation (MT). This will be followed by an overview of spoken-language translation and technology, which will make a distinction between written translation products (speech-to-text translation, STT) and spoken translation products (speech-to-speech translation, SST). The key concepts of information and communications technology (ICT) supported interpreting, which is currently separate from the technological developments in written- and spoken-language translation, will be outlined in a third section and a fourth will provide an overview of current usages of translation and interpreting technologies.
        PD Ritsos, R Gittins, JC Roberts, S Braun, C Slater (2012)Using virtual reality for interpreter-mediated communication and training, In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Cyberworlds, Cyberworlds 2012pp. 191-198
        As international businesses adopt social media and virtual worlds as mediums for conducting international business, so there is an increasing need for interpreters who can bridge the language barriers, and work within these new spheres. The recent rise in migration (within the EU) has also increased the need for professional interpreters in business, legal, medical and other settings. Project IVY attempts to provide bespoke 3D virtual environments that are tailor made to train interpreters to work in the new digital environments, responding to this increased demand. In this paper we present the design and development of the IVY Virtual Environment. We present past and current design strategies, our implementation progress and our future plans for further development. © 2012 IEEE.
        S Braun (2003)Kommunikation unter widrigen Umständen? – Optimierungsstrategien in zweisprachigen Videokonferenz-Gesprächen, In: Connecting Perspectives. Videokonferencz: Beiträge zu ihrer Erforschung und Anwendungpp. 167-185 Shaker
        S Braun (2003)Dolmetschen in der Videokonferenz. Kommunikative Kompentenz und Monitoringstrategien, In: Kultur und Übersetzung: Methodologische Probleme des Kulturtransfers - mit Ausgewählten Beiträgen des Saarbrücker Symposiums 1999 (Jahrbuch Übersetzen und Dolmetschen 2/2001)pp. 3-32 Narr
        S Braun (2007)Audio Description from a discourse perspective: a socially relevant framework for research and training, In: Linguistica Antverpiensia NS6pp. 357-369 University Press Antwerp (UPA)
        The topic of this paper is Audio Description (AD) for blind and partially sighted people. I will outline a discourse-based approach to AD focussing on the role of mental modelling, local and global coherence, and different types of inferences (explicatures and implicatures). Applying these concepts to AD, I will discuss initial insights and outline questions for empirical research. My main aim is to show that a discourse-based approach to AD can provide an informed framework for research, training and practice.
        When interpreting takes place in a videoconference setting, the intrinsic technological challenges and the very remoteness of the interpreters' location compound the complexity of the task. Existing research on remote interpreting and the problems it entails focusses on remote conference interpreting, in which the interpreters are physically separated from the conference site while the primary interlocutors are together on site as usual. In an effort to broaden the scope of research in the area of remote interpreting to include other types and to address other questions, in particular that of the interpreters' adaptability to new working conditions, this paper analyses small-group videoconferences in which the primary interlocutors as well as the interpreters all work from different locations. The findings from an empirical case study (based on recordings of videoconference sessions as well as introspective data) are used to identify and exemplify different types of interpreter adaptation.
        S Braun (2008)Audiodescription Research: State of the Art and Beyond, In: Translation Studies in the New Millennium6pp. 14-30 School of Applied Languages, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
        Audiodescription (AD) is a growing arts and media access service for visually impaired people. As a practice rooted in intermodal mediation, i.e. ’translating’ visual images into verbal descriptions, it is in urgent need of interdisciplinary research-led grounding. Seeking to stimulate further research in this field, this paper aims to discuss the major dimensions of AD, give an overview of completed an ongoing research relating to each of these dimensions and outline questions for further academic study.
        S Braun, P Orero (2010)Audio Description with Audio Subtitling – an emergent modality of audiovisual localisation, In: Perspectives: Studies in Translatology18(3)pp. 173-188 Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
        Audio description (AD) has established itself as a media access service for blind and partially sighted people across a range of countries, for different media and types of audiovisual performance (e.g. film, TV, theatre, opera). In countries such as the UK and Spain, legislation has been implemented for the provision of AD on TV, and the European Parliament has requested that AD for digital TV be monitored in projects such as DTV4ALL ( in order to be able to develop adequate European accessibility policies. One of the drawbacks is that in their current form, AD services largely leave the visually impaired community excluded from access to foreign-language audiovisual products when they are subtitled rather than dubbed. To overcome this problem, audio subtitling (AST) has emerged as a solution. This article will characterise audio subtitling as a modality of audiovisual localisation which is positioned at the interface between subtitling, audio description and voice-over. It will argue that audio subtitles need to be delivered in combination with audio description and will analyse, system- atise and exemplify the current practice of audio description with audio subtitling using commercially available DVDs.
        S Braun, J Taylor (2012)Video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings: two European surveys, In: Videoconference and Remote Interpreting in Criminal Proceedingspp. 69-98 Intersentia
        Sabine Braun (2006)Multimedia communication technologies and their impact on interpreting, In: Proceedings Of The Marie Curie Euroconferences MuTra: Audiovisual Translation Scenarios Copenhagen, 1-5 May 2006. Online
        In line with the aim of the MuTra conference to address "the multiple (multilingual, multimedia, multimodal and polysemiotic) dimensions of modern translation scenarios" and to raise "questions as to the impact of new technologies on the form, content, structure and modes of translated products" (Gerzymisch-Arbogast: 2007: 7), this paper will investigate the impact of multimedia communication technologies on interpreting. The use of these technologies has led to new forms of interpreting in which interpreting takes place from a distance, aided by technical mediation. After reviewing the major new and emerging forms, I will outline a set of research questions that need to be addressed and, by way of example, discuss the results of research on interpreter adaptation in videoconference interpreting.
        Sabine Braun, JL Taylor, J Miler-Cassino, Z Rybińska, K Balogh, E Hertog, Y vanden Bosch, D Rombouts (2012)Training in video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings: modules for interpreting students, legal interpreters and legal practitioners, In: Videoconference and Remote Interpreting in Criminal Proceedingspp. 233-288 Intersentia
        Because of the scarcity of training opportunities in legal interpreting, and the non-existence of training in video-mediated legal interpreting per se, both from the point of view of the legal interpreters themselves, and that of the legal professionals who work with interpreters, the AVIDICUS Project included as one of its core objectives to devise and pilot three training modules on video-mediated interpreting: one for legal practitioners, including the police; one for interpreters working in the legal services; and one for interpreting students. This chapter presents the three training modules, designed and developed by the AVIDICUS Project. Following a discussion of the background context to the need for training and the technological of such training, the module for student interpreters is presented, followed by the legal interpreters’ module, and finally the module aimed at legal practitioners and police officers.
        This paper reports on an empirical case study conducted to investigate the overall conditions and challenges of integrating corpus materials and corpus-based learning activities into Englishlanguage classes at a secondary school in Germany. Starting from the observation that in spite of the large amount of research into corpus-based language learning, hands-on work with corpora has remained an exception in secondary schools, the paper starts by outlining a set of pedagogical requirements for corpus integration and the approach which has formed the basis for designing the case study. Then the findings of the study are reported and discussed. As a result of the methodological challenges identified in the study, the author argues for a move from ’data-driven learning’ to needs-driven corpora, corpus activities and corpus methodologies.
        S Braun (2012)Recommendations for the use of video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings, In: "Videoconference and Remote Interpreting in Criminal Proceedings"pp. 301-328 Intersentia
        S Braun, J Taylor (2012)Video-mediated interpreting: an overview of current practice and research, In: Videoconference and Remote Interpreting in Criminal Proceedingspp. 33-68 Intersentia
        S Braun, Taylor, J (2012)AVIDICUS comparative studies - part I: Traditional interpreting and remote interpreting in police interviews, In: Videoconference and Remote Interpreting in Criminal Proceedingspp. 99-117 Intersentia
        Sabine Braun, Catherine Slater, N Botfield (2015)Evaluating the pedagogical affordances of a bespoke 3D virtual learning environment for interpreters and their clients, In: Interpreter Education in the Digital Age: Innovation, Access, and Changepp. 39-67 Gallaudet University Press
        Computer-generated 3D virtual worlds offer a number of affordances that make them attractive and engaging sites for learning, such as providing learners with a sense of presence, opportunities for synchronous and asynchronous interaction (e.g. in the form of voice or text chat, document viewing and sharing), and possibilities for collaborative work. Some of the research into educational uses of 3D virtual environments has engaged with how the learning opportunities they offer can be evaluated and has thus been experimenting with what needs to be evaluated to explore how learning takes place in virtual worlds and what methods can be used for the evaluation. Whilst some studies evaluate the design of the virtual world, its usability and its link to learning tasks (e.g. Chang et al. 2009, Deutschmann et al. 2009, Wiecha et al. 2010), others have sought to find out more about the interaction that takes place within virtual worlds. Peterson (2010), for example, focuses on learner participation patterns and interaction strategies in a language learning context, using qualitative methods including discourse analysis of learner transcripts (of text chat output in the target language) as the main research instrument, complemented by observation, field notes, pre- and post-study questionnaires and interviews. Alternatively, Lorenzo et al. (2012) compare collaborative work on a learning object in a virtual world with the same task in a conventional learning content management system. Other studies have sought to look more specifically at the learning processes that take place in virtual environments and in so doing have started to bring together theoretical frameworks from virtual world education with the psychological or cognitive aspects involved in learning (Henderson et al. 2012, Jarmon et al. (2009). Based on such approaches, especially the mixed methods approach adopted by Jarmon et al., this chapter reports on the pedagogical evaluation of the learning processes of trainee interpreters and clients of interpreting services (i.e. professionals who (may) communicate through interpreters in their everyday working lives) using a bespoke 3D Virtual Learning Environment.
        Sabine Braun, K Balogh (2015)Bilingual videoconferencing in legal proceedings: Findings from the AVIDICUS projects., In: Proceedings of the conference ‘Elektroniczny protokół – szansą na transparentny i szybkiproces’ (Electronic Protocol – a chance for transparent and fast trial)pp. 21-34 Polish Ministry of Justice
        Sabine Braun (2018)The importance of being relevant? A cognitive-pragmatic framework for conceptualising audiovisual translation, In: Audiovisual Translation. Theoretical and methodological challenges(95)pp. 121-132 John Benjamins
        Inspired by the belief that cognitive and pragmatic models of communication and discourse processing offer great potential for the study of Audiovisual Translation (AVT), this paper will review such models and discuss their contribution to conceptualising the three inter-related sub-processes underlying all forms of AVT: the comprehension of the multimodal discourse by the translator; the translation of selected elements of this discourse; and the comprehension of the newly formed multimodal discourse by the target audience. The focus will be on two models, Relevance Theory, which presents the most comprehensive pragmatic model of communication and Mental Model Theory, which underlies cognitive models of discourse processing. The two approaches will be used to discuss and question common perceptions of AVT as being ‘constrained’ and ‘partial’ translation.
        S Braun (2016)The importance of being relevant? A cognitive-pragmatic framework for conceptualising audiovisual translation, In: Target: international journal on translation studies28(2)pp. 302-313
        Inspired by the belief that cognitive and pragmatic models of communication and discourse processing offer great potential for the study of Audiovisual Translation (AVT), this paper will review such models and discuss their contribution to conceptualising the three inter-related sub-processes underlying all forms of AVT: the comprehension of the multimodal discourse by the translator; the translation of selected elements of this discourse; and the comprehension of the newly formed multimodal discourse by the target audience. The focus will be on two models, Relevance Theory, which presents the most comprehensive pragmatic model of communication and Mental Model Theory, which underlies cognitive models of discourse processing. The two approaches will be used to discuss and question common perceptions of AVT as being ‘constrained’ and ‘partial’ translation.
        S Braun (2014)Comparing traditional and remote interpreting in police settings: quality and impact factors, In: Traduzione e interpretazione per la società e le istituzionipp. 161-176 Edizioni Università di Trieste
        Translating and interpreting for society and the institutions means meeting the new language needs characterising everyday life. As a result of growing mobility and constantly increasing migration flows, often institutions are required to communicate with people who speak languages ​​of lesser diffusion in Europe's multicultural and multilingual context. These needs are anche felt in the legal sector. The articles included in this volume show clearly That meeting language needs in the legal sector means guaranteeing citizens' rights and strengthening democracy in our societies. [Source: Editors]
        The field of sign language interpreting is undergoing an exponential increase in the delivery of services through remote and video technologies. The nature of these technologies challenges established notions of interpreting as a situated, communicative event and of the interpreter as a participant. As a result, new perspectives and research are necessary for interpreters to thrive in this environment. This volume fills that gap and features interdisciplinary explorations of remote interpreting from spoken and signed language interpreting scholars who examine various issues from linguistic, sociological, physiological, and environmental perspectives. Here or There presents cutting edge, empirical research that informs the professional practice of remote interpreting, whether it be video relay service, video conference, or video remote interpreting. The research is augmented by the perspectives of stakeholders and deaf consumers on the quality of the interpreted work. Among the topics covered are professional attitudes and motivations, interpreting in specific contexts, and adaptation strategies. The contributors also address potential implications for relying on remote interpreting, discuss remote interpreter education, and offer recommendations for service providers.
        Sabine Braun (2015)Remote Interpreting, In: Routledge Handbook of Interpretingpp. 352-367 Routledge
        The development of communication technologies such as telephony, videoconferencing and web-conferencing in interpreter-mediated communication has led to alternative ways of delivering interpreting services. Several uses of these technologies can be distinguished in connection with interpreting. ‘Remote interpreting’ in the narrow sense often refers to their use to gain access to an interpreter in another location, but similar methods of interpreting are required for interpreting in virtual meetings in which the primary participants themselves are distributed across different sites. In spite of their different underlying motivations, these methods of interpreting all share elements of remote working from the interpreter’s point of view and will therefore be subsumed here under one heading. Although the practice of remote interpreting (in all its forms) is controversial among interpreters, the last two decades have seen an increase in this practice in all fields of interpreting. As such, it has also caught the attention of scholars, who have begun to investigate remote interpreting, for example, with a view to the quality of the interpreter’s performance and a range of psychological and physiological factors. This chapter will begin by explaining the key terms and concepts associated with remote interpreting and then give an overview of the historical development and current trends of remote interpreting in supra-national institutions, legal, healthcare and other settings, referring to current and emerging practice and to insights from research. This will be followed by the presentations of recommendations for practice and an outlook at future directions of this practice and for research.
        The potential of corpora for language learning and teaching has been widely acknowledged and their ready availability on the Web has facilitated access for a broad range of users, including language teachers and learners. However, the integration of corpora into general language learning and teaching practice has so far been disappointing. In this paper, I will argue that the shape of many existing corpora, designed with linguistic research goals in mind, clashes with pedagogic requirements for corpus design and use. Hence, a ‘pedagogic mediation of corpora’ is required (cf. Widdowson, 2003). I will also show that the realisation of this requirement touches on both the development of appropriate corpora and the ways in which they are exploited by learners and teachers. I will use a small English Interview Corpus (ELISA) to outline possible solutions for a pedagogic mediation. The major aspect of this is the combination of two approaches to the analysis and exploitation of a pedagogically relevant corpus: a corpus-based and a discourse-based approach.
        Sabine Braun (2018)Video-mediated interpreting in legal settings in England: Interpreters’ perceptions in their sociopolitical context, In: Translation and Interpreting Studies13(3)pp. 393-420 John Benjamins Publishing
        The increasing use of videoconferencing technology in legal proceedings has led to different configurations of video-mediated interpreting (VMI). Few studies have explored interpreter perceptions of VMI, each focusing on one country, configuration (e.g. interpreter-assisted video links between courts and remote participants) and setting (e.g. immigration). The study reported here is the first study drawing on multiple data sets, countries, settings and configurations to investigate interpreter perceptions of VMI. It compares perceptions in England with other countries, covering common configurations (e.g. court-prison video links, links to remote interpreters) and settings (e.g. police, court, immigration), and taking into account the sociopolitical context in which VMI has emerged. The aim is to gain systematic insights into the factors shaping the interpreters’ perceptions as a step towards improving VMI.
        R Skinner, J Napier, Sabine Braun (2018)Interpreting via video link: Mapping of the field., In: Here or there: research on interpreting via video link.(16)pp. 11-35 Gallaudet
        This special volume Here or There: Research on interpreting via video link aims to bring together a collection of international research on remote interpreting mediated by an audio-video link, covering both spoken language and sign-language interpreting experiences. There is still much to be learnt in the way we define and describe the needs of all stakeholders and how best to use the technology to enable interpreting services to function as intended. Like other areas of study we already see a number of discrepancies when it comes to interpreting by video link and we have yet to reach clear and conclusive answers. This chapter aims to give an overview of the emerging field of remote interpreting by video link and review the empirical research that has come from this sector.
        Sabine Braun, Angela Chambers (2006)Elektronische Korpora als Resource für den Fremdsprachenunterricht, In: Praktische Handreichung für Fremdsprachenlehrerpp. 330-337 Lang
        In diesem Beitrag geht es um Möglichkeiten der Nut¬zung von Korpora im Sekundarschulbereich. Nach einem Überblick über einschlägige Korpusressourcen, Analy¬severfahren und Tools werden in knappen Zügen die Grundlagen der Korpusnutzung im Sprachlernkontext skizziert und anschließ end verschiedene Möglichkeiten für die Nutzung von Korpora gesprochener und ge¬schriebener Sprache illustriert.
        This paper explores data from video-mediated remote interpreting (RI) which was originally generated with the aim of investigating and comparing the quality of the interpreting performance in onsite and remote interpreting in legal contexts. One unexpected finding of this comparison was that additions and expansions were significantly more frequent in RI, and that their frequency increased further after a phase of familiarisation and training for the participating interpreters, calling for a qualitative exploration of the motives and functions of the additions and expansions. This exploration requires an appropriate methodology. Whilst introspective data give insights into interpreting processes and the motivations guiding the interpreter’s choices, they tend to be unsystematic and incomplete. Micro-analytical approaches such as Conversation Analysis are a promising alternative, especially when enriched with social macro-variables. In line with this, the present paper has a dual aim. The primary aim is to explore the nature of additions and expansions in RI, examining especially to what extent they are indicative of interpreting problems, to what degree they are specific to the videoconference situation, what they reveal about, and how they affect the interpreter’s participation in RI. The secondary aim is to evaluate the micro-analytical approach chosen for this exploration.

        This paper reports on an empirical case study conducted to investigate the overall conditions and challenges of integrating corpus materials and corpus-based learning activities into Englishlanguage classes at a secondary school in Germany. Starting from the observation that in spite of the large amount of research into corpus-based language learning, hands-on work with corpora has remained an exception in secondary schools, the paper starts by outlining a set of pedagogical requirements for corpus integration and the approach which has formed the basis for designing the case study. Then the findings of the study are reported and discussed. As a result of the methodological challenges identified in the study, the author argues for a move from 'data-driven learning' to needs-driven corpora, corpus activities and corpus methodologies.

        When interpreting takes place in a videoconference setting, the intrinsic technological challenges and the very remoteness of the interpreters’ location compound the complexity of the task. Existing research on remote interpreting and the problems it entails focusses on remote conference interpreting, in which the interpreters are physically separated from the conference site while the primary interlocutors are together on site as usual. In an effort to broaden the scope of research in the area of remote interpreting to include other types and to address other questions, in particular that of the interpreters’ adaptability to new working conditions, this paper analyses small-group videoconferences in which the primary interlocutors as well as the interpreters all work from different locations. The findings from an empirical case study (based on recordings of videoconference sessions as well as introspective data) are used to identify and exemplify different types of interpreter adaptation.

        Sabine Braun (2015)Videoconference Interpreting, In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studiespp. 437-439 Routledge
        Sabine Braun (2016)Videoconferencing as a tool for bilingual mediation, In: Understanding Justice: An enquiry into interpreting in civil justice and mediationpp. 194-227 Middlesex University
        Elena Davitti, Sabine Braun (2020)Analysing Interactional Phenomena in Video Remote Interpreting in Collaborative Settings: Implications for Interpreter Education, In: The Interpreter and Translator Trainer Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
        Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) is a modality of interpreting where the interpreter interacts with the other parties-at-talk through an audiovisual link without sharing the same physical interactional space. In dialogue settings, existing research on VRI has mostly drawn on the analysis of verbal behaviour to explore the complex dynamics of these ‘triadic’ exchanges. However, understanding the complexity of VRI requires a more holistic analysis of its dynamics in different contexts as a situated, embodied activity where resources other than talk (such as gaze, gestures, head and body movement) play a central role in the co-construction of the communicative event. This paper draws on extracts from a corpus of VRI encounters in collaborative contexts (e.g. nurse-patient interaction, customer services) to investigate how specific interactional phenomena which have been explored in traditional settings of dialogue interpreting (e.g. turn management, dyadic sequences, spatial management) unfold in VRI. In addition, the paper will identify the coping strategies implemented by interpreters to deal with various challenges. This fine-grained, microanalytical look at the data will complement the findings provided by research on VRI in legal/adversarial contexts and provide solid grounds to evaluate the impact of different moves. Its systematic integration into training will lead to a more holistic approach to VRI education.
        S Braun (2006)ELISA–a pedagogically enriched corpus for language learning purposes, In: Corpus Technology And Language Pedagogy: New Resources, New Tools, New Methodspp. 25-47 Lang
        The aim of this paper is to introduce a methodological solution for the design and exploitation of a corpus which is dedicated to pedagogical goals. In particular, I will argue for a pedagogically appropriate corpus annotation and query, and for the enrichment of such a corpus with additional materials (including corpus-based tasks and exercises). The solution will be illustrated with the help of ELISA, a small spoken corpus of English containing video interviews with native speakers. However, the methodology is transferable to the creation of pedagogically relevant corpora with other contents and for other languages.
        S Braun, K Kohn (2012)Towards a pedagogic corpus approach to business and community interpreter training, In: Dolmetschqualität in Praxis, Lehre und Forschung. Festschrift für Sylvia Kalinapp. 185-204 Gunter Narr
        This paper will focus on the use of spoken corpora in this context. "Applied Corpus Linguistics‟ has produced a growing body of research into the use of corpora in language pedagogy, with most recent work focusing on spoken and multimedia corpora for language teaching. We will argue that interpreter training for business and community settings can benefit immensely from this research and we discuss how these approaches can be adapted to suit the needs of business and community interpreter training. Section 2 provides further background to contextualise the idea and the concept of corpus-based interpreter training. Sections 3 and 4 outline a discourse processing model of interpreting and a range of source text related challenges of interpreting as a framework for developing appropriate annotation categories. Section 5 presents initial ideas for the design of a pedagogical corpus for interpreter training. Section 6 concludes the paper by highlighting how this approach is integrated into the wider context of the IVY project and its aim to support business and community interpreter training.
        In response to increasing mobility and migration in Europe, the European Directive 2010/64/EU on strengthening the rights to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings has highlighted the importance of quality in legal translation and interpreting. At the same time, the economic situation is putting pressure on public services and translation/interpreting service providers alike, jeopardizing quality standards and fair access to justice. With regard to interpreting, the use of videoconference technology is now being widely considered as a potential solution for gaining cost-effective and timely access to qualified legal interpreters. However, this gives rise to many questions, including: how technological mediation through videoconferencing affects the quality of interpreting; how this is related to the actual videoconference setting and the distribution of participants; and ultimately whether the different forms of video-mediated interpreting are sufficiently reliable for legal communication. It is against this backdrop that the AVIDICUS Project (2008-11), co-funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General Justice, set out to research the quality and viability of video-mediated interpreting in criminal proceedings. This volume, which is based on the final AVIDICUS Symposium in 2011, presents a cross-section of the findings from AVIDICUS and complementary research initiatives, as well as recommendations for judicial services, legal practitioners and police officers, and legal interpreters.
        S Braun (2013)Keep your distance? Remote interpreting in legal proceedings: A critical assessment of a growing practice, In: Interpreting: international journal of research and practice in interpreting15(2)pp. 200-228 Benjamins
        Remote interpreting, whereby the interpreter is physically separated from those who need the interpretation, has been investigated in relation to conference and healthcare settings. By contrast, very little is known about remote interpreting in legal proceedings, where this method of interpreting is increasingly used to optimise interpreters’ availability. This paper reports the findings of an experimental study investigating the viability of videoconference-based remote interpreting in legal contexts. The study compared the quality of interpreter performance in traditional and remote interpreting, both using the consecutive mode. Two simulated police interviews of detainees, recreating authentic situations, were interpreted by eight interpreters with accreditation and professional experience in police interpreting. The languages involved were French (in most cases the interpreter’s native language) and English. Each interpreter interpreted one of the interviews in remote interpreting, and the other in a traditional face-to-face setting. Various types of problem in the interpretations were analysed, quantitatively and qualitatively. Among the key findings are a significantly higher number of interpreting problems, and a faster decline of interpreting performance over time, in remote interpreting. The paper gives details of these findings, and discusses the potential legal consequences of the problems identified.
        A Chmiel, M Tymczyńska, S Braun, C Slater (2012)Kształcenie kooperatywne i sytuacyjne metodą projektów: zastosowanie wirtualnego środowiska IVY w szkoleniu tłumaczy ustnych [Cooperative learning and situated project-based learning: Integrating the IVY virtual environment in interpreter training], In: Tłumaczenie Ustne - Teoria, Praktyka, Dydaktyka [Interpreting — theory, practice, didactics]2: Stapp. 213-240 Wydawnictwo WSL
        PD Ritsos, R Gittins, S Braun, C Slater, JC Roberts (2013)Training Interpreters using Virtual Worlds, In: Transactions on Computational Science XVIIILNCS 7pp. 21-40 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
        With the rise in population migration there has been an increased need for professional interpreters who can bridge language barriers and operate in a variety of fields such as business, legal, social and medical. Interpreters require specialized training to cope with the idiosyncrasies of each eld and their potential clients need to be aware of professional parlance. We present `Project IVY'. In IVY, users can make a selection from over 30 interpreter training scenarios situated in the 3D virtual world. Users then interpret the oral interaction of two avatar actors. In addition to creating di erent 3D scenarios, we have developed an asset management system for the oral les and permit users (mentors of the training interpreters) to easily upload and customize the 3D environment and observe which scenario is being used by a student. In this article we present the design and development of the IVY Virtual Environment and the asset management system. Finally we make discussion over our plans for further development.
        Sabine Braun (2007)Designing and exploiting small multimedia corpora for autonomous learning and teaching, In: Corpora in the Foreign Language Classroom. Selected papers from TaLC6. Language and Computers Vol. 1616pp. 31-46 Rodopi

        The use of corpora in the second-language learning context requires the availability of corpora which are pedagogically relevant with regard to choice of discourse, choice of media, annotation and size. I here describe a pedagogically motivated corpus design which supports a direct and efficient exploitation of the corpus by learners and teachers. One of the major guidelines is Widdowson's (2003) claim that the successful use of corpora requires a learner's (and teacher's) ability to 'authenticate' the corpus materials. In line with this, I argue for the development of small and pedagogically annotated corpora which enable us to combine two methods of analysis and exploitation to mutual benefit: a corpus-based approach (i.e. 'vertical reading' of e.g. concordances), which provides patterns of language use, and a discourse-based approach, which focuses on the analysis of the individual texts in the corpus and of linguistic means of expression in relation to their communicative (situational) and cultural embedding. To illustrate my points, I use a small multimedia corpus of spoken English which is currently being developed as a model corpus with pedagogical goals in mind.

        S Braun (2011)Creating coherence in Audio Description, In: Meta: Journal des Traducteurs/ Meta: Translator's Journal56(3)pp. 645-662 Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal
        As an emerging form of intermodal translation, audio description (AD) raises many new questions for Translation Studies and related disciplines. This paper will investigate the question of how the coherence of a multimodal source text such as a film can be re-created in audio description. Coherence in film characteristically emerges from links within and across different modes of expression (e.g. links between visual images, image-sound links and image-dialogue links). Audio describing a film is therefore not simply a matter of substituting visual images with verbal descriptions. It involves ‘translating’ some of these links into other appropriate types of links. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to examine the means available for the re-creation of coherence in an audio described version of a film, and the problems arising. To this end, the paper will take a fresh look at coherence, outlining a model of coherence which embraces verbal and multimodal texts and which highlights the important role of both source text author (viz. audio describer as translator) and target text recipients in creating coherence. This model will then be applied to a case study focussing on the re-creation of various types of intramodal and intermodal relations in AD.
        S Braun (2010)“These people I was taking care of their horses for, they owned Tennessee Walkers”: on ‘spokenness’ in English, its acceptance and pedagogical implications., In: Dimensionen der Zweitsprachenfoschung – Dimensions of Second Language Research. Festschrift für Kurt Kohn zum 65. Geburtstag Narr
        Spoken language is often perceived as a deviation from the norm. This chapter highlights some of the characteristic features of ‘spokenness’ and the rationale behind them. Using English as the exemplar case, it then reports the findings of a study that investigated how the perception and acceptance of such features is influenced by the medium and mode in which spoken language is encountered (face-to-face, video, transcript) and how this differs between native speakers and non-native speakers. At the end, the pedagogical implications of the study will be discussed.
        Sabine Braun (2016)The European AVIDICUS projects: Collaborating to assess the viability of video-mediated interpreting in legal proceedings, In: European Journal of Applied Linguistics4(1)pp. 173-180 Walter de Gruyter
        This paper reports on a long-term European project collaboration between academic researchers and non-academic institutions in Europe to investigate the quality and viability of video-mediated interpreting in legal proceedings (AVIDICUS: Assessment of Video-Mediated Interpreting in the Criminal Justice System).
        S Braun, K Kohn (2005)Sprache(n) in der Wissensgesellschaft. Peter Lang
        S Braun (2010)Getting past 'Groundhog Day': Spoken multimedia corpora for student-centred corpus exploration, In: Corpus Linguistics in language teaching.pp. 75-98 Peter Lang
        Since the pioneering work of John Sinclair on building and using corpora for researching, describing and teaching language, much thought has been given to corpora in Applied Linguistics (Hunston 2002), how to use corpora in language teaching (Sinclair 2004), teaching and learning by doing corpus analysis (Kettemann / Marko 2002) and similar themes. A look at the titles of recent papers, monographs and edited volumes—which are printed in italics in this introduction—suggests that Applied Corpus Linguistics (Connor / Upton 2004) has established itself as a specific and expanding field of study. It has provided ideas on how to manage the step from corpora to classroom (O’Keeffe et al. 2007) and has produced a growing body of research into the use of corpora in the foreign language classroom (Hidalgo et al. 2007). At face value, the enthusiasm of the research community seems to be increasingly shared by practising teachers. At many teacher training seminars at which I have discussed the use(fulness) of corpus resources, I have met teachers who—at the end of the seminar—were eager to use corpora with their students and were especially interested in the growing number of easily accessible web-based resources. But in spite of everyone’s best intentions, the use of corpora in language classrooms remains the exception, and the question of what it takes to get past ‘Groundhog Day’ in corpus-based language learning and teaching is far from being solved. Spoken corpora may not be the obvious solution. The use of Spoken corpora in Applied Linguistics (Campoy / Luzón 2007) is usually considered to be more challenging than the use of written corpora, since spoken language is often perceived to be ‘messy’, grammatically challenging and lexically poor. Moreover, spoken corpora have traditionally been more difficult to build and distribute. However, multimedia technologies have not only made this easier but they have also opened up new ways of exploiting corpus data. Against this backdrop, this paper will argue that spoken multimedia corpora are not simply an interesting type of corpus for language learning, but that they can in fact lead the way in bringing corpus technology and language pedagogy together (Braun et al. 2006). After a brief review of some of the prevailing obstacles for a more wide-spread use of corpora by students and some common approaches and solutions to the problems at hand (in section 2), one approach to designing a pedagogically viable corpus will be discussed in more detail (in section 3). The approach will then be exemplified (in section 4) using the ELISA corpus, a spoken multimedia corpus of professional English, to illustrate how corpus-based work can be expanded beyond the conventional methods of ‘data-driven learning’. The paper will be concluded with an outlook on some more recent initiatives of spoken corpus development (in section 5). The wider aim of this paper is to stimulate further discussion about, and research into, the development of pedagogically viable corpora, tools and methods which can foster student-centred corpus use in language learning and other areas such as translator / interpreter training and the study of language-based communication in general.