Wei D, Navaratnam P, Gluhak A, Tafazolli R (2010) Energy-efficient Clustering for Wireless Sensor
Networks with Unbalanced Traffic Load, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking conference IEEE
Clustering algorithms have been extensively applied
for energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
Cluster-heads (CHs) play an important role and drain energy
more rapidly than other member nodes. Numerous mechanisms
to optimize CH selection and cluster formation during the set-up
phase have been proposed for extending the stable operation
period of the network until any node depletes its energy. However,
the existing mechanisms assume that the traffic load contributed
by each node is the same, in other words, same amount of data are
sent to CH from the member nodes during each scheduled round.
This paper assumes the nodes contribute traffic load at different
rates, and consequently proposes an energy-efficient clustering
algorithm by considering both the residual node energy and the
traffic load contribution of each node during the set-up phase.
The proposed algorithm makes nodes with more residual energy
and less traffic load contribution get more chances to become CHs.
Furthermore, clusters are adaptively organized in a way that the
deviation of ratio between the total cluster energy and the total
cluster traffic load (ETRatio) is limited, in order to balance the
energy usage among the clusters. Performance evaluation shows
that the proposed algorithm extends the stable operation period of
the network significantly
5G definition and standardization projects are well underway, and governing characteristics and major challenges have been identified. A critical network element impacting the potential performance of 5G networks is the backhaul, which is expected to expand in length and breadth to cater to the exponential growth of small cells while offering high throughput in the order of Gbps and less than one-millisecond latency with high resilience and energy efficiency. Such performance may only be possible with direct optical fibre connections which are often not available countrywide and are cumbersome and expensive to deploy. On the other hand, a prime 5G characteristic is diversity, which describes the radio access network, the backhaul, and also the types of user applications and devices. Thus, we propose a novel, distributed, selfoptimized, end-to-end user-cell-backhaul association scheme that intelligently associates users with potential cells based on corresponding dynamic radio and backhaul conditions while abiding by users? requirements. Radio cells broadcast multiple bias factors, each reflecting a dynamic performance indicator (DPI) of the endto-end network performance such as capacity, latency, resilience, energy consumption, etc. A given user would employ these factors to derive a user-centric cell ranking that motivates it to select the cell with radio and backhaul performance that conforms to the user requirements. Reinforcement learning is used at the radio cell to optimize the bias factors for each DPI in a way that maximizes the system throughput while minimizing the gap between the users? achievable and required end-to-end quality of experience (QoE). Preliminary results show considerable improvement in users QoE and cumulative system throughput when compared to state-of-theart user-cell association schemes.
?This work introduces MultiSphere, a method to massively parallelize the tree search of large sphere decoders in a nearly-independent manner, without compromising their maximum-likelihood performance, and by keeping the overall processing complexity at the levels of highly-optimized sequential sphere decoders. MultiSphere employs a novel sphere decoder tree partitioning which can adjust to the transmission channel with a small latency overhead. It also utilizes a new method to distribute nodes to parallel sphere decoders and a new tree traversal and enumeration strategy which minimize redundant computations despite the nearly-independent parallel processing of the subtrees. For an 8 × 8 MIMO spatially multiplexed system with 16-QAM modulation and 32 processing elements MultiSphere can achieve a latency reduction of more than an order of magnitude, approaching the processing latency of linear detection methods, while its overall complexity can be even smaller than the complexity of well-known sequential sphere decoders. For 8×8 MIMO systems, MultiSphere?s sphere decoder tree partitioning method can achieve the processing latency of other partitioning schemes by using half of the processing elements. In addition, it is shown that for a multi-carrier system with 64 subcarriers, when performing sequential detection across subcarriers and using MultiSphere with 8 processing elements to parallelize detection, a smaller processing latency is achieved than when parallelizing the detection process by using a single processing element per subcarrier (64 in total).
We derive the uplink system model for In-band
and Guard-band narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT). The
results reveal that the actual channel frequency response (CFR) is
not a simple Fourier transform of the channel impulse response,
due to sampling rate mismatch between the NB-IoT user and
Long Term Evolution (LTE) base station. Consequently, a new
channel equalization algorithm is proposed based on the derived
effective CFR. In addition, the interference is derived analytically
to facilitate the co-existence of NB-IoT and LTE signals. This
work provides an example and guidance to support network
slicing and service multiplexing in the physical layer.
Multi-service system is an enabler to flexibly support diverse communication requirements for the next generation wireless communications. In such a system, multiple types of services co-exist in one baseband system with each service having its optimal frame structure and low out of band emission (OoBE) waveforms operating on the service frequency band to reduce the inter-service-band-interference (ISvcBI). In this article, a framework for multi-service system is established and the challenges and possible solutions are studied. The multi-service system implementation in both time and frequency domain is discussed. Two representative subband filtered multicarrier (SFMC) waveforms: filtered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (F-OFDM) and universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) are considered in this article. Specifically, the design methodology, criteria, orthogonality conditions and prospective application scenarios in the context of 5G are discussed. We consider both single-rate (SR) and multi-rate (MR) signal processing methods. Compared with the SR system, the MR system has significantly reduced computational complexity at the expense of performance loss due to inter-subband-interference (ISubBI) in MR systems. The ISvcBI and ISubBI in MR systems are investigated with proposed low-complexity interference cancelation algorithms to enable the multi-service operation in low interference level conditions.
This letter presents a new posterior Cramér-Rao bound (PCRB) for inertial sensors enhanced mobile positioning, which performs hybrid data fusion of parameters including position estimates, pedestrian step size, pedestrian heading, and the knowledge of random walk motion model. Moreover, a non-matrix closed form of the PCRB is derived without position estimates. Finally, our numerical results show that when the accuracy of step size and heading measurements is high enough, the knowledge of random walk model becomes redundant.
Bennis M, Kermoal J-P, Ojanen P, Lara J, Abedi S, Pintenet R, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R (2009) Advanced Spectrum Functionalities for Future Radio Networks, WIRELESS PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS 48 (1) pp. 175-191 SPRINGER
Most of the wireless systems such as the long term evolution (LTE) adopt a pilot symbol-aided channel estimation approach for data detection purposes. In this technique, some of the transmission resources are allocated to common pilot signals which constitute a significant overhead in current standards. This can be traced to the worst-case design approach adopted in these systems where the pilot spacing is chosen based on extreme condition assumptions. This suggests extending the set of the parameters that can be adaptively adjusted to include the pilot density. In this paper, we propose an adaptive pilot pattern scheme that depends on estimating the channel correlation. A new system architecture with a logical separation between control and data planes is considered and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is chosen as the access technique. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can provide a significant saving of the LTE pilot overhead with a marginal performance penalty.
In cognitive radio networks, the licensed frequency bands of the primary users (PUs) are available to the secondary user (SU) provided that they do not cause significant interference to the PUs. In this study, the authors analysed the normalised throughput of the SU with multiple PUs coexisting under any frequency division multiple access communication protocol. The authors consider a cognitive radio transmission where the frame structure consists of sensing and data transmission slots. In order to achieve the maximum normalised throughput of the SU and control the interference level to the legal PUs, the optimal frame length of the SU is found via simulation. In this context, a new analytical formula has been expressed for the achievable normalised throughput of SU with multiple PUs under prefect and imperfect spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the impact of imperfect sensing, variable frame length of SU and the variable PU traffic loads, on the normalised throughput has been critically investigated. It has been shown that the analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. The authors analytical results are much useful to determine how to select the frame duration length subject to the parameters of cognitive radio network, such as network traffic load, achievable sensing accuracy and number of coexisting PUs.
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) Efficient hybrid relaying schemes with limited feedback, Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IWCMC 2009 pp. 754-758
We noticed that in a relay system, the assumption of global Channel State Information (CSI) knowledge is unrealistic and normally, only the receiver but not the transmitter side has CSI knowledge. In this paper, we analyzed, with receive CSI, the performance of hybrid relaying scheme in the half-duplex relay channel in terms of the outage probability and expected throughput, where the relay switches between decode-and-forward (DF) and compress-and-forward (CF) modes adaptively according to the current channel realizations. Moreover, since the original CF technique requires global CSI at the relay to calculate the optimal compression rate, we established a restricted feedback link to convey extremely limited CSI (only 3 bits in our results) from the destination to the relay and develop a more practical hybrid relaying scheme. Simulation results revealed that the hybrid relaying scheme with restricted feedback outperforms DF especially when the link between source and relay is of low quality. Copyright © 2009 ACM.
This paper investigates spectrum sharing (in the form of code sharing) between two Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) operators in the UMTS extension band (2500-2690MHz) with equal and unequal number of proprietary carriers, respectively. The paper proposes a Dynamic Spectrum Allocation (DSA) algorithm to address the problem of spectrum sharing between two operators on a non-pool basis. It also investigates the impact of Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI) on the spectrum sharing gain. Additionally, an architecture that enables spectrum sharing to take place between two or more UMTS operators is presented. The simulated performance of the proposed DSA algorithm shows that under peak-hour loading, up to 32% increase in capacity can be obtained when compared to currently used Fixed Spectrum Allocation (FSA). © 2008 IEEE.
Imran A, Tafazolli R (2009) Performance & capacity of mobile broadband WiMax (802.16e) deployed via high altitude platform, 2009 European Wireless Conference, EW 2009 pp. 319-323
Movahedian M, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2008) An MUI resilient approach for blind CFO estimation in OFDMA uplink, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC
This paper presents a novel blind method to estimate carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) in OFDMA uplink. The major idea is employing a linear precoder to establish time correlation, which offers a second-order moments based blind CFO estimation for each user. With a careful precoder design, the interference from adjacent users can be considerably mitigated in CFO estimation. Since the majority of interference power is from adjacent users, the proposed method shows significant robustness to multiuser interference (MUI) even without the aid of virtual subcarriers. Simulation results show that the proposed approach offers significant performance improvement in comparison with state-of-the-art approaches in multiuser environments. © 2008 IEEE.
This paper provides an efficient key management scheme for large scale personal networks (PN) and introduces the Certified PN Formation Protocol (CPFP) based on a personal public key infrastructure (personal PKI) concept and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) techniques.
Salami G, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R (2009) The impact of queuing and call setup delays on UMTS spectrum sharing algorithm, WTS: 2009 WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYMPOSIUM pp. 402-406 IEEE
Liu H, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2007) Optimum pilot placement for chunk-based OFDMA uplink: Single chunk scenario, 2007 IEEE 66TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5 pp. 2194-2198 IEEE
Vural S, Navaratnam P, Tafazolli R (2012) Transmission Range Assignment for Backbone Connectivity in Clustered Wireless Networks, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Liu H, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2008) On efficiency gain of joint pilot and data adaptation for OFDM based systems, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC
in OFDM-based systems, data symbols are usually transmitted together with pilots, which are used for channel estimation or prediction. More pilots in use can further improve the accuracy of channel estimation or prediction. However, this can also result in the efficiency loss of channel gain allocated for data transmission. In this paper, we investigate the joint pilot and data adaptation regarding pilot allocation, payload power and bits. Three different implementation approaches are proposed, the performance is evaluated and shows joint pilot and data adaptation can considerably improve system overall performance, and the efficiency gain related to the pilot-allocation adaptation can be significant. © 2008 IEEE.
Wang Y, Fan L, He D, Tafazolli R (2008) Solution to weight-adaptive fair queuing, ELECTRON LETT 44 (5) pp. 385-387 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET
Liu H, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2009) Enhanced linear interpolation schemes for chunk-based OFDMA uplink, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference
Linear interpolation is often employed for chunk-based OFDMA uplink because of its low complexity and good performance. However, the linear interpolation error induced by the mismatch between the linear interpolation model and the actual channel can be detrimental to high-data-rate systems operating in high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) range or high mobility scenario. In this paper, enhanced linear interpolation schemes with small time-direction interpolation error are proposed, particularly for the chunk-based OFDMA uplink. Unlike the conventional linear interpolation, which is based on the assumption that the real and imaginary parts of channel coefficients are separately linearly varying, the proposed schemes are based on an interesting observation that the amplitude and phase of a communication channel are also linearly varying within a short time duration, e.g. a chunk duration. Simulation results show the proposed schemes can effectively improve the performance. © 2009 IEEE.
Li Z, Tafazolli R (2007) Location management for packet switched services in 3G partnership project networks, IET COMMUNICATIONS 1 (4) pp. 562-569 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET
Pateromichelakis E, Shariat M, Quddus A, Tafazolli R (2012) On the Evolution of Multi-cell Scheduling in 3GPP LTE / LTE-A, IEEE Communcations Surveys & Tutorials
Heliot F, Imran MA, tafazolli R (2011) On the Energy Efficiency Gain of MIMO Communication under Various Power Consumption Models,
Ul Mustafa HA, Imran MA, Shakir MZ, Imran A, Tafazolli R (2015) Separation Framework: An Enabler for Cooperative and D2D Communication for Future 5G Networks, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS AND TUTORIALS 18 (1) pp. 419-445 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Mirzadeh S, Tafazolli R (2005) Secure Service Discovery for Personal Networks,
Forum WWR (2006) Technologies for the wireless future, John Wiley & Sons
This is a comprehensive single point of reference, focusing on the specifications and requirements of 4G and identifying potential business models, the research ...
Imran A, Imran MA, Tafazolli R (2010) A new performance characterization framework for deployment architectures of next generation distributed cellular networks, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC pp. 2046-2051
Performance of next generation OFDM/OFDMA based Distributed Cellular Network (ODCN) where no cooperation based interference management schemes are used, is dependent on four major factors: 1) spectrum reuse factor, 2) number of sectors per site, 3) number of relay station per site and 4) modulation and coding efficiency achievable through link adaptation. The combined effect of these factors on the overall performance of a Deployment Architecture (DA) has not been studied in a holistic manner. In this paper we provide a framework to characterize the performance of various DA's by deriving two novel performance metrics for 1) spectral efficiency and 2) fairness among users. These metrics are designed to include the effect of all four contributing factors. We evaluate these metrics for a wide set of DA's through extensive system level simulations. The results provide a comparison of various DA's for both cellular and relay enhanced cellular systems in terms of spectral efficiency and fairness they offer and also provide an interesting insight into the tradeoff between the two performance metrics. Numerical results show that, in interference limited regime, DA's with highest spectrum efficiency are not necessarily those that resort to full frequency reuse. In fact, frequency reuse of 3 with 6 sectors per site is spectrally more efficient than that with full frequency reuse and 3 sectors. In case of relay station enhanced ODCN a DA with full frequency reuse, six sectors and 3 relays per site is spectrally more efficient and can yield around 170% higher spectrum efficiency compared to counterpart DA without RS. ©2010 IEEE.
Gluhak A, Inoue M, Moessner K, Tafazolli R (2007) Signaling channel for coordinated multicast service delivery in next generation wireless networks, IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS E90B (7) pp. 1780-1790 IEICE-INST ELECTRONICS INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS ENG
Salami G, Tafazolli R (2009) A two stage genetically inspired algorithm for spectrum sharing between two UMTS operators, International Conference on Ultra Modern Telecommunications & Workshops
This paper proposes a two stage algorithm to address spectrum sharing between two Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) operators. The two stage algorithm uses both genetic algorithm and load balancing techniques. The first stage uses genetic algorithm as a solution to optimize the allocation when the correlation of traffic is low. The second stage uses load balancing scheme in the highly correlated traffic region. The simulation result shows that significant spectrum sharing gains up to 26 percent and 20 percent respectively, can be obtained on both networks using the proposed algorithm.
Salami G, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R (2009) Dynamic spectrum sharing algorithm between two UMTS operators in the UMTS Extension Band, 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATION WORKSHOPS, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 338-343 IEEE
Hot spots in a wireless sensor network emerge
as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly deplete energy resources, leading to disruption in network services. This problem is common for data collection scenarios in
which Cluster Heads (CH) have a heavy burden of gathering and relaying information. The relay load on CHs especially intensifies as the distance to the sink decreases. To balance the traffic load and the energy consumption in the network, the CH role should be rotated among all nodes and the cluster sizes should be carefully determined at different parts of the network.
This paper proposes a distributed clustering algorithm, Energy-efficient Clustering (EC), that determines suitable cluster sizes depending on the hop distance to the data sink, while achieving approximate equalization of node lifetimes and reduced energy consumption levels. We additionally propose a simple
energy-efficient multihop data collection protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of EC and calculate the end-to-end energy consumption of this protocol; yet EC is suitable for any data collection protocol that focuses on energy conservation. Performance results demonstrate that EC extends network lifetime and achieves energy equalization more effectively than two well-known clustering algorithms, HEED and UCR.
A Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) scheme employing a flexible amplify and forward (AF) relaying is considered for a cooperative relay channel. Two phase types with flexible length: one phase for relay reception and another phase for relay forwarding are assumed to accommodate half duplex relaying. We assume two types of encoding: repetition coding (RC) and unconstrained coding (UC). The outage performance of the considered flexible AF scheme is analytically derived for any number of retransmissions, and both RC and UC encoding used by the considered HARQ. The state transition models of the considered protocols are presented and then the HARQ throughput and latency performance are analytically calculated; As a result time consuming Monte Carlo based evaluations are avoided. The provided analysis enables us to predict the performance and adjust transmission rate and frame structure for any combination of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the involved links. Performance gains of up to 1 and 1.5 dB are observed for the considered simulation scenarios thanks to the flexible AF combined with properly designed HARQ protocols. Also the flexible AF is able to attain its performance over all the range of SNRs of the constituent links while the conventional AF is only efficient on a restricted range of SNRs. ©2010 IEEE.
Zhang Y, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2010) Modulation-adaptive cooperation in Rayleigh fading channels with imperfect CSI, IWCMC 2010 - Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference pp. 148-152
Adaptive modulation can improve the throughput of cooperative communications, which has been shown in previous research. So far the adaptive modulation is applied with respect to perfect transmitter side Channel State Information (CSI) in most current work. In this paper we have investigated the modulation-adaptive cooperation in Rayleigh fading channels providing imperfect CSI at senders. The adaptive modulation scheme with rate adaptation at the relay proposed in our previous work has been extended here first. Then a new adaptive modulation scheme with adaptation at both the source and relay is proposed. Simulation results show the proposed two schemes can provide significant improvement in throughput over the fixed DF relaying cooperation even with imperfect feedback; the throughput can be further improved with the proposed scheme allowing adaptive modulation at both the source and relay. Copyright © 2010 © ACM.
In this paper we present a novel framework for spectral efficiency enhancement on the access link between relay stations and their donor base station through Self Organization (SO) of system-wide BS antenna tilts. Underlying idea of framework is inspired by SO in biological systems. Proposed solution can improve the spectral efficiency by upto 1 bps/Hz.
Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) Soft decode and forward of MQAM modulations for cooperative relay channels, 2008 IEEE 67TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE-SPRING, VOLS 1-7 pp. 639-643 IEEE
Mobile communications are increasingly contributing to global energy consumption. The EARTH (Energy Aware Radio and neTworking tecHnologies) project tackles the important issue of reducing CO emissions by enhancing the energy efficiency of cellular mobile networks. EARTH is a holistic approach to develop a new generation of energy efficient products, components, deployment strategies and energy-aware network management solutions. In this paper the holistic EARTH approach to energy efficient mobile communication systems is introduced. Performance metrics are studied to assess the theoretical bounds of energy efficiency as well as the practical achievable limits. A vast potential for energy savings lies in the operation of radio base stations. In particular, base stations consume a considerable amount of the available power budget even when operating at low load. Energy efficient radio resource management (RRM) strategies need to take into account slowly changing daily load patterns, as well as highly dynamic traffic fluctuations. Moreover, various deployment strategies are examined focusing on their potential to reduce energy consumption, whilst providing uncompromised coverage and user experience. This includes heterogeneous networks with a sophisticated mix of different cell sizes, which may be further enhanced by energy efficient relaying and base station cooperation technologies. Finally, scenarios leveraging the capability of advanced terminals to operate on multiple radio access technologies (RAT) are discussed with respect to their energy savings potential. ©2010 IEEE.
Energy efficiency has become an important aspect of wireless communication, both economically and environmentally. This letter investigates the energy efficiency of downlink AWGN channels by employing multiple decoding policies. The overall energy efficiency of the system is based on the bits-per-joule metric, where energy efficiency contours are used to locate the optimal operating points based on the system requirements. Our novel approach uses a linear power model to define the total power consumed at the base station, encompassing the circuit and processing power, and amplifier efficiency, and ensures that the best energy efficiency value can be achieved whilst satisfying other system targets such as QoS and rate-fairness.
Georgiades M, Akhtar N, Ghader M, Li Z, Gultchev S, Tafazolli R (2005) Surrey's Next Generation Wireless Network Testbed,
Heliot F, Imran MA, Tafazolli R (2012) Energy-efficient Power Allocation for Point-to-point MIMO System over the Rayleigh Fading Channel, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters 1 (4) pp. 304-307 IEEE
It is well-established that transmitting at full power is the most spectral-efficient power allocation strategy for point-to-point (P2P) multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, however, can this strategy be energy efficient as well? In this letter, we address the most energy-efficient power allocation policy for symmetric P2P MIMO systems by accurately approximating in closed-form their optimal transmit power when a realistic MIMO power consumption model is considered. In most cases, being energy efficient implies a reduction in transmit and overall consumed powers at the expense of a lower spectral efficiency.
The aim of this letter is to exhibit some advantages of using real constellations in large multi-user (MU) MIMO systems. It is shown that a widely linear zero-forcing (WLZF) receiver with M-ASK modulation enjoys a spatial-domain diversity gain, which linearly increases with the MIMO size even in fully- and over-loaded systems. Using the decision of WLZF as the initial state, the likelihood ascent search (LAS) achieves nearoptimal BER performance in fully-loaded large MIMO systems. Interestingly, for coded systems, WLZF shows a much closer BER to that of WLZF-LAS with a gap of only 0:9-2 dB in SNR.
This work addresses joint transceiver optimization for multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In practical systems the complete knowledge of channel state information (CSI) is hardly available at transmitter. To tackle this problem, we resort to the codebook approach to precoding design, where the receiver selects a precoding matrix from a finite set of pre-defined precoding matrices based on the instantaneous channel condition and delivers the index of the chosen precoding matrix to the transmitter via a bandwidth-constraint feedback channel. We show that, when the symbol constellation is improper, the joint codebook based precoding and equalization can be designed accordingly to achieve improved performance compared to the conventional system.
Hoshyar R, Shariat M, Tafazolli R (2010) Subcarrier and Power Allocation with Multiple Power Constraints in OFDMA Systems, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 14 (7) pp. 644-646 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
© 2014 IEEE.This paper examines the uplink of cellular systems employing base station cooperation for joint signal processing. We consider clustered cooperation and investigate effective techniques for managing inter-cluster interference to improve users' performance in terms of both spectral and energy efficiency. We use information theoretic analysis to establish general closed form expressions for the system achievable sum rate and the users' Bit-per-Joule capacity while adopting a realistic user device power consumption model. Two main inter-cluster interference management approaches are identified and studied, i.e., through: 1) spectrum re-use; and 2) users' power control. For the former case, we show that isolating clusters by orthogonal resource allocation is the best strategy. For the latter case, we introduce a mathematically tractable user power control scheme and observe that a green opportunistic transmission strategy can significantly reduce the adverse effects of inter-cluster interference while exploiting the benefits from cooperation. To compare the different approaches in the context of real-world systems and evaluate the effect of key design parameters on the users' energy-spectral efficiency relationship, we fit the analytical expressions into a practical macrocell scenario. Our results demonstrate that significant improvement in terms of both energy and spectral efficiency can be achieved by energy-aware interference management.
Quddus AU, Guo T, Shariat M, Hunt B, Imran A, Ko Y, Tafazolli R (2010) Next Generation Femtocells: An Enabler for High Efficiency Multimedia Transmission, IEEE Comsoc MMTC E-Letters 5 (5) pp. 27-31 IEEE
The first generation of femtocells is evolving to the next generation with many more capabilities in terms of better utilisation of radio resources and support of high data rates. It is thus logical to conjecture that with these abilities and their inherent suitability for home environment, they stand out as an ideal enabler for delivery of high efficiency multimedia services. This paper presents a comprehensive vision towards this objective and extends the concept of femtocells from indoor to outdoor environments, and strongly couples femtocells to emergency and safety services. It also presents and identifies relevant issues and challenges that have to be overcome in realization of this vision.
This letter addresses energy-efficient design in multi-user, single-carrier uplink channels by employing multiple decoding policies. The comparison metric used in this study is based on average energy efficiency contours, where an optimal rate vector is obtained based on four system targets: Maximum energy efficiency, a trade-off between maximum energy efficiency and rate fairness, achieving energy efficiency target with maximum sum-rate and achieving energy efficiency target with fairness. The transmit power function is approximated using Taylor series expansion, with simulation results demonstrating the achievability of the optimal rate vector, and negligible performance difference in employing this approximation.
Mostafavi SM, Hamadani E, Tafazolli R (2010) Delay minimization in multipath routing, IWCMC 2010 - Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference pp. 711-715
A key component of an efficient multipath routing is the optimal resource allocation strategy that deals with how the traffic should be distributed amongst the multiple paths. In this paper, intelligent traffic distribution policies that minimise the experienced delay by the user are proposed. For such delay minimisation, we investigate and evaluate traffic distribution policies in a multipath environment that minimize the average delay and the bottleneck path delay over all the paths.
Wang M, Georgiades M, Tafazolli R (2008) Signalling cost evaluation of mobility management schemes for different core network architectural arrangements in 3GPP LTE/SAE, 2008 IEEE 67TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE-SPRING, VOLS 1-7 pp. 2253-2258 IEEE
Vural S, Navaratnam P, Wang N, Tafazolli R (2014) Asynchronous Clustering of Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2014 pp. 472-477 IEEE
Node clustering has been widely studied in recent years for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) as a technique to form a hierarchical structure and prolong network lifetime by reducing the number of packet transmissions. Cluster Heads (CH) are elected in a distributed way among sensors, but are often highly overloaded, and therefore re-clustering operations should be performed to share the resource intensive CH-role. Existing protocols involve periodic network-wide re-clustering operations that are simultaneously performed, which requires global time synchronisation. To address this issue, some recent studies have proposed asynchronous node clustering for networks with direct links from CHs to the data sink. However, for large-scale WSNs, multihop packet delivery to the sink is required since longrange transmissions are costly for sensor nodes. In this paper, we present an asynchronous node clustering protocol designed for multihop WSNs, considering dynamic conditions such as residual node energy levels and unbalanced data traffic loads caused by packet forwarding. Simulation results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve similar levels of lifetime extension by re-clustering a multihop WSN via independently made decisions at CHs, without a need for time synchronisation required by existing synchronous protocols.
Ghader M, Moessner K, Tafazolli R (2004) Service Discovery and Provision Protocols for Wireless Networks,
Imran A, Shateri M, Tafazolli R (2009) On the Comparison of Performance, Capacity and Economics of Terrestrial Base Station and High Altitude Platform Based Deployment of 4G, PE-WASUN09: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH ACM INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WIRELESS AD-HOC, SENSOR, AND UBIQUITOUS NETWORKS pp. 58-62 ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2010) A novel decoding structure in compress-and-forward systems, IWCMC 2010 - Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference pp. 412-416
A novel joint decompression and forward error correction (FEC) decoding structure for a compress-and-forward relay system is proposed. We notice the possibility of iterative processing between the decompressor and the FEC decoder for the original source information and propose a turbo-like structure to allow interaction and extrinsic information exchange between these two parts. Simulation results show considerable gains through this interaction Copyright © 2010 ACM.
This paper addresses the problem of joint backhaul and access links optimization in dense small cell networks with special focus on time division duplexing (TDD) mode of operation in backhaul and access links transmission. Here, we propose a framework for joint radio resource management where we systematically decompose the problem in backhaul and access links. To simplify the analysis, the procedure is tackled in two stages. At the first stage, the joint optimization problem is formulated for a point-to-point scenario where each small cell is simply associated to a single user. It is shown that the optimization can be decomposed into separate power and subchannel allocation in both backhaul and access links where a set of rate-balancing parameters in conjunction with duration of transmission governs the coupling across both links. Moreover, a novel algorithm is proposed based on grouping the cells to achieve rate-balancing in different small cells. Next in the second stage, the problem is generalized for multi access small cells. Here, each small cell is associated to multiple users to provide the service. The optimization is similarly decomposed into separate sub-channel and power allocation by employing auxiliary slicing variables. It is shown that similar algorithms as previous stage are applicable by slight change with the aid of slicing variables. Additionally, for the special case of line-of-sight backhaul links, simplified expressions for sub-channel and power allocation are presented. The developed concepts are evaluated by extensive simulations in different case studies from full orthogonalization to dynamic clustering and full reuse in the downlink and it is shown that proposed framework provides significant improvement over the benchmark cases.
Ghader M, Tafazolli R (2004) Performance of Service Discovery Protocols in Personal Networks,
Dianati M, Tafazolli R, Moessner K (2010) Enabling Tussle-Agile Inter-networking Architectures by Underlay Virtualisation, FUTURE INTERNET - FIS 2009 6152 pp. 81-95 SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
Chatzimisios P, Dagiuklas T, Tafazolli R, Verikoukis C (2010) Message from ConWire'10 co-chairs, Proceedings - International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, ICCCN
Dianati M, Tafazolli R, Shen X, Naik K (2009) A markov model for per-user service of opportunistic scheduling, Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IWCMC 2009 pp. 681-686
In this paper, we consider maximum rate opportunistic scheduling from a single wireless base station with a single antenna to multiple mobile users, each equipped with a single antenna. We show that a finite-state Markovian model can capture the dynamics of a single user's service, namely peruser service. We consider a saturated scenario, where the base station always has buffered data for transmission. Copyright © 2009 ACM.
Yarmohammad A, Abaii M, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R (2009) Inter-operator Dynamic Spectrum Selection in UMTS, 2009 IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5 pp. 504-508 IEEE
Yi N, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2008) Rate-adaptive bit and power loading for OFDM based DF relaying, 2008 IEEE 67TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE-SPRING, VOLS 1-7 pp. 1340-1344 IEEE
Presser M, Gluhak A, Babb D, Tafazolli R, Herault L (2006) E-SENSE - Capturing ambient intelligence for mobile communications through wireless sensor networks, WINSYS 2006: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems pp. 341-346 INSTICC-INST SYST TECHNOLOGIES INFORMATION CONTROL & COMMUNICATION
He Z, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2012) Training Convergence in Range-based Cooperative Positioning with Stochastic Positional Knowledge, IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences E95.A (7) pp. 1200-1204 IEICE
This letter investigates the training convergence in range-based cooperative positioning with stochastic positional knowledge. Firstly, a closed-form of squared position-error bound (SPEB) is derived with error-free ranging. Using the derived closed-form, it is proved that the SPEB reaches its minimum when at least 2 out of N(>2) agents send training sequences. Finally, numerical results are provided to elaborate the theoretical analysis with zero-mean Gaussian ranging errors.
Han C, Dianati M, Tafazolli R, Kernchen R (2010) Throughput Analysis of the IEEE 802.11p Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Function in Vehicular Environment, pp. 1-5
This paper proposes an analytical model for the throughput of the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)mechanism in IEEE 802.11p MAC sub-layer. Features in EDCA such as different Contention Windows (CW) and Arbitration Interframe Space (AIFS) for each Access Category (AC), and internal collisions are taken into account. The analytical model is suitable for both basic access and the Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send (RTS/CTS) access mode. The proposed analytical model is validated against simulation results to demonstrate its accuracy
Puschmann D, Barnaghi P, Tafazolli R (2016) Adaptive Clustering for Dynamic IoT Data Streams, IEEE Internet of Things IEEE
The emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) has
led to the production of huge volumes of real-world streaming
data. We need effective techniques to process IoT data streams
and to gain insights and actionable information from realworld
observations and measurements. Most existing approaches
are application or domain dependent. We propose a method
which determines how many different clusters can be found
in a stream based on the data distribution. After selecting the
number of clusters, we use an online clustering mechanism
to cluster the incoming data from the streams. Our approach
remains adaptive to drifts by adjusting itself as the data changes.
We benchmark our approach against state-of-the-art stream
clustering algorithms on data streams with data drift. We show
how our method can be applied in a use case scenario involving
near real-time traffic data. Our results allow to cluster, label and
interpret IoT data streams dynamically according to the data
distribution. This enables to adaptively process large volumes of
dynamic data online based on the current situation. We show
how our method adapts itself to the changes. We demonstrate
how the number of clusters in a real-world data stream can be
determined by analysing the data distributions.
Tang SY, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R, Qian Y (2005) Performance analysis of predictive scalable resource allocation for integrated wireless networks, 2005 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WIRELESS NETWORKS, COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 745-750 IEEE
Yi N, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2008) Multi-tone transmissions over two-user cognitive radio channel with weak interference, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC
A transmitter with cognitive capability can sense talk between the other transmitter-receiver pairs. When this transmitter knows full or partial message of the others, it can choose an efficient strategy to access the transmission medium. This is referred to as cognitive radio channel. This work aims to investigate multi-tone transmission over two-user cognitive radio channels where cross-talk interference is weak. Cognitive transmitter (Tx1) is assumed to have full knowledge of message that is sent by the other transmitter (Tx2) to its corresponding receiver (Rx2). Channel capacity is carefully analyzed for frequency-selective scenarios. Efficient power-allocation strategies at Txl are investigated for various wireless environments. It is shown that Tx1 can find an efficient resource-accessing strategy if the channel gain of Tx1-Rx1 (the corresponding receiver) link is larger than the channel gain of Tx2-Rx2 link. In this case, the cognitive transmitter Tx1 can offer better performance by employing equal power allocation approach. Otherwise, it is not worthy for Txl to access transmission medium of Tx2-Rx2 link. © 2008 IEEE.
Georgoulas S, Moessner K, Mcaleer B, Tafazolli R (2010) Using Formal Verification Methods and Tools for Protocol Profiling and Performance Assessment in Mobile and Wireless Environments, 2010 IEEE 21st International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications pp. 2471-2476 IEEE
The most common use of formal verification methods and tools so far has been in identifying whether livelock and/or deadlock situations can occur during protocol execution, process, or system operation. In this work we aim to show that an additional equally important and useful application of formal verification tools can be in protocol design and protocol selection in terms of performance related metrics. This can be achieved by using the tools in a rather different context compared to their traditional use. That is not only as model checking tools to assess the correctness of a protocol in terms of lack of livelock and deadlock situations but rather as tools capable of building profiles of protocol operations, assessing their performance, and identifying operational patterns and possible bottleneck operations. This process can provide protocol designers with an insight about the protocols' behavior and guide them towards further protocol design optimizations. It can also assist network operators and service providers in selecting the most suitable protocol for specific network and service configurations. We illustrate these principles by showing how formal verification tools can be applied in this protocol profiling and performance assessment context using some existing protocols as case studies.
Guo T, Quddus AU, Wang N, Tafazolli R (2012) Local Mobility Management for Networked Femtocells Based on X2 Traffic Forwarding, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology IEEE
Femtocell is becoming a promising solution to face the explosive growth of mobile broadband usage in cellular networks. While each femtocell only covers a small area, a massive deployment is expected in the near future forming networked femtocells. An immediate challenge is to provide seamless mobility support for networked femtocells with minimal support from mobile core networks. In this paper, we propose efficient local mobility management schemes for networked femtocells based on X2 traffic forwarding under the 3GPP Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) framework. Instead of implementing the path switch operation at core network entity for each handover, a local traffic forwarding chain is constructed to use the existing Internet backhaul and the local path between the local anchor femtocell and the target femtocell for ongoing session communications. Both analytical studies and simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed schemes and compare them with the original 3GPP scheme. The results indicate that the proposed schemes can significantly reduce the signaling cost and relieve the processing burden of mobile core networks with the reasonable distributed cost for local traffic forwarding. In addition, the proposed schemes can enable fast session recovery to adapt to the self-deployment nature of the femtocells.
Han C, Muhaidat S, Abualhaol I, Dianati M, Tafazolli R (2013) Intrusion Detection in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks on Lower Layers, In: Security, Privacy, Trust, and Resource Management in Mobile and Wireless Communications 8 IGI Global
Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) are a critical component of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), which involve the applications of advanced information processing, communications, sensing, and controlling technologies in an integrated manner to improve the functionality and the safety of transportation systems, providing drivers with timely information on road and traffic conditions, and achieving smooth traffic flow on the roads. Recently, the security of VANETs has attracted major attention for the possible presence of malicious elements, and the presence of altered messages due to channel errors in transmissions. In order to provide reliable and secure communications, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) can serve as a second defense wall after prevention-based approaches, such as encryption. This chapter first presents the state-of-the-art literature on intrusion detection in VANETs. Next, the detection of illicit wireless transmissions from the physical layer perspective is investigated, assuming the presence of regular ongoing legitimate transmissions. Finally, a novel cooperative intrusion detection scheme from the MAC sub-layer perspective is discussed.
Zhang Y, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2007) Tighter bounds of symbol error probability for amplify-and-forward cooperative protocol over rayleigh fading channels, 2007 IEEE 18TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-9 pp. 1920-1924 IEEE
Rodriguez V, Moessner K, Tafazolli R (2006) Market driven dynamic spectrum allocation over space and time among radio-access networks: DVB-T and B3G CDMA with heterogeneous terminals, MOBILE NETWORKS & APPLICATIONS 11 (6) pp. 847-860 SPRINGER
Kosta C, Sodunke T, Shateri M, Tafazolli R (2010) Two-stage call admission control policy for LTE Systems, IWCMC 2010 - Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference pp. 1101-1105
In this paper, we evaluate a two-stage call admission control (CAC) policy for Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems working along with packet scheduler (PS). The proposed twostage admission scheme uses the quality the received signal as an indicator to estimate the amount of resources for each call in order to improve the performance of the overall network. Unlikely with other CAC approaches we use a SINR-based estimator to clarified the connection quality, and thereafter quantize the user demand in term of physical resources. However, for scheduling, we use an algorithm where highest priority is assigned for guaranteed bit rate (GBR) proportional to their packet delays. Simulations results show that the proposed CAC scheme combined with proposed Packet Scheduling policy greatly improves performance of non-GBR service, while also maintaining quite well the Quality of Service (QoS) of delay sensitive traffic (GBR) and ends up with reduction in Packet Drop Ratio (PDR) for Copyright © 2010 ACM.
Liu H, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2007) Sub-optimum pilot placement for chunk-based OFDMA uplink: Consecutive chunks scenario, 2007 IEEE 18TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-9 pp. 1925-1929 IEEE
In this paper, we consider multi-relay cooperative networks for the Rayleigh fading channel, where each relay, upon receiving its own channel observation, independently compresses it and forwards the compressed information to the destination. Although the compression at each relay is distributed using Wyner-Ziv coding, there exists an opportunity for jointly optimizing compression at multiple relays to maximize the achievable rate. Considering Gaussian signalling, a primal optimization problem is formulated accordingly. We prove that the primal problem can be solved by resorting to its Lagrangian dual problem and an iterative optimization algorithm is proposed. The analysis is further extended to a hybrid scheme, where the employed forwarding scheme depends on the decoding status of each relay. The relays that are capable of successful decoding perform decode-and-forward and the rest conduct distributed compression. The hybrid scheme allows the cooperative network to adapt to the changes of the channel conditions and benefit from an enhanced level of flexibility. Numerical results from both spectrum and energy efficiency perspectives show that the joint optimization improves efficiency of compression and identify the scenarios where the proposed schemes outperform the conventional forwarding schemes. The findings provide important insights into the optimal deployment of relays in a realistic cellular network.
Acar G, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R, Evans B (2006) Performance of Multicast File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) over geostationary satellite systems with DAMA uplinks, Collection of Technical Papers - 24th AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, ICSSC 1 pp. 61-74
Their inherent broadcasting capabilities over very large geographical areas make satellite systems one of the most effective vehicles for multicast service delivery. Recent advances in spotbeam antennas and high-power platforms further accentuate the suitability of satellite systems as multicasting tools. The focus of this article is reliable multicast service delivery via geostationary satellite systems. Starburst MFTP is a feedback-based multicast transport protocol that is distinct from other such protocols in that it defers the retransmission of lost data until the end of the transmission of the complete data product. In contrast to other multicast transport protocols, MFTP retransmission strategy does not interrupt the fresh data transmission with the retransmissions of older segments. Thanks to this feature, receivers enjoying favourable channel conditions do not suffer from unnecessarily extended transfer delays due to those receivers that experience bad channel conditions. Existing research studies on MFTP's performance over satellite systems assume fixed-capacity satellite uplink channels dedicated to individual clients on the return link. Such fixed-assignment uplink access mechanisms are considered to be too wasteful uses of uplink resources for the sporadic and thin feedback traffic generated by MFTP clients. Indeed, such mechanisms may prematurely limit the scalability of MFTP as the multicast client population size grows. In contrast, the reference satellite system considered in this article employs demand-assignment multiple access (DAMA) with contention-based request signalling on the uplink. DAMA MAC (Medium Access Control) protocols in satellite systems are well-known in the literature for their improved resource utilisation and scalability features. Moreover, DAMA forms the basis for the uplink access mechanisms in prominent satellite networks such as Inmarsat's BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network), and return link specifications such as ETSI DVB-RCS, However, in comparison with fixed-assignment uplink access mechanisms, DAMA protocols may introduce unpredictable delays for MFTP feedback messages on the return link. Collisions among capacity requests on the contention channel, temporary lack of capacity on the reservation channel, and random transmission errors on the uplink are the potential causes of such delays, This article presents the results of a system-level simulation analysis of MFTP over a DAMA GEO satellite system with conten
Heliot F, Imran MA, Tafazolli R (2012) On the Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-Off over the MIMO Rayleigh Fading Channel, IEEE Transactions on Communications 60 (5) pp. 1345-1356 IEEE
Along with spectral efficiency (SE), energy efficiency (EE) is becoming one of the key performance evaluation criteria for communication system. These two criteria, which are conflicting, can be linked through their trade-off. The EE-SE trade-off for the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channel has been accurately approximated in the past but only in the low-SE regime. In this paper, we propose a novel and more generic closed-form approximation of this trade-off which exhibits a greater accuracy for a wider range of SE values and antenna configurations. Our expression has been here utilized for assessing analytically the EE gain of MIMO over single-input single-output (SISO) system for two different types of power consumption models (PCMs): the theoretical PCM, where only the transmit power is considered as consumed power; and a more realistic PCM accounting for the fixed consumed power and amplifier inefficiency. Our analysis unfolds the large mismatch between theoretical and practical MIMO vs. SISO EE gains; the EE gain increases both with the SE and the number of antennas in theory, which indicates that MIMO is a promising EE enabler; whereas it remains small and decreases with the number of transmit antennas when a realistic PCM is considered.
Movahhedian M, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2010) Blind CFO Estimation for Linearly Precoded OFDMA Uplink, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING 58 (9) pp. 4698-4710 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Presser M, Brown T, Goulianos A, Stavrou S, Tafazolli R (2007) Body centric context aware application scenarios, IET Seminar Digest 2007 (11803) pp. 19-25
This paper describes several communication categories for personal and body centric communications. It uses several application scenarios to give examples of these categories and therefore to concretise these categories. Further, the paper presents a first set of analysis for off-body communications.
Ma Y, Tafazolli R, Zhang Y, Qian C (2011) Adaptive Modulation for Opportunistic Decode-and-Forward Relaying, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 10 (7) pp. 2017-2022 IEEE
Orthogonal relay based cooperative communication enjoys distributed spatial diversity gain at the price of spectral efficiency. This work aims at improving the spectral efficiency for orthogonal opportunistic decode-and-forward (DF) relaying through employment of novel adaptive modulation scheme. The proposed scheme allows source and relay to transmit information in different modulation formats, while the MAP receiver is employed at destination for the diversity combining. Given the individual power constraint and target bit-error-rate (BER), the proposed scheme can significantly improve the spectral efficiency in comparison with the non-adaptive DF relaying and adaptive direct transmission.
Mach T, Tafazolli R (2010) Battery life idle parameter optimization of UE in self organizing network, IEEE 21st International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications pp. 1332-1336
This paper presents a novel mechanism which increases mobile terminal battery performance. It supports a cell reselection algorithm which decides on which cell, user equipment (UE) is camped on when in idle mode (there is no active radio connection with a mobile network). Study is based on real 3G UTRA network measurements. Authors propose a technique to reduce UE current consumption in idle mode based on dynamic Sintrasearch neighbour cell measurements threshold optimization. System analysis covers both UTRA and E-UTRA - Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology.
Yi N, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2011) Cooperative iterative water-filling for two-user Gaussian frequency-selective interference chanels,
In this paper, a cooperative iterative water-filling approach is investigated for two-user Gaussian interference channel. State-of-the-art approaches only maximize the individual user's own rate and always model interference as noise. Our proposed approach establishes user cooperation through sharing network side information. It iteratively maximizes the sum-rate of both users subject to distributed power constraint. Interference is optimally regarded as message or noise. Three efficient rate-sharing schemes are also investigated between two users based on priority. Numerical results are performed in frequency-selective environment. It is observed that the proposed approach offers significantly performance improvement in comparison with conventional iterative water-filling approaches.
This paper describes a distributed, cooperative and real time rental protocol for DCA operations in a multi system and mult) cell context for OFDMA systems. A credit token based rental protocol using auctioning Is proposed in support of dynamic spectrum sharing between cells. The proposed scheme can be tuned adaptively as a function of the context by specifying the credit tokens usage in the radio etiquette. The application of the rental protocol is illustrated with an ascending bid auctioning. The paper also describes two approaches for BS-BS communications in support of the rental protocol. Finally, it is described how the proposed mechanisms contribute to the current approaches followed in the IEEE 802.16h and IEEE 802.22 standards efforts addressing cognitive radio, © 2006 IEEE.
One major advantage of cloud/centralized radio access network (C-RAN) is the ease of implementation of multicell coordination mechanisms to improve the system spectrum efficiency (SE). Theoretically, large number of cooperative cells lead to a higher SE, however, it may also cause significant delay due to extra channel state information (CSI) feedback and joint processing computational needs at the cloud data center, which is likely to result in performance degradation. In order to investigate the delay impact on the throughput gains, we divide the network into multiple clusters of cooperative small cells and formulate a throughput optimization problem. We model various delay factors and the sum-rate of the network as a function of cluster size, treating it as the main optimization variable. For our analysis, we consider both base stations? as well as users? geometric locations as random variables for both linear and planar network deployments. The output SINR (signal-tointerference-plus-noise ratio) and ergodic sum-rate are derived based on the homogenous Poisson point processing (PPP) model. The sum-rate optimization problem in terms of the cluster size is formulated and solved. Simulation results show that the proposed analytical framework can be utilized to accurately evaluate the performance of practical cloud-based small cell networks employing clustered cooperation.
Pateromichelakis E, Shariat M, Quddus A, Tafazolli R (2015) Joint Routing and Scheduling in Dense Small Cell Networks using 60GHz backhaul,
Personal Network Federation (PN-F) aims to provide secure interactions between a subset of devices of different Personal Networks (PN) for achieving a common goal or providing some services in collaborative environments. Security and privacy is one of the major concerns in the development and acceptance of PN-F like collaborative networks and as any other security architecture, the key management is the corner stone of any possible solution. In this paper, we provide security mechanisms and protocols for key exchange and key management in PN Federations and specify how the established keys can be used to secure communications in different layers. © 2008 IEEE.
Rodriguez V, Moessner K, Tafazolli R (2006) Market driven dynamic spectrum allocation over space and time among radio-access networks: DVB-T and B3G CDMA with heterogeneous terminals, Multibody System Dynamics 16 (4) pp. 847-860
The radio frequency spectrum is a naturally limited resource of extraordinary value as the key to the provision of important communication and information services. Traditionally spectrum has been allocated first to specific access technologies and then sub-allocated to specific access networks on very long term basis (up to decades). The traditional scheme can be very inefficient when demand patterns ("loads") exhibit high temporal and spatial variations. Dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) improves radio spectrum efficiency by adjusting the allocation as demand changes in time and/or space. In previous work we introduced a DSA scheme in which a spectrum manager periodically auctions short-term spectrum licenses. The scheme can be supported by a realistic "pooling" business model and can work with many radio-access technologies. But our previous analysis only considers a code-division multiple access (CDMA) technology; and DSA provides the greatest benefits with the participation of networks having complementary "busy hours" such as video entertainment services and cellular telephony. Here a digital video broadcast (DVB) terrestrial network joins the scheme. A typical DVB terrestrial cell is (much) larger than a UMTS cell. This brings to the forefront inter-cell interference and inter-related auctions in different cells. To capture the essence of these issues we focus first on a situation where one DVB terrestrial cell overlays two adjacent CDMA cells. Subsequently we discuss extensions to richer scenarios. The contributions of the present work over our previous publications include to : (i) address the impact of inter-cell interference among several CDMA cells (ii) introduce the DVB access technology into the DSA scheme (iii) modify the auction scheme to consider that a DVB cell overlays several CDMA cells (iv) characterise analytically the marketing and bidding behaviour of the DVB network. © Springer Science + Business Media LLC 2006.
Qi YA, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) A New ARQ Protocol for Hybrid DF/CF Relay Scheme, 69th IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE pp. 1356-1360 IEEE
Automatic Repeat re-Quest (AQR) is implemented to ensure reliable transmission when channel state information (CSI) is not available to the source and the selected transmission rate is not supported by the current channel realization. We consider a relay system with hybrid relay scheme, where the relay switches between decode-and-forward (DF) and compress-and-forward (CF) adapting to the decoding status. In such case, we propose new ARQ strategy and analyze its performance in terms of maximum throughput, average reward and inter-renewal time. Compared with pure DF, the hybrid relay schemes show considerable gain.
Hamadani E, Mostafavi M, Tafazolli R, Rakocevic V (2009) Analysis of IEEE802.11 DCF Parameters on Achievable Throughput in Ad hoc Networks, 2009 IEEE 70TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE FALL, VOLS 1-4 pp. 465-470 IEEE
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2010) A novel hybrid relaying scheme using multilevel coding, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference
In this paper, multilevel coding is tailored for cooperative communication, where the source deploys a layered encoding structure. Due to the BER difference for different coding levels, there is some possibility that the relay, despite of successful decoding in upper coding levels, might not be able to correctly decode in lower levels. We propose a hybrid relaying scheme to cope with this problem, where the relay deploys decode-and-forward in upper levels and compress-and-forward in lower levels. Simulation results demonstrate that this hybrid technique approaches a fine balance among the complexity, BER performance and transmission efficiency. © 2010 IEEE.
Li Z, Akhtar N, Tafazolli R (2007) Seamless IP multimedia service continuity support in inter-worked UMTS and WLAN, 2007 IEEE 18TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-9 pp. 1478-1482 IEEE
Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) Performance evaluation Of HARQ schemes for Cooperative Regenerative Relaying, 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-8 pp. 3355-3360 IEEE
Mustafa HA, Shakir MZ, Imran MA, Imran A, Tafazolli R (2015) Coverage Gain and Device-to-Device User Density: Stochastic Geometry Modeling and Analysis, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 19 (10) pp. 1742-1745 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Imran A, Imran MA, Tafazolli R (2010) A novel self organizing framework for adaptive frequency reuse and deployment in future cellular networks, 21st IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications pp. 2354-2359
Recent research on Frequency Reuse (FR) schemes for OFDM/OFDMA based cellular networks (OCN) suggest that a single fixed FR cannot be optimal to cope with spatiotemporal dynamics of traffic and cellular environments in a spectral and energy efficient way. To address this issue this paper introduces a novel Self Organizing framework for adaptive Frequency Reuse and Deployment (SO-FRD) for future OCN including both cellular (e.g. LTE) and relay enhanced cellular networks (e.g. LTE Advance). In this paper, an optimization problem is first formulated to find optimal frequency reuse factor, number of sectors per site and number of relays per site. The goal is designed as an adaptive utility function which incorporates three major system objectives; 1) spectral efficiency 2) fairness, and 3) energy efficiency. An appropriate metric for each of the three constituent objectives of utility function is then derived. Solution is provided by evaluating these metrics through a combination of analysis and extensive system level simulations for all feasible FRD's. Proposed SO-FRD framework uses this flexible utility function to switch to particular FRD strategy, which is suitable for system's current state according to predefined or self learned performance criterion. The proposed metrics capture the effect of all major optimization parameters like frequency reuse factor, number of sectors and relay per site, and adaptive coding and modulation. Based on the results obtained, interesting insights into the tradeoff among these factors is also provided.
Formal verification tools have been extensively used in the past to assess the correctness of protocols, processes, and systems in general. Their most common use so far has been in identifying whether livelock or deadlock situations can occur during protocol execution, process, or system operation. In this paper we aim to showcase that an additional equally important and useful application of formal verification tools can be in protocol design and optimization itself. This can be achieved by using the tools in a rather different context compared to their traditional use. That is not only as means to assess the correctness of a protocol in terms of lack of livelock and deadlock situations but rather as tools capable of building profiles of protocols, associating performance related metrics, and identifying operational patterns and possible bottleneck operations in terms of metrics of interest. This process can provide protocol designers with an insight about the protocols' behavior and guide them towards further protocol design optimizations. We illustrate these principles using some existing protocol implementations as case studies. Copyright © 2010 ACM.
Hanzo II L, Tafazolli R (2011) The effects of shadow-fading on QoS-aware routing and admission control protocols designed for multi-hop MANETs, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 11 (1) pp. 1-22
Yarmohammad A, Tafazolli R (2009) Decentralized inter-radio access network dynamic spectrum selection scheme, 2009 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, WCSP 2009
Many radio access networks (RAN) operate in various bands, providing both common and distinct services. Currently the fixed allocation of spectrum (FSA) to various RANs creates inflexibility that leads to inefficient use of the spectrum. In this work a robust, technology neutral, decentralized, Inter-RAN dynamic spectrum selection (DSS) scheme is proposed. This work has sought to establish the basis for a generic method of DSS, wherein user equipment (UE) can obtain the most appropriate RAN for operation. Low complexity and low signaling overhead have been two important factors in designing this scheme. The impact of the proposed scheme on spectral efficiency and signaling load has been investigated. The results show an improvement in spectral efficiency with considerably low signaling overhead. Fairness in sharing, which is one of the important issues in spectrum sharing, can be easily achieved with this scheme. © 2009 IEEE.
Movahedian M, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2008) Iterative carrier frequency offset estimation and compensation for OFDMA uplink, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC
This paper presents a method to counteract the detrimental effects of carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) in the uplink of OFDMA-based wireless networks. The CFO values of different users are first estimated from the received decomposed signal using the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE). The CFOs effects are then compensated based on the estimated values and also taking advantage of an iterative parallel interference cancelation (PIC) scheme. A novel contribution of this paper is introducing an iterative concatenated estimation and compensation algorithm for suppressing the residual interference due to imperfect estimators. The introduced method is successful where the estimator converges after only one iteration with a significant improvement in estimation accuracy. Also very close BER performance results can be achieved to that of systems with perfect knowledge or without CFOs particularly at practical SNRs. © 2008 IEEE.
Cooperative communications can exploit distributed spatial diversity gain to improve link performance. When the message is coded at a low rate, source and relay can send different parts of a codeword to destination. This is referred to as the coded cooperation. In this paper, we propose two novel coded cooperation schemes for three-node relay networks, i.e., adaptive coded cooperation and ARQ-based coded cooperation. The former one needs the channel quality information available at source. The codeword splits adaptively to minimize the overall BER. The latter one is devised for relay network with erasure. In the first time slot, source sends a high-rate sub-codeword. Once destination reports the decoding errors, either source or relay can send one or two new bits selected from the mother codeword. Unlike random rateless erasure codes, such as Fountain code, the proposed scheme is based on the deterministic code generator and puncture pattern. It is experimentally shown that the proposed scheme can offer improved throughput in comparison with the conventional approach.
Héliot F, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2011) An accurate closed-form approximation of the distributed MIMO outage probability, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 10 (1) pp. 5-11
In this paper we present the uDirect algorithm as a novel approach for mobile phone centric observation of a user's facing direction, through which the device and user orientations relative to earth coordinate are estimated. While the device orientation estimation is based on accelerometer and magnetometer measurements in standing mode, the unique behavior of measured acceleration during stance phase of a human's walking cycle is used for detecting user direction. Furthermore, the algorithm is independent of initial orientation of the device which gives the user higher space of freedom for long term observations. As the algorithm only relies on embedded accelerometer and magnetometer sensors of the mobile phone, it is not susceptible to shadowing effect as GPS. In addition, by performing independent estimations during each step of walking the model is robust to error accumulation. Evaluating the algorithm with 180 data samples from 10 participates has empirically confirmed the assumptions of our analytical model about the unique characteristics of the human stance phase for direction estimation. Moreover, our initial inspection has shown a system based on our algorithm outperforms conventional use of GPS and PCA analysis based techniques for walking distances more than 2 steps. © 2011 IEEE.
Wang Y, Fan L, He D, Tafazolli R (2008) Performance comparison of scheduling algorithms in network mobility environment, COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS 31 (9) pp. 1727-1738 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Sand S, Mensing C, Ma Y, Tafazolli R, Yin X, Figueiras J, Nielsen J, Fleury BH (2008) Hybrid data fusion and cooperative schemes for wireless positioning, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference
The Wireless Hybrid Enhanced Mobile Radio Estimators (WHERE) consortium researches radio positioning techniques to improve various aspects of communications systems. In order to provide the benefits of position information available to communications systems, hybrid data fusion (HDF) techniques estimate reliable position information. Within this paper, we first present the scenarios and radio technologies evaluated by the WHERE consortium for wireless positioning. We compare conventional HDF approaches with two novel approaches developed within the framework of WHERE. Yet, HDF may still provide insufficient localization accuracy and reliability. Hence, we will research and develop new cooperative positioning algorithms, which exploit the available communications links among mobile terminals of heterogeneous wireless networks, to further enhance the positioning accuracy and reliability. ©2008 IEEE.
Ghader M, Tafazolli R (2007) Enhanced Service Location Protocol in Personal Network,
Liu H, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2008) Optimum pilot placement for chunk-based OFDMA uplink: Time direction scenario, 2008 IEEE 67TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE-SPRING, VOLS 1-7 pp. 2547-2551 IEEE
Abaii M, Liu Y, Tafazolli R (2008) An efficient resource allocation strategy for future wireless cellular systems, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 7 (8) pp. 2940-2949 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm envisions billions
of devices all connected to the Internet, generating low-rate
monitoring and measurement data to be delivered to application
servers or end-users. Recently, the possibility of applying innetwork
data caching techniques to IoT traffic flows has been
discussed in research forums. The main challenge as opposed to
the typically cached content at routers, e.g. multimedia files, is
that IoT data are transient and therefore require different caching
policies. In fact, the emerging location-based services can also
benefit from new caching techniques that are specifically designed
for small transient data. This paper studies in-network caching
of transient data at content routers, considering a key temporal
data property: data item lifetime. An analytical model that
captures the trade-off between multihop communication costs and
data item freshness is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate
that caching transient data is a promising information-centric
networking technique that can reduce the distance between
content requesters and the location in the network where the
content is fetched from. To the best of our knowledge, this is
a pioneering research work aiming to systematically analyse the
feasibility and benefit of using Internet routers to cache transient
data generated by IoT applications.
Touheed H, Quddus AU, Tafazolli R (2008) Predictive CQI reporting for HSDPA, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC
One of the key features of High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC). Link Adaptation at Node-B is done on the basis of Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) reports sent by the User Equipment (IE). However there is a delay of about 10 ms between computation of a CQI report at UE and the corresponding Transport Format and Resource Indicator (TFRI) selection at the Node-B. This delay significantly degrades the performance of link adaptation process. In order to compensate for this loss of performance, we propose predictive CQI reporting by the UE. A simple linear predictor based on NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) adaptation is shown through simulations to provide substantial gain in HSDPA link throughput. Results show that predictive CQI reporting provides larger gain in channel environments with medium to high Doppler and lack of multipath diversity. © 2008 IEEE.
Nourizadeh H, Nourizadeh S, Tafazolli R (2006) Performance evaluation of Cellular Networks with Mobile and Fixed Relay Station, 2006 IEEE 64TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-6 pp. 2434-2438 IEEE
Requirement for low operating and deployment costs of cellular networks motivate the need for self-organisation in cellular networks. To reduce operational costs, self-organising networks are fast becoming a necessity. One key issue in this context is self-organised coverage estimation that is done based on the signal strength measurement and reported position information of system users. In this paper, the effect of inaccurate position estimation on self-organised coverage estimation is investigated. We derive the signal reliability expression (i.e. probability of the received signal being above a certain threshold) and the cell coverage expressions that take the error in position estimation into consideration. This is done for both the shadowing and non-shadowing channel models. The accuracy of the modified reliability and cell coverage probability expressions are also numerically verified for both cases.
Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) Optimum Decoding of Full Decode and Forward Scheme over Cooperative Relay Channels, 2009 IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5 pp. 1054-1058 IEEE
Shariat M, Quddus AU, Tafazolli R (2009) Distance-incorporated opportunistic scheduling, Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IWCMC 2009 pp. 675-680
This paper highlights the deficiencies of classical figures of merit such as throughput and fairness index to evaluate different scheduling algorithms and proposes a new complementary figure of merit called as transport-throughput, which has been inspired from information theory literature to better represent trade-offs among throughput, fairness and coverage associated with a given scheduling algorithm. Furthermore, new objective functions for opportunistic scheduling are proposed that utilize the knowledge about the geographic distance of mobile terminals from the base station. The proposed concept can be easily integrated as an extension to classical scheduling algorithms and provides the ability to control the effective distribution of throughput across the network Copyright © 2009 ACM.
Ghader M, Olsen RL, Giro-Genet M, Tafazolli R (2005) Service Management Platform for Personal Networks,
He Z, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2012) Opportunistic Cooperative Positioning in OFDMA Systems, IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences Vol.E95-A (9) pp. 1642-1645 IEICE
This letter presents a novel opportunistic cooperative positioning approach for orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. The basic idea is to allow idle mobile terminals (MTs) opportunistically estimating the arrival timing of the training sequences for uplink synchronization from active MTs. The major advantage of the proposed approach over state-of-the-arts is that the positioning-related measurements among MTs are performed without the paid of training overhead. Moreover, Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is utilized to derive the positioning accuracy limit of the proposed approach, and the numerical results show that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy of non-cooperative approaches with the a-priori stochastic knowledge of clock bias among idle MTs.
Spectrum sensing is one of key enabling techniques to advanced radio technologies such as cognitive radios and ALOHA. This paper presents a novel non-cooperative spectrum sensing approach that can achieve a good trade-off between latency, reliability and computational complexity. Our major idea is to exploit the first-order cyclostationarity of the primary user's signal to reduce the noise-uncertainty problem inherent in the conventional energy detection approach. It is shown that the proposed approach is suitable for detecting the primary user's activity in the interweave paradigm of cognitive spectrum sharing, while the active primary user is periodically sending training sequence. Computer simulations are carried out for the typical IEEE 802.11g system. It is observed that the proposed approach outperforms both the energy detection and the second-order cyclostationarity approach when the observation period is more than 10 frames corresponding to 0.56 ms. ©2010 IEEE.
Novel Low-Density Signature (LDS) structure is proposed for synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems for an uplink communication over AWGN channel. It arranges the system such that the interference pattern being seen by each user at each received sampled chip is different. Furthermore, new near-optimum chip-level iterative multiuser decoder is suggested to exploit the proposed structure. It is shown via computer simulations that, without forward error correction (FEC) coding, the proposed LDS structure could achieve near single-user performance with up to 200% loading condition. As the proposed iterative decoding converges relatively fast, the complexity is kept much more affordable than that of optimum multiuser detection (MUD) with conventional structure. © 2006 IEEE.
Hanzo L, Tafazolli R (2009) Admission Control Schemes for 802.11-Based Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks: A Survey, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS AND TUTORIALS 11 (4) pp. 78-108 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Al Kiyumi R, Vural S, Foh CH, Tafazolli R (2015) A Distributed Sleep Mechanism for Energy-Efficiency in Non-Beacon-Enabled IEEE 802.15.4 Networks, 2015 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMPUTER AIDED MODELLING AND DESIGN OF COMMUNICATION LINKS AND NETWORKS (CAMAD) pp. 237-241 IEEE
Shariat M, Ul Quddus A, Tafazolli R (2009) IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC
In this paper, a novel framework is proposed to integrate spectrum (resource) sharing into multihop scheduling in relay-assisted systems. This approach provides an effective solution to minimize the effect of extra resources that are required in multihop transmission. Particularly, this approach can be combined with different topologies of resource scheduling to provide better performance in terms of throughput and coverage compared to benchmark non-sharing algorithms. © 2009 IEEE.
In this paper, we propose novel Hybrid Automatic Repeat re-Quest (HARQ) strategies used in conjunction with hybrid relaying schemes, named as H^2-ARQ-Relaying. The strategies allow the relay to dynamically switch between amplify-and-forward/compress-and-forward and decode-and-forward schemes according to its decoding status. The performance analysis is conducted from both the spectrum and energy efficiency perspectives. The spectrum efficiency of the proposed strategies, in terms of the maximum throughput, is significantly improved compared with their non-hybrid counterparts under the same constraints. The consumed energy per bit is optimized by manipulating the node activation time, the transmission energy and the power allocation between the source and the relay. The circuitry energy consumption of all involved nodes is taken into consideration. Numerical results shed light on how and when the energy efficiency can be improved in cooperative HARQ. For instance, cooperative HARQ is shown to be energy efficient in long distance transmission only. Furthermore, we consider the fact that the compress-and-forward scheme requires instantaneous signal to noise ratios of all three constituent links. However, this requirement can be impractical in some cases. In this regard, we introduce an improved strategy where only partial and affordable channel state information feedback is needed.
Mozaffaripour M, Tafazolli R (2007) Suboptimal search algorithm in conjunction with polynomial-expanded linear multiuser detector for FDD WCDMA mobile uplink, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 56 (6) pp. 3600-3606 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Beside the well-established spectral-efficiency (SE), energy-efficiency (EE) is currently becoming an important performance evaluation metric, which in turn makes the EE-SE trade-off as a prominent criterion for efficiently designing future communication systems. In this letter, we propose a very tight closed-form approximation (CFA) of this trade-off over the single-input single-output (SISO) Rayleigh flat fading channel. We first derive an improved approximation of the SISO ergodic capacity by means of a parametric function and then utilize it for obtaining our novel EE-SE trade-off CFA, which is also generalized for the symmetric multi-input multi-output channel. We compare our CFA with existing CFAs and show its improved accuracy in comparison with the latter.
Multiuser selection scheduling concept has been recently proposed in the literature in order to
increase the multiuser diversity gain and overcome the significant feedback requirements for the opportunistic
scheduling schemes. The main idea is that reducing the feedback overhead saves per-user
power that could potentially be added for the data transmission. In this work, we propose to integrate the
principle of multiuser selection and the proportional fair scheduling scheme. This is aimed especially at
power-limited, multi-device systems in non-identically distributed fading channels. For the performance
analysis, we derive closed-form expressions for the outage probabilities and the average system rate of the
delay-sensitive and the delay-tolerant systems, respectively, and compare them with the full feedback
multiuser diversity schemes. The discrete rate region is analytically presented, where the maximum
average system rate can be obtained by properly choosing the number of partial devices. We optimize
jointly the number of partial devices and the per-device power saving in order to maximize the average
system rate under the power requirement. Through our results, we finally demonstrate that the proposed
scheme leveraging the saved feedback power to add for the data transmission can outperform the full
feedback multiuser diversity, in non-identical Rayleigh fading of devices? channels.
The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) has been recently proposed as a new transport protocol, suitable for use by applications such as multimedia streaming. Wireless mesh networks have promising commercial potential for a large variety of applications. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DCCP with TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC) in wireless mesh networks using ns2 simulations, in terms of fairness and throughput smoothness. Our results show that in wireless mesh networks DCCP shares the limited wireless channel bandwidth fairly with the competing flows and provides better throughput smoothness than TCP flows in isolation i.e. with no competing flows. However, DCCP loses its ability to maintain the smoothness for streaming media applications with competing flows in the network. Copyright 2006 ACM.
Wathan FP, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GROUPED CHIP-LEVEL ITERATED MULTIUSER DETECTION FOR OVERLOADED CDMA SYSTEMS, 2008 IEEE 9TH WORKSHOP ON SIGNAL PROCESSING ADVANCES IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 131-135 IEEE
Wei D, Jin Y, Gluhak A, Tafazolli R, Moessner K (2010) Hot-spot issue aware clustering for WSNs to extend stable operation period, 2010 Future Network and Mobile Summit
In existing energy-efficient clustering algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), individual nodes usually experience significant differences in lifetime. The issue of some nodes depleting energy earlier than other is usually referred to as hot-spot issue in WSNs, which dramatically shortens the stable operation period of a network when all nodes are live with residual energy. This paper addresses hot-spot issue through equalizing individual node's lifetime throughout the network. The probability of nodes to become cluster-head (CH) in this algorithm is relevant to node distance to the sink and is subject to the individual node-lifetime equalization. When selecting CHs, the residual node energy is considered as well. Performance evaluation illustrates the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of extending the stable operation period of the clustered WSNs. Copyright © 2010 The authors.
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) Soft multilevel Slepian-Wolf decoding in systems using Turbo joint decoding and decompressing, 2008 IEEE 67TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE-SPRING, VOLS 1-7 pp. 1514-1518 IEEE
Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) A Pre-BSC Model for Distributed Turbo Codes, 2009 IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5 pp. 1936-1940 IEEE
Akbari A, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2010) Energy-efficient resource allocation in wireless OFDMA systems, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC pp. 1731-1735
Reducing the consumed energy in wireless communication systems has a direct impact on operational expenditure as well as CO2 emissions. With increasing interest in multimedia applications and high data rate services, environmentally sustainable communications networks must reduce the energy per delivered bit at an equal rate, if not better. This paper addresses downlink energy-efficient transmission in OFDMA systems and maximizes the overall bits transmitted per joule of energy. In addition to the transmit power, circuit power is also accounted for in the energy-efficient design, which is tackled using both standard optimization techniques and a frame work based on time-sharing. Simulation results show similar performances for both cases with the latter having lower complexity and taking less CPU time to run. ©2010 IEEE.
Hanzo L, Tafazolli R (2011) QoS-aware routing and admission control in shadow-fading environments for multirate MANETs, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 10 (5) pp. 622-637
Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) BER performance analysis of a cooperative BICM system based on post-BSC model, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC
A Generic Cooperative BICM system is described and an analytical model capturing relay error through a binary symmetric channel (BSC) is presented. The analytical model is called Post-BSC model as the BSC channel is placed after encoder of the relay node. Tight BER upper bound is derived for the presented model and close match between simulation and analysis for the presented model is observed. However it is also observed that the proposed model is optimistic and fails to effectively model the original system at low SNR conditions of the source to relay link. Despite this fact the incorporation of the Post-BSC model based maximum likelihood decoding greatly improves the system BER with respect to the original DF scheme. © 2008 IEEE.
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) Performance evaluation of soft decode-and-forward in fading relay channels, 2008 IEEE 67TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE-SPRING, VOLS 1-7 pp. 1286-1290 IEEE
Most of the existing distributed beamforming algorithms for relay networks require global channel state information (CSI) at relay nodes and the overall computational complexity is high. In this paper, a new class of adaptive algorithms is proposed which can achieve a globally optimum solution by employing only local CSI. A reference signal based (RSB) scheme is first derived, followed by a constant modulus (CM) based scheme when the reference signal is not available. Considering individual power transmission constraint at each relay node, the corresponding constrained adaptive algorithms are also derived as an extension. An analysis of the overhead and stepsize range for the derived algorithms are then provided and the excess mean square error (EMSE) for the RSB case is studied based on the energy reservation method. As demonstrated by our simulation results, a better performance has been achieved by our proposed algorithms and they have a very low computational complexity and can be implemented on low cost and low processing power devices.
Katsaros K, Dianati M, Tafazolli R, Guo X (2016) End-to-End Delay Bound Analysis for Location-Based Routing in Hybrid Vehicular Networks, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY 65 (9) pp. 7462-7475 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Akbari A, Imran MA, Hoshyar R, Amich A, Tafazolli R (2011) Average energy efficiency contours with multiple decoding policies, IEEE Communications Letters 15 (5) pp. 506-508
In this paper, we propose a rate-adaptive bit and power loading approach for the OFDM-based relaying communications. The cooperative relay operates in the half-duplex amplify-and-forward mode. The source and the relay has the separate power constraints. The maximum-ratio combining is employed at -the destination for maximizing the received SNR. Assuming the perfect channel knowledge available at all nodes, the proposed approach is to maximize the throughput (the number of bits/symbol) at the given power constraint and the target link performance. Unlike the water-filling method, the proposed approach does not need the iterative loading process, and can otTer the sub-optimum performance. Computer simulations are used to test the proposed approach for various scenarios with respect to the relay location or the distributed power allocation. © 2008 IEEE.
Conventional cellular systems are dimensioned according to a worst case scenario, and they are designed to ensure ubiquitous coverage with an always-present wireless channel irrespective of the spatial and temporal demand of service. A more energy conscious approach will require an adaptive system with a minimum amount of overhead that is available at all locations and all times but becomes functional only when needed. This approach suggests a new clean slate system architecture with a logical separation between the ability to establish availability of the network and the ability to provide functionality or service. Focusing on the physical layer frame of such an architecture, this paper discusses and formulates the overhead reduction that can be achieved in next generation cellular systems as compared with the Long Term Evolution (LTE). Considering channel estimation as a performance metric whilst conforming to time and frequency constraints of pilots spacing, we show that the overhead gain does not come at the expense of performance degradation.
Ghader M, Olsen RL, Prasad V, Jacobsson M, Sanchez L, Lanza J, Louati W, Girod-Genet M, Zeghlache D, Tafazolli R (2006) Service Discovery in Personal Networks; design, implementation and analysis,
Qi Y, Imran M, Tafazolli R (2010) On the energy aware deployment strategy in cellular systems, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC pp. 363-367
The rapid evolution of telecoms industry is accompanied by a huge increase of energy consumption of mobile networks, which forces the operators to exploit the potential of new techniques to save energy. In this paper, we propose a novel deployment strategy which is able to adapt itself to the spatial variation of the traffic by enhancing the cell radius in the low traffic areas, while the target quality of service (QoS) is still satisfied. Thus, the number of base stations deployed in the low traffic areas is reduced. Since the base station is the most energy-intensive equipment in cellular networks, this reduction naturally leads to significant energy savings for the entire cellular system. ©2010 IEEE.
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) On the Performance of HARQ with Hybrid Relaying Schemes, 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-8 pp. 4357-4362 IEEE
Jaber M, Imran MA, Tafazolli R, Tukmanov A (2016) 5G Backhaul Challenges and Emerging Research Directions: A Survey, IEEE Access 4 pp. 1743-1766
5G is the next cellular generation and is expected to quench the growing thirst for taxing data
rates and to enable the Internet of Things. Focused research and standardization work have been addressing
the corresponding challenges from the radio perspective while employing advanced features, such as network
densi cation, massive multiple-input-multiple-output antennae, coordinated multi-point processing, intercell
interference mitigation techniques, carrier aggregation, and new spectrum exploration. Nevertheless,
a new bottleneck has emerged: the backhaul. The ultra-dense and heavy traf c cells should be connected
to the core network through the backhaul, often with extreme requirements in terms of capacity, latency,
availability, energy, and cost ef ciency. This pioneering survey explains the 5G backhaul paradigm, presents
a critical analysis of legacy, cutting-edge solutions, and new trends in backhauling, and proposes a novel
consolidated 5G backhaul framework. A new joint radio access and backhaul perspective is proposed for the
evaluation of backhaul technologies which reinforces the belief that no single solution can solve the holistic
5G backhaul problem. This paper also reveals hidden advantages and shortcomings of backhaul solutions,
which are not evident when backhaul technologies are inspected as an independent part of the 5G network.
This survey is key in identifying essential catalysts that are believed to jointly pave the way to solving
the beyond-2020 backhauling challenge. Lessons learned, unsolved challenges, and a new consolidated 5G
backhaul vision are thus presented.
Touheed H, Quddus AU, Tafazolli R (2009) Impact of MMSE equalization on adaptive modulation and coding in HSDPA, Proceedings of 6th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology, IBCAST-2009 2 pp. 127-131
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is the front-line technology within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and represents mid term evolution of the standard. This paper presents simple equalizer structures based on Minimum Mean Square Error criterion that are suitable for Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), which is one of the key features of HSDPA. Performance of equalizer structures in AMC has been shown to provide significant gain over Rake receiver, in terms of HSDPA throughput, by enabling the use of higher CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) indices whilst showing stability against changing input signal statistics caused by AMC. LMMSE equalizer has been found to roughly double the HSDPA throughput in a variety of radio channels with relatively small increase in complexity. © 2009 IEEE.
Salami G, Tafazolli R (2009) On the Performance evaluation of spectrum sharing algorithms between two UMTS operators, 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS (ICT) pp. 260-265 IEEE
Energy ef?ciency (EE) is a key enabler for the next generation of communication systems. Equally, resource allocation and cooperative communication are effective tech-niques for improving communication system performance. In this paper, we propose an optimal energy-ef?cient joint resource allocation method for the multi-hop multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) amplify-and-forward (AF) system. We de?ne the joint source and multiple relays optimization problem and prove that its objective function, which is not generally quasiconvex, can be lower-bounded by a convex function. Moreover, all the minima of this objective function are strict minima. Based on these two properties, we then simplify the original multivariate optimization problem into a single variable problem and design a novel approach for optimally solving it in both the unconstraint and power constraint cases. In addition, we provide a sub-optimal approach with reduced complexity; the latter reduces the computational complexity by a factor of up to 40 with near-optimal performance. We ?nally utilize our novel approach for comparing the optimal energy-per-bit consumption of multi-hop MIMO-AF and MIMO systems; results indicate that MIMO-AF can help to save energy when the direct link quality is poor.
This paper proposes a novel graph-based multicell scheduling framework to efficiently mitigate downlink intercell interference in OFDMA-based small cell networks. We define a graph-based optimization framework based on interference condition between any two users in the network assuming they are served on similar resources. Furthermore, we prove that the proposed framework obtains a tight lower bound for conventional weighted sum-rate maximization problem in practical scenarios. Thereafter, we decompose the optimization problem into dynamic graph-partitioning-based subproblems across different subchannels and provide an optimal solution using branch-and-cut approach. Subsequently, due to high complexity of the solution, we propose heuristic algorithms that display near optimal performance. At the final stage, we apply cluster-based resource allocation per subchannel to find candidate users with maximum total weighted sum-rate. A case study on networked small cells is also presented with simulation results showing a significant improvement over the state-of-the-art multicell scheduling benchmarks in terms of outage probability as well as average cell throughput.
Mach T, Tafazolli R (2009) Mass Mobility Signaling Congestion Avoidance Mechanism Using Randomized Time Distribution of Cell Reselections, 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS (ICT) pp. 238-242 IEEE
He Z, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2012) A High Accuracy Mobile Positioning Approach in IEEE 802.11a WLANs, IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences E95-A (10) pp. 1776-1779 IEICE
This paper presents a novel approach for mobile positioning in IEEE 802.11a wireless LANs with acceptable computational complexity. The approach improves the positioning accuracy by utilizing the time and frequency domain channel information obtained from the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, Ni's algorithm and achieve a positioning accuracy of 1 m with a 97% probability in an indoor scenario.
Pilloni V, Navaratnam P, Vural S, Atzori L, Tafazolli R (2013) TAN: a Distributed Algorithm for Dynamic Task Assignment in WSNs, IEEE Sensor Networks
Schott W, Gluhak A, Presser M, Hunkeler U, Tafazolli R (2007) e-SENSE protocol stack architecture for wireless sensor networks, 2007 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 16TH IST MOBILE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-3 pp. 464-468 IEEE
Huy DTP, Rodriguez J, Gameiro A, Tafazolli R (2007) Dynamic resource allocation for beyond 3G cellular networks, WIRELESS PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS 43 (4) pp. 1727-1740 SPRINGER
Hoseinitabatabaei SA, barnaghi P, tafazolli R, wang C Method and apparatus for scalable data discovery in IoT systems,
This patent is based on our novel data discovery mechanism for large scale, highly distributed and heterogeneous data networks. Managing Big Data harvested from IoT environments is an example application
Salami G, Tafazolli R (2009) On the Impact of Varying Bandwidth on the Performance of UMTS Spectrum Sharing Algorithm, CONTEL 2009: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS pp. 319-324 UNIV ZAGREB, FAC ELECT ENGN COMP
Zhang Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) Timing and frequency offset estimation scheme for the uplink of OFDMA systems, IET COMMUNICATIONS 2 (1) pp. 121-130 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET
In this paper, we consider the radio resource allocation problem for uplink OFDMA system. The existing algorithms have been derived under the assumption of Gaussian inputs due to its closed-form expression of mutual information. For the sake of practicality, we consider the system with Finite Symbol Alphabet (FSA) inputs, and solve the problem by capitalizing on the recently revealed relationship between mutual information and Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE). We first relax the problem to formulate it as a convex optimization problem, then we derive the optimal solution via decomposition methods. The optimal solution serves as an upper bound on the system performance. Due to the complexity of the optimal solution, a low-complexity suboptimal algorithm is proposed. Numerical results show that the presented suboptimal algorithm can achieve performance very close to the optimal solution and outperforms the existing suboptimal algorithms. Furthermore, using our proposed algorithm, significant power saving can be achieved in comparison to the case when Gaussian input is assumed.
Qi YA, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) A Novel Quantization Scheme in Compress-and-Forward Relay System, IEEE 69th VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE pp. 1854-1858 IEEE
In this paper, we extend a well-developed quantization scheme to block fading relay system using compress-and-forward and propose a new achievable rate based quantization scheme (ARBQS). A new signal combination scheme with less complexity is also proposed accordingly. Based on the scalar quantizer obtained, vector quantizer with Trellis coded quantization (TCQ) scheme is provided. While many quantization schemes have concentrated on minimization of quantization distortion, our simulations results indicate that the new scheme achieves better performance in both AWGN case and block fading case without distortion minimization and achieve higher compression efficiency and reduced complexity simultaneously.
Ghader M, Prasad N, Olsen RL, Mirzadeh S, Tafazolli R (2004) Secure Resource and Service Discovery in Personal Networks Wireless,
Akbari A, Heliot F, Imran MA, Tafazolli R (2012) Energy Efficiency Contours for Broadcast Channels Using Realistic Power Models, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 11 (11) pp. 4017-4025 IEEE
Energy savings are becoming a global trend, hence the importance of energy efficiency (EE) as an alternative performance evaluation metric. This paper proposes an EE based resource allocation method for the broadcast channel (BC), where a linear power model is used to characterize the power consumed at the base station (BS). Having formulated our EE based optimization problem and objective function, we utilize standard convex optimization techniques to show the concavity of the latter, and thus, the existence of a unique globally optimal energy-efficient rate and power allocation. Our EE based resource allocation framework is also extended to incorporate fairness, and provide a minimum user satisfaction in terms of spectral efficiency (SE). We then derive the generic equation of the EE contours and use them to get insights about the EE-SE trade-off over the BC. The performances of the aforementioned resource allocation schemes are compared for different metrics against the number of users and cell radius. Results indicate that the highest EE improvement is achieved by using the unconstrained optimization scheme, which is obtained by significantly reducing the total transmit power. Moreover, the network EE is shown to increase with the number of users and decrease as the cell radius increases. © 2012 IEEE.
Bennis M, Wijting C, Abedi S, Thilakawardana S, Tafazolli R (2009) Performance evaluation of advanced spectrum functionalities for future radio networks, WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS & MOBILE COMPUTING 9 (11) pp. 1532-1542 JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Hanzo L, Tafazolli R (2008) Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions for Providing Quality of Service Assurances, In: Kyriazakos S, Soldatos I, Karetsos G (eds.), 4g Mobile and Wireless Communications Technologies River Publishers
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions for Providing Quality of
Service Assurances Lajos Hanzo (II.)1 and Rahim Tafazolli University of Surrey,
In this paper, the efficiencies of different interference coordination schemes are evaluated for emerging wireless networks and the possible impact on intra-cell scheduling is studied through extensive simulations. The results show that pure fractional frequency reuse can provide similar improvement in the cell-edge throughput compared to power coordinated counterpart at a less cost in terms of overall throughput. Moreover, it can provide fairer distribution of throughput in both central as well as cell-edge areas. However, this scheme can not mange asymmetrical changes in the distribution of users across different cells in the entire system. As a result, a power coordination mechanism would be still necessary on top of such flexible frequency reuse schemes. © 2008 IEEE.
Salami GK, Tafazolli R (2009) A framework for UMTS inter-operator spectrum sharing in the UMTS extension band, 9th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology pp. 193-198 IEEE
This paper proposes a framework for spectrum sharing between multiple Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) operators in the UMTS extension band. An algorithm is proposed, and the performance of the algorithm is investigated under uniform and non-uniform traffic conditions. The impact of call setup messages on the overall performance of the algorithm show that DSA gains in the region of 7% and 2% can be obtained under uniform and non-uniform traffic conditions.
In this paper we extend the analysis of two-receiver broadcast channels with random parameters to the three-receivers case. Specifically we base our work on Nair and El Gamal's results for the three-receiver discrete memoryless multilevel broadcast channel and assume that state information is available non-causally at the transmitter. We provide an achievable rate region for this setting and acknowledge its importance in the study of multiuser cognitive radio configurations.
Yi N, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2011) Incremental Decode-Forward Relaying over Asymmetric Fading Channels: Outage Probability and Location-Aided Relay Selection, pp. 181-184
This paper presents two contributions towards incremental decode-forward relaying over asymmetric fading channels. One is about the outage probability of incremental relay network accommodating i.n.d. cooperative paths. Our contribution is mainly on formulating a closed-form of the outage probability through employment of the Inverse Laplace Transform and Eular Summation. The other is about the proposal of transmit-power efficient relay-selection strategy through exploitation of the relationship between position of relays and the outage probability.
Grandblaise D, Moessner K, Vivier G, Tafazolli R (2006) Rental protocol for automated spectrum sharing negotiation between base stations, FREQUENZ 60 (9-10) pp. 162-166 FACHVERLAG SCHIELE SCHON
Quddus AU, Evans BG, Tafazolli R (2009) Blind adaptive multiuser detection for code division multiple access using Cimmino's reflection method, Proceedings of 6th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology, IBCAST-2009 2 pp. 118-120
This paper investigates adaptive implementation of the linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector in code division multiple access (CDMA). From linear algebra, Cimmino's reflection method is proposed as a possible way of achieving the MMSE solution blindly. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method converges four times faster than the blind least mean squares (LMS) algorithm and has roughly the same convergence performance as the blind recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Moreover the proposed algorithm is numerically more stable than the RLS algorithm and also exhibits parallelism for pipelined implementation. © 2009 IEEE.
Thilakawardana D, Moessner K, Tafazolli R (2008) Darwinian approach for dynamic spectrum allocation in next generation systems, IET COMMUNICATIONS 2 (6) pp. 827-836 INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET
Yi N, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2010) Underlay Cognitive Radio with Full or Partial Channel Quality Information, International Journal of Navigation and Observation 2010 105723
Georgiades M, Akhtar N, Politis C, Tafazolli R (2007) Enhancing mobility management protocols to minimise AAA impact on handoff performance, COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS 30 (3) pp. 608-618 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2010) The error-resilient compression of correlated binary sources and EXIT chart based performance evaluation, Proceedings of the 2010 7th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, ISWCS'10 pp. 741-745
Abangar H, Ghader M, Gluhak A, Tafazolli R (2010) Improving the Performance of Web Services in Wireless Sensor Networks,
Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2008) Achievable full decode and forward rates for cooperative MIMO BICM systems, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications IEEE
A generic cooperative MIMO BICM system is described. Achievable rates are computed based on the extended equivalent binary input channel model of the original BICM system. Full decode and forward is assumed at the relay node. Two types of two-phased transmission/reception protocols are employed to establish orthogonal transmission/reception of the relay node. The achievable rate results are provided for different combinations of modulation orders and the number of antennas used at the source and relay nodes. Quantitative results provided in this paper could serve as a guide on when to engage cooperative transmission and how to choose proper constellations and puncturing ratios for the practical BICM coded systems. Comparison of the considered BICM system with other possible cooperative coded systems is also crucial that this paper due to lack of space for exposition misses to address.
Imran A, Tafazolli R (2009) Evaluation and Comparison of Capacities and Costs of Multihop Cellular Networks, 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS (ICT) pp. 160-165 IEEE
Rodriguez J, Marques P, Radwan A, Moessner K, Tafazolli R, Raspopoulos M, Stavrou S, Trapps P, Noquet D, Sithamparanathan K, Gomes A, Piesiewicz R, Mokrani H, Foglar A, Verikoukis C (2010) Cognitive radio and cooperative strategies for power saving in multi-standard wireless devices, 2010 Future Network and Mobile Summit
Energy is a critical resource in the design of wireless networks since wireless devices are usually powered by batteries. Without any new approaches for energy saving, 4G mobile users will relentlessly be searching for power outlets rather than network access, and becoming once again bound to a single location. To avoid the so called 4G "energy trap" and to help wireless devices become more environment friendly, there is a clear need for disruptive strategies to address all aspects of power efficiency from the user devices through to the core infrastructure of the network and how these devices and equipment interact with each other. The ICT-C2POWER project is the vehicle that will address these issues through cognitive techniques and cooperation. The C2POWER case study is to research, develop and demonstrate energy saving technologies for multi-standard wireless mobile devices, exploiting the combination of cognitive radio and cooperative strategies, while still enabling the required performance in terms of data rate and QoS to support active applications. Copyright © 2010 The authors.
He Z, Ma Y, Tafazolli R, Liu H (2010) An oversampling approach for LoS-ToA estimation in interleaved OFDMA, IWCMC 2010 - Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference pp. 580-584
Line-of-sight (LoS) time-of-arrival (ToA) is one of key parameters for network-based localization techniques. Its estimation accuracy depends on the bandwidth of transmitted signals. This paper aims to investigate the LoS-ToA estimation for an interleaved OFDMA based network, where the signal bandwidth is not sufficiently wide to offer the acceptable estimation accuracy. In this situation, an oversampling approach is proposed to improve the resolution. Moreover, the proposed scheme does not require modification of mobile communications systems. It is found that the proposed approach can significantly improve the ToA estimationperformance, and offer adequate accuracy even for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) range. Copyright 2010 ACM.
Hanzo L, Tafazolli R (2007) Throughput assurances through admission control for multi-hop MANETs, 2007 IEEE 18TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-9 pp. 1945-1949 IEEE
The log-normal probability distribution is commonly used in wireless communications to model the shadowing and, more recently, the small-scale fading for indoor ultra-wide-band communications. In this paper, an accurate closed-form approximation of the ergodic capacity over log-normal fading channels is derived. This expression can be easily used to evaluate and compare the ergodic capacity of communication systems operating over log-normal fading channels. © 2008 IEEE.
Zhang Y, Ma Y, Tafazolli R (2010) Power Allocation for Bidirectional AF Relaying over Rayleigh Fading Channels, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS 14 (2) pp. 145-147 IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Ghader M, Tafazolli R (2009) Efficient Employment of Service Location Protocol in Multi-cluster Networks,
Imran M, Mohamed A, Tafazolli R (2014) Splitting the data and control functionality: Scalable deployment solution for 5G cellular networks, Proceedings of International Wireless Industry Consortium (IWPC) Workshop 2014 IWPC - The International Wireless Industry Consortium
Energy consumption has become an increasingly important aspect of wireless communications, from both an economical and environmental point of view. New enhancements are being placed on mobile networks to reduce the power consumption of both mobile terminals and base stations. This paper studies the achievable rate region of AWGN broadcast channels under Time-division, Frequency-division and Superposition coding, and locates the optimal energy-efficient rate-pair according to a comparison metric based on the average energy efficiency of the system. In addition to the transmit power, circuit power and signalling power are also incorporated in the energy efficiency function, with simulation results verifying that the Superposition coding scheme achieves the highest energy efficiency in an ideal, but non-realistic scenario, where the signalling power is zero. With moderate signalling power, the Frequency-division scheme is the most energy-efficient, with Superposition coding and Time-division becoming second and third best. Conversely, when the signalling power is high, both Time-division and Frequency-division schemes outperform Superposition coding. On the other hand, the Superposition coding scheme also incorporates rate-fairness into the system, which allows both users to transmit whilst maximising the energy efficiency.
Georgiades M, Dagiuklas T, Tafazolli R (2006) Middlebox context transfer for multimedia session support in all-IP networks, IWCMC 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference 2006 pp. 389-394
This paper describes a mechanism of forwarding secure state information associated to communication sessions, between middleboxes belonging to different Radio Access Networks (RANs). The transfer of state information among RANs could support service integrity and continuity by maintaining a mobile user's multimedia sessions which may otherwise be dropped and also minimize security vulnerabilities. The paper demonstrates how the context transfer protocol could be employed for this purpose to forward certain security information from the old to the new middlebox to support multimedia session maintenance during mobility and also at the same time notify the previous middlebox to close unnecessary open ports for improved security and resolve vulnerability. A number of test scenarios are used to demonstrate how middleboxes could intervene with multimedia sessions during mobility and show how context transfer can provide a solution for improving the performance in the multimedia session re-establishment as well as enhancing middlebox security. Copyright 2006 ACM.
Pilloni V, Navaratnam P, Vural S, Atzori L, Tafazolli R (2013) Cooperative Task Assignment for Distributed Deployment of Applications in WSNs,
This paper provides an efficient key management scheme for large scale personal networks (PN) and introduces the Certified PN Formation Protocol (CPFP) based on a personal public key infrastructure (personal PKI) concept and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) techniques. © 2008 IEEE.
Navaratnam P, Cruickshank H, Tafazolli R (2008) A link adaptive transport protocol for multimedia streaming applications in multi hop wireless networks, MOBILE NETWORKS & APPLICATIONS 13 (3-4) pp. 246-258 SPRINGER
Qi Y, Hoshyar R, Tafazolli R (2009) Efficient ARQ Protocol for Hybrid Relay Schemes with Limited Feedback, 2009 IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5 pp. 1849-1853 IEEE
Prammanee S, Moessner K, Tafazolli R (2006) Discovering modalities for adaptive multimodal interfaces, Interactions 13 (3) pp. 66-70
A scheme for discovering modalities for adaptive multimodal interfaces, is discussed. One of the features of miultimodal applications is to provide the possibility of interfacing through different interface devices. This means that the user should be able to interact through any modality available, even if the environment is mobile. Making user interfaces adaptable extends the user friendliness and usability of mobile terminals and applications. A three party model for multimodal interface discovery is suggested for extending the functionality of the discovery mechanisms. The interface and modality description are based on a script for private as well as public interface devices.
Widiawan AK, Tafazolli R (2007) High altitude platform station (HAPS): A review of new infrastructure development for future wireless communications, WIRELESS PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS 42 (3) pp. 387-404 SPRINGER
Hanzo L, Tafazolli R (2007) Quality of Service routing and admission control for mobile ad-hoc networks with a contention-based MAC layer, 2006 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, Vols 1 and 2 pp. 451-454 IEEE
Guo T, Wang N, Tafazolli R, Moessner K (2010) Policy-Aware Virtual relay placement for inter-domain path diversity, Proc. IEEE Symp. Computers and Communications (ISCC) pp. 38-43
Onireti OS, Imran A, Imran M, Tafazolli R (2016) Impact of Positioning Error on Achievable Spectral Efficiency in Database-aided Networks,
Database-aided user association, where users are associated with data base stations (BSs) based on a database which stores their geographical location with signal-to-noise-ratio tagging, will play a vital role in the futuristic cellular architecture with separated control and data planes. However, such approach can lead to inaccurate user-data BS association, as a result of the inaccuracies in the positioning technique, thus leading to sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we investigate the impact of database-aided user association approach on the average spectral efficiency (ASE). We model the data plane base stations using its fluid model equivalent and derive the ASE for the channel model with pathloss only and when shadowing is incorporated. Our results show that the ASE in database-aided networks degrades as the accuracy of the user positioning technique decreases. Hence, system specifications for database-aided networks must take account of inaccuracies in positioning techniques.
The current Web and data indexing and search mechanisms are mainly tailored to process text-based data and are limited in addressing the intrinsic characteristics of distributed, large-scale and dynamic Internet of Things (IoT) data networks. The IoT demands novel indexing solutions for large-scale data to create an ecosystem of system; however, IoT data are often numerical, multi-modal and heterogeneous. We propose a distributed and adaptable mechanism that allows indexing and discovery of real-world data in IoT networks. Comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches, our model does not require any prior knowledge about the data or their distributions. We address the problem of distributed, efficient indexing and discovery for voluminous IoT data by applying an unsupervised machine learning algorithm. The proposed solution aggregates and distributes the indexes in hierarchical networks. We have evaluated our distributed solution on a large-scale dataset, and the results show that our proposed indexing scheme is able to efficiently index and enable discovery of the IoT data with 71% to 92% better response time than a centralised approach.
Recent advancements in sensing, networking technologies
and collecting real-world data on a large scale and from various environments
have created an opportunity for new forms of real-world services
and applications. This is known under the umbrella term of the Internet
of Things (IoT). Physical sensor devices constantly produce very large
amounts of data. Methods are needed which give the raw sensor measurements
a meaningful interpretation for building automated decision
support systems. To extract actionable information from real-world data,
we propose a method that uncovers hidden structures and relations
between multiple IoT data streams. Our novel solution uses Latent
Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), a topic extraction method that is generally
used in text analysis. We apply LDA on meaningful abstractions that
describe the numerical data in human understandable terms. We use
Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) to convert the raw data into
string-based patterns and create higher level abstractions based on
We finally investigate how heterogeneous sensory data from multiple
sources can be processed and analysed to create near real-time intelligence
and how our proposed method provides an efficient way to
interpret patterns in the data streams. The proposed method uncovers
the correlations and associations between different pattern in IoT data
streams. The evaluation results show that the proposed solution is able
to identify the correlation with high efficiency with an F-measure up to
Doubly differential modem turns out to be a promising
technology for coping with unknown frequency offsets with
the pay of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we propose to compensate the SNR loss by employing the detection-forward cooperative relay. The receiver can employ two kind of combiners to attain the achievable spatial diversity-gain. Performance analysis is carefully investigated for the Rayleigh-fading channel. It is
shown that the SNR-compensation is satisfied for the large-SNR range.
Network slicing has been identified as one of the
most important features for 5G and beyond to enable operators
to utilize networks on an as-a-service basis and meet the wide
range of use cases. In physical layer, the frequency and time
resources are split into slices to cater for the services with
individual optimal designs, resulting in services/slices having
different baseband numerologies (e.g., subcarrier spacing) and
/ or radio frequency (RF) front-end configurations. In such a
system, the multi-service signal multiplexing and isolation among
the service/slices are critical for the Physical-Layer Network
Slicing (PNS) since orthogonality is destroyed and significant
inter-service/ slice-band-interference (ISBI) may be generated.
In this paper, we first categorize four PNS cases according to the
baseband and RF configurations among the slices. The system
model is established by considering a low out of band emission
(OoBE) waveform operating in the service/slice frequency band to
mitigate the ISBI. The desired signal and interference for the two
slices are derived. Consequently, one-tap channel equalization
algorithms are proposed based on the derived model. The
developed system models establish a framework for further
interference analysis, ISBI cancelation algorithms, system design
and parameter selection (e.g., guard band), to enable spectrum
efficient network slicing.
In this letter, we analyse the trade-off between collision probability and code-ambiguity, when devices transmit a sequence of preambles as a codeword, instead of a single preamble, to reduce collision probability during random access to a mobile network. We point out that the network may not have sufficient resources to allocate to every possible codeword, and if it does, then this results in low utilisation of allocated uplink resources. We derive the optimal preamble set size that maximises the probability of success in a single attempt, for a given number of devices and uplink resources.
A statistical model is derived for the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio of the Source-to-Relay-to-Destination (S-R-D) link for Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relaying systems that are subject to block Rayleigh-fading. The probability density function and the cumulated density function of the S-R-D link SNR involve modified Bessel functions of the second kind. Using fractional-calculus mathematics, a novel approach is introduced to rewrite those Bessel functions (and the statistical model of the S-R-D link SNR) in series form using simple elementary functions. Moreover, a statistical characterization of the total receive-SNR at the destination, corresponding to the S-R-D and the S-D link SNR, is provided for a more general relaying scenario in which the destination receives signals from both the relay and the source and processes them using maximum ratio combining (MRC). Using the novel statistical model for the total receive SNR at the destination, accurate and simple analytical expressions for the outage probability, the bit error probability, and the ergodic capacity are obtained. The analytical results presented in this paper provide a theoretical framework to analyze the performance of the AF cooperative systems with an MRC receiver.
In this paper, using stochastic geometry, we investigate the average energy efficiency (AEE) of the user terminal (UT) in the uplink of a two-tier heterogeneous network (HetNet), where the two tiers are operated on separate carrier frequencies. In such a deployment, a typical UT must periodically perform inter-frequency small cell discovery (ISCD) process in order to discover small cells in its neighborhood and benefit from the high data rate and traffic offloading opportunity that small cells present. We assume that the base stations (BSs) of each tier and UTs are randomly located and we derive the average ergodic rate and UT power consumption, which are later used for our AEE evaluation. The AEE incorporates the percentage of time a typical UT missed small cell offloading opportunity as a result of the periodicity of the ISCD process. In addition to this, the additional power consumed by the UT due to the ISCD measurement is also included. Moreover, we derive the optimal ISCD periodicity based on the UT?s average energy consumption (AEC) and AEE. Our results reveal that ISCD periodicity must be selected with the objective of either minimizing UT?s AEC or maximizing UT?s AEE.
The mutual information (MI) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system over Rayleigh fading channel is known to asymptotically follow a normal probability distribution. In this paper, we first prove that the MI of distributed MIMO (DMIMO) system is also asymptotically equivalent to a Gaussian random variable (RV) by deriving its moment generating function (MGF) and by showing its equivalence with the MGF of a Gaussian RV. We then derive an accurate closed-form approximation of the outage probability for DMIMO system by using the mean and variance of the MI and show the uniqueness of its formulation. Finally, several applications for our analysis are presented.
Multi-user (MU) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) is one of the promising technologies for the 5th Generation of wireless communication systems. However, as an emerging technology, various technical challenges that hinder practical use of massive MIMO need to be addressed, e.g., imperfections on channel estimation and channel reciprocity. The overall objective of the proposed research is to investigate some of the key practical challenges of implementation of the massive MIMO system and propose effective solutions for those problems.
First, in order to realise promised benefits of massive MIMO, there is a need for a highly accurate technique for provisioning of channel state information (CSI). However, the acquisition of CSI can be considerably influenced by imperfect channel estimation in practice. We therefore analyse the impact of channel estimation error on the performance of massive MIMO uplinks with the considerations of the channel correlation over space. We then propose a novel antenna selection scheme by exploiting the sparsity of the channel gain matrix at the received end, which significantly reduces implementation overhead and complexity compared to the well-adopted scheme, without degrading the system performance.
Second, it is known that channel reciprocity in time-division duplexing (TDD) massive MIMO systems can be exploited to reduce the overhead required for the acquisition of CSI. However, perfect reciprocity is unrealistic in practical systems due to random radio-frequency (RF) circuit mismatches in uplink and downlink channels. We model and analyse the impact of the RF mismatches by taking into account the channel estimation error. We derive closed-form expressions of the output signal-to-interference-plus- noise ratio for typical linear precoding schemes, and further investigate the asymptotic performance of the considered precoding schemes to provide insights into the practical system designs, including guidelines for the selection of the effective precoding schemes.
Third, our theoretical model for analysing the effect of channel reciprocity error on massive MIMO systems reveals that the imperfections in channel reciprocity might become a performance limiting factor. In order to compensate for these imperfections, we present and investigate two calibration schemes for TDD-based MU massive MIMO systems, namely, relative calibration and inverse calibration. In particular, the design of the proposed inverse calibration takes into account a compound effect of channel reciprocity error and channel estimation error. To compare two calibration schemes, we derive closed-form expressions for the ergodic sum-rate and the receive mean-square error for downlinks. We demonstrate that the proposed inverse calibration outperforms the relative calibration, thanks to its greater robustness to the compound effect of both errors.
This letter proposes a novel graph-based multi-cell scheduling framework to efficiently mitigate downlink inter-cell interference in small cell OFDMA networks. This framework incorporates dynamic clustering combined with channel-aware resource allocation to provide tunable quality of service measures at different levels. Our extensive evaluation study shows that a significant improvement in user's spectral efficiency is achievable, while also maintaining relatively high cell spectral efficiency via empirical tuning of re-use factor across the cells according to the required QoS constraints.
this paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The Quantum Load Balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load-balancing properties of the proposed theory.
In this paper, we investigate the optimal inter- frequency small cell discovery (ISCD) periodicity for small cells deployed on carrier frequency other than that of the serving macro cell. We consider that the small cells and user terminals (UTs) positions are modeled according to a homogeneous Poisson Point Process (PPP). We utilize polynomial curve fitting to approximate the percentage of time the typical UT misses small cell offloading opportunity, for a fixed small cell density and fixed UT speed. We then derive analytically, the optimal ISCD periodicity that minimizes the average UT energy consumption (EC). Furthermore, we also derive the optimal ISCD periodicity that maximizes the average energy efficiency (EE), i.e. bit- per-joule capacity. Results show that the EC optimal ISCD periodicity always exceeds the EE optimal ISCD periodicity, with the exception of when the average ergodic rate in both tiers are equal, in which the optimal ISCD periodicity in both cases also becomes equal.
Flexibly supporting multiple services, each with
different communication requirements and frame structure, has
been identified as one of the most significant and promising
characteristics of next generation and beyond wireless communication
systems. However, integrating multiple frame structures
with different subcarrier spacing in one radio carrier may
result in significant inter-service-band-interference (ISBI). In this
paper, a framework for multi-service (MS) systems is established
based on subband filtered multi-carrier system. The subband
filtering implementations and both asynchronous and generalized
synchronous (GS) MS subband filtered multi-carrier (SFMC)
systems have been proposed. Based on the GS-MS-SFMC system,
the system model with ISBI is derived and a number of properties
on ISBI are given. In addition, low-complexity ISBI cancelation
algorithms are proposed by precoding the information symbols
at the transmitter. For asynchronous MS-SFMC system in the
presence of transceiver imperfections including carrier frequency
offset, timing offset and phase noise, a complete analytical
system model is established in terms of desired signal, intersymbol-interference,
inter-carrier-interference, ISBI and noise.
Thereafter, new channel equalization algorithms are proposed
by considering the errors and imperfections. Numerical analysis
shows that the analytical results match the simulation results,
and the proposed ISBI cancelation and equalization algorithms
can significantly improve the system performance in comparison
with the existing algorithms.
Frequent handovers (HOs) in dense small cell deployment scenarios could lead to a dramatic increase in signalling overhead. This suggests a paradigm shift towards a signalling conscious cellular architecture with intelligent mobility management. In this direction, a futuristic radio access network with a logical separation between control and data planes has been proposed in research community. It aims to overcome limitations of the conventional architecture by providing high data rate services under the umbrella of a coverage layer in a dual connection mode. This approach enables signalling efficient HO procedures, since the control plane remains unchanged when the users move within the footprint of the same umbrella. Considering this configuration, we propose a core-network efficient radio resource control (RRC) signalling scheme for active state HO and develop an analytical framework to evaluate its signalling load as a function of network density, user mobility and session characteristics. In addition, we propose an intelligent HO prediction scheme with advance resource preparation in order to minimise the HO signalling latency. Numerical and simulation results show promising gains in terms of reduction in HO latency and signalling load as compared with conventional approaches.
With the recent development of Device-toDevice (D2D) communication technologies, mobile devices will no longer be treated as pure ?terminals?, but they could become an integral part of the network in specific application scenarios. In this paper, we introduce a novel scheme of using D2D communications for enabling data relay services in partial Not-Spots, where a client without local network access may require data relay by other devices. Depending on specific social application scenarios that can leverage on the D2D technology, we consider tailored algorithms in order to achieve optimised data relay service performance on top of our proposed networkcoordinated communication framework. The approach is to exploit the network?s knowledge on its local user mobility patterns in order to identify best helper devices participating in data relay operations. This framework also comes with our proposed helper selection optimization algorithm based on reactive predictability of individual user. According to our simulation analysis based on both theoretical mobility models and real human mobility data traces, the proposed scheme is able to flexibly support different service requirements in specific social application scenarios.
Decentralized dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) that exploit adaptive antenna array interference mitigation (IM) diversity at the receiver, is studied for interference-limited environments with high level of frequency reuse. The system consists of base stations (BSs) that can optimize uplink frequency allocation to their user equipments (UEs) to minimize impact of interference on the useful signal, assuming no control over band allocation of other BSs sharing the same bands. To this end, ?good neighbor? (GN) rules allow effective trade off between the equilibrium and transient decentralized DSA behavior if the performance targets are adequate to the interference scenario. In this paper, we extend the GN rules by including a spectrum occupation control that allows adaptive selection of the performance targets corresponding to the potentially ?interference free? DSA; define the semi-analytic absorbing Markov chain model for the GN DSA with occupation control and study the convergence properties including effects of possible breaks of the GN rules; and for higher-dimension networks, develop the simplified search GN algorithms with occupation and power control (PC) and demonstrate their efficiency by means of simulations in the scenario with unlimited requested network occupation.
It has been claimed that the filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) systems suffer from negligible performance loss caused by moderate dispersive channels in the absence of guard time protection between symbols. However, a theoretical and systematic explanation/analysis for the statement is missing in the literature to date. In this paper, based on one-tap minimum mean square error (MMSE) and zero-forcing (ZF) channel equalizations, the impact of doubly dispersive channel on the performance of FBMC systems is analyzed in terms of mean square error (MSE) of received symbols. Based on this analytical framework, we prove that the circular convolution property between symbols and the corresponding channel coefficients in the frequency domain holds loosely with a set of inaccuracies. To facilitate analysis, we first model the FBMC system in a vector/matrix form and derive the estimated symbols as a sum of desired signal, noise, inter-symbol interference (ISI), inter-carrier interference (ICI), inter-block interference (IBI) and estimation bias in the MMSE equalizer. Those terms are derived one-by-one and expressed as a function of channel parameters. The numerical results reveal that in harsh channel conditions, e.g., with large Doppler spread or channel delay spread, the FBMC system performance may be severely deteriorated and error floor will occur.
This paper investigates a full duplex wirelesspowered two way communication networks, where two hybrid access points (HAP) and a number of amplify and forward (AF) relays both operate in full duplex scenario. We use time switching (TS) and static power splitting (SPS) schemes with two way full duplex wireless-powered networks as a benchmark. Then the new time division duplexing static power splitting (TDD SPS) and full duplex static power splitting (FDSPS) schemes as well as a simple relay selection strategy are proposed to improve the system performance. For TS, SPS and FDSPS, the best relay harvests energy using the received RF signal from HAPs and uses harvested energy to transmit signal to each HAP at the same frequency and time, therefore only partial self-interference (SI) cancellation needs to be considered in the FDSPS case. For the proposed TDD SPS, the best relay harvests the energy from the HAP and its self-interference. Then we derive closed-form expressions for the throughput and outage probability for delay limited transmissions over Rayleigh fading channels. Simulation results are presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme with different system key parameters, such as time allocation, power splitting ratio and residual SI.
Due to dynamic wireless network conditions and heterogeneous mobile web content complexities, web-based content services in mobile network environments always suffer from long loading time. The new HTTP/2.0 protocol only adopts one single TCP connection, but recent research reveals that in real mobile environments, web downloading using single connection will experience long idle time and low bandwidth utilization, in particular with dynamic network conditions and web page characteristics. In this paper, by leveraging the Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) technique, we present the framework of Mobile Edge Hint (MEH), in order to enhance mobile web downloading performances. Specifically, the mobile edge collects and caches the meta-data of frequently visited web pages and also keeps monitoring the network conditions. Upon receiving requests on these popular webpages, the MEC server is able to hint back to the HTTP/2.0 clients on the optimized number of TCP connections that should be established for downloading the content. From the test results on real LTE testbed equipped with MEH, we observed up to 34.5% time reduction and in the median case the improvement is 20.5% compared to the plain over-the-top (OTT) HTTP/2.0 protocol.
In this paper, a novel low-complexity and spectrally efficient modulation scheme for visible light communication (VLC) is proposed. Our new spatial quadrature modulation (SQM) is designed to efficiently adapt traditional complex modulation schemes to VLC; i.e. converting multi-level quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM), to real-unipolar symbols, making it suitable for transmission over light intensity. The proposed SQM relies on the spatial domain to convey the orthogonality and polarity of the complex signals, rather than mapping bits to symbol as in existing spatial modulation (SM) schemes. The detailed symbol error analysis of SQM is derived and the derivation is validated with link level simulation results. Using simulation and derived results, we also provide a performance comparison between the proposed SQM and SM. Simulation results demonstrate that SQM could achieve a better symbol error rate (SER) and/or data rate performance compared to the state of the art in SM; for instance a Eb/No gain of at least 5 dB at a SER of 10 4.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a new enabler for collecting real-world observation and measurement data from the physical world. The IoT allows objects with sensing and network capabilities (i.e. Things and devices) to communicate with one another and with other resources (e.g. services) on the digital world. The heterogeneity, dynamicity and ad-hoc nature of underlying data, and services published by most of IoT resources make accessing and processing the data and services a challenging task. The IoT demands distributed, scalable, and efficient indexing solutions for large-scale distributed IoT networks. We describe a novel distributed indexing approach for IoT resources and their published data. The index structure is constructed by encoding the locations of IoT resources into geohashes and then building a quadtree on the minimum bounding box of the geohash representations. This allows to aggregate resources with similar geohashes and reduce the size of the index. We have evaluated our proposed solution on a large-scale dataset and our results show that the proposed approach can efficiently index and enable discovery of the IoT resources with 65% better response time than a centralised approach and with a high success rate (around 90% in the first few attempts).
Femtocell is becoming a promising solution to face the explosive growth of mobile broadband usage in cellular networks. While each femtocell only covers a small area, a massive deployment is expected in the near future forming networked femtocells. An immediate challenge is to provide seamless mobility support for networked femtocells with minimal support from mobile core networks. In this
paper, we propose efficient local mobility management schemes for networked femtocells based on X2 traffic forwarding under the 3GPP Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) framework. Instead of implementing the path switch operation at core network entity for each handover, a local traffic forwarding chain is constructed to use the existing Internet backhaul and the local path between the local
anchor femtocell and the target femtocell for ongoing session communications. Both analytical studies and simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed schemes and compare them with the original 3GPP scheme. The results indicate that the proposed schemes can significantly reduce the signaling cost and relieve the processing burden of mobile core networks with the reasonable distributed cost for local traffic forwarding. In addition, the proposed schemes can enable fast session recovery to adapt to the self-deployment nature of the femtocells.
Network scenarios beyond 3G assume the cooperation of operators with wireless access networks of different technologies in order to improve scalability and provide enhanced services to their mobile customers. While the selection of an optimised delivery path in such scenarios with multiple access networks is already a challenging task for unicast delivery, the problem becomes more severe for multicast services, where a potentially large group of heterogeneous receivers has to be served simultaneously via shared resources. In this paper we study the problem of selecting the optimal bearer paths for multicast services with groups of heterogeneous receivers in wireless networks with overlapping coverage. We propose an algorithm for bearer selection with different optimisation goals, demonstrating the existing tradeoff between user preference and resource efficiency.
Network performance optimization is among the most important tasks within the area of wireless communication networks. In a Self- Organizing Network (SON) with the capability of adaptively changing parameters of a network, the optimization tasks are more feasible than static networks. Yet, with an increase of OPEX and CAPEX in new generation telecommunication networks, the optimization tasks are inevitable. In this paper, it is proven that the similarity among target and network parameters can produce lower Uncertainty Entropy (UEN) in a self-organizing system as a higher degree of organizing is gained. The optimization task is carried out with the Adaptive Simulated Annealing method, which is enhanced with a Similarity Measure (SM) in the proposed approach (EASA). The Markov model of EASA is provided to assess the proposed approach. We also show a higher performance through a simulation, based on a scenario in LTE network.
Novel low-density signature (LDS) structure is proposed for transmission and detection of symbol-synchronous communication over memoryless Gaussian channel. Given N as the processing gain, under this new arrangement, users' symbols are spread over N chips but virtually only d(v) < N chips that contain nonzero-values. The spread symbol is then so uniquely interleaved as the sampled, at chip rate, received signal contains the contribution from only d(c) < K number of users, where K denotes the total number of users in the system. Furthermore, a near-optimum chip-level iterative soft-in-soft-out (SISO) multiuser decoding (MUD), which is based on message passing algorithm (MPA) technique, is proposed to approximate optimum detection by efficiently exploiting the LDS structure. Given beta = K/N as the system loading, our simulation suggested that the proposed system alongside the proposed detection technique, in AWGN channel, can achieve an overall performance that is close to single-user performance, even when the system has 200% loading, i.e., when beta = 2. Its robustness against near-far effect and its performance behavior that is very similar to optimum detection are demonstrated in this paper. In addition, the complexity required for detection is now exponential to d(c) instead of K as in conventional code division multiple access (CDMA) structure employing optimum multiuser detector.
A novel approach for implementation of opportunistic scheduling without explicit feedback channels is proposed in this paper, which exploits the existing, ARQ signals instead of feedback channels to reduce the complexity of implementation. Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in harvesting multiuser diversity gain. The proposed approach enables implementation of opportunistic scheduling, in a variety of wireless networks, such as the IEEE 802.11, without feedback facilities for collecting partial channel state information from users.
Along with spectral efficiency (SE), energy efficiency (EE) is becoming one of the key performance evaluation criteria for communication system. These two criteria, which are conflicting, can be linked through their trade-off. The EE-SE trade-off for the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channel has been accurately approximated in the past but only in the low-SE regime. In this paper, we propose a novel and more generic closed-form approximation of this trade-off which exhibits a greater accuracy for a wider range of SE values and antenna configurations. Our expression has been here utilized for assessing analytically the EE gain of MIMO over single-input single-output (SISO) system for two different types of power consumption models (PCMs): the theoretical PCM, where only the transmit power is considered as consumed power; and a more realistic PCM accounting for the fixed consumed power and amplifier inefficiency. Our analysis unfolds the large mismatch between theoretical and practical MIMO vs. SISO EE gains; the EE gain increases both with the SE and the number of antennas in theory, which indicates that MIMO is a promising EE enabler; whereas it remains small and decreases with the number of transmit antennas when a realistic PCM is considered. © 2012 IEEE.
Motivated by increased interests in energy efficient
communication systems, the relation between energy efficiency
(EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) for multiple-input multipleoutput
(MIMO) systems is investigated in this paper. To provide
insight into the design of practical MIMO systems, we adopt
a realistic power model, as well as consider both independent
Rayleigh fading and semicorrelated fading channels. We derive
a novel and closed-form upper bound for the system EE as a
function of SE. This upper bound exhibits a great accuracy
for a wide range of SE values, and thus can be utilized for
explicitly assessing the influence of SE on EE, and analytically
addressing the EE optimization problems. Using this tight EE
upper bound, our analysis unfolds two EE optimization issues:
Given the number of transmit and receive antennas, an optimum
value of SE is derived such that the overall EE can be maximized;
Given a specific value of SE, the optimal number of antennas is
derived for maximizing the system EE.
Exploiting path diversity to enhance communication
reliability is a key desired property in Internet. While the existing routing architecture is reluctant to adopt changes, overlay routing has been proposed to circumvent the constraints of native routing by employing intermediary relays. However, the selfish interdomain relay placement may violate local routing policies at intermediary relays and thus affect their economic costs and performances. With the recent advance of the concept of network virtualization, it is envisioned that virtual networks should be provisioned in cooperation with infrastructure providers in a holistic view without compromising their profits. In this paper, the problem of policy-aware virtual relay placement is first studied to investigate the feasibility of provisioning policycompliant multipath routing via virtual relays for inter-domain communication reliability. By evaluation on a real domain-level Internet topology, it is demonstrated that policy-compliant virtual
relaying can achieve a similar protection gain against single link failures compared to its selfish counterpart. It is also shown that the presented heuristic placement strategies perform well to approach the optimal solution.
In this paper, we evaluate the performance of Multicarrier-Low Density Spreading Multiple Access (MC-LDSMA) as a multiple access technique for mobile communication systems. The MC-LDSMA technique is compared with current multiple access techniques, OFDMA and SC-FDMA. The performance is evaluated in terms of cubic metric, block error rate, spectral efficiency and fairness. The aim is to investigate the expected gains of using MC-LDSMA in the uplink for next generation cellular systems. The simulation results of the link and system-level performance evaluation show that MC-LDSMA has significant performance improvements over SC-FDMA and OFDMA. It is shown that using MC-LDSMA can considerably reduce the required transmission power and increase the spectral efficiency and fairness among the users.
It has been envisaged that in future 5G networks user devices will become an integral part of the network by participating in the transmission of mobile content traffic typically through Device-to-device (D2D) technologies. In this context, we promote the concept of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), where the mobile network edge is equipped with necessary knowledge on device mobility in order to meet specific service requirements for clients via a small number of helper devices. In this thesis, we propose a MaaS paradigm based frameworks to address clients? requirement with regards to content offloading service and connectivity relaying service via network assisted D2D communication framework.
To address content traffic offloading, we present a device-level Information Centric Networking (ICN) architecture that is able to perform intelligent content distribution operations according to necessary context information on mobile user mobility and content characteristics. Based on such an architecture, we further introduce device-level online content caching and offline helper selection algorithms in order to optimise the overall system efficiency. In particular, this piece of work sheds distinct light on the importance of user mobility data analytics based on which helper selection can lead to overall system optimality. Based on representative user mobility models, we conducted realistic simulation experiments and modelling which have proven the efficiency in terms of both network traffic offloading gains and user-oriented performance improvements. In addition, we show how the framework can be flexibly configured to meet specific delay tolerance constraints according to specific context policies.
With regard to connectivity relaying service, we introduce a novel scheme of using D2D communications for enabling data relay services in partial Not-Spots, where a client without local network access may require data relay by other devices. Depending on specific social application scenarios, this piece of work introduces tailored algorithms in order to achieve optimised data relay service performance. The approach is to exploit the network?s knowledge on its local user mobility patterns to identify best helper devices for participating in data relay operations. This framework is also supported with our proposed helper selection optimisation algorithm based on prediction of individual user mobility. According to our simulation analysis, based on both theoretical mobility models and real human mobility data traces, the proposed scheme is able to flexibly support different service requirements in specific social application scenarios.
With increased complexity of webpages nowadays, computation
latency incurred by webpage processing during downloading operations
has become a newly identified factor that may substantially
affect user experiences in a mobile network. In order to tackle this issue,
we propose a simple but effective transport-layer optimization
technique which requires necessary context information dissemination
from the mobile edge computing (MEC) server to user devices
where such an algorithm is actually executed. The key novelty in
this case is the mobile edge?s knowledge about webpage content
characteristics which is able to increase downloading throughput
for user QoE enhancement. Our experiment results based on a real
LTE-A test-bed show that, when the proportion of computation
latency varies between 20% and 50% (which is typical for today?s
webpages), the downloading throughput can be improved up to
34.5%, with reduced downloading time by up to 25.1%
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) as well as other orthogonal multiple access techniques fail to achieve the system capacity limit in the uplink due to the exclusivity in resource allocation. This issue is more prominent when fairness among the users is considered in the system. Current Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access techniques (NOMA) introduce redundancy by coding/spreading to facilitate the users' signals separation at the receiver, which degrade the system spectral efficiency. Hence, in order to achieve higher capacity, more efficient NOMA schemes need to be developed. In this paper, we propose a NOMA scheme for uplink that removes the resource allocation exclusivity and allows more than one user to share the same subcarrier without any coding/spreading redundancy. Joint processing is implemented at the receiver to detect the users' signals. However, to control the receiver complexity, an upper limit on the number of users per subcarrier needs to be imposed. In addition, a novel subcarrier and power allocation algorithm is proposed for the new NOMA scheme that maximizes the users' sum-rate. The link-level performance evaluation has shown that the proposed scheme achieves bit error rate close to the single-user case. Numerical results show that the proposed NOMA scheme can significantly improve the system performance in terms of spectral efficiency and fairness comparing to OFDMA.
As soon as 2020, network densification and spectrum extension will be the dominant theme to support enormous capacity and massive connectivity . However, this approach may not guarantee wide area coverage due to the poor propagation capabilities of high frequency bands. In addition, energy efficiency and signalling overhead will become critical considerations in ultra-dense deployment scenarios. This calls for a futuristic two layer RAN architecture with dual connectivity, where the high frequency bands are used for data services, complemented by a coverage layer at conventional cellular bands . This separation of control and data planes will enable a transition from always-on to always-available systems and could result in order of magnitude savings in energy and signalling overhead.
In research community, a new radio access network architecture with a logical separation between control plane (CP) and data plane (DP) has been proposed for future cellular systems. It aims to overcome limitations of the conventional architecture by providing high data rate services under the umbrella of a coverage layer in a dual connection mode. This configuration could provide significant savings in signalling overhead. In particular, mobility robustness with minimal handover (HO) signalling is considered as one of the most promising benefits of this architecture. However, the DP mobility remains an issue that needs to be investigated. We consider predictive DP HO management as a solution that could minimise the out-of band signalling related to the HO procedure. Thus we propose a mobility prediction scheme based on Markov Chains. The developed model predicts the user?s trajectory in terms of a HO sequence in order to minimise the interruption time and the associated signalling when the HO is triggered. Depending on the prediction accuracy, numerical results show that the predictive HO management strategy could significantly reduce the signalling cost as compared with the conventional non-predictive mechanism.
Nowadays, system architecture of the fifth generation
(5G) cellular system is becoming of increasing interest.
To reach the ambitious 5G targets, a dense base station (BS)
deployment paradigm is being considered. In this case, the
conventional always-on service approach may not be suitable due
to the linear energy/density relationship when the BSs are always
kept on. This suggests a dynamic on/off BS operation to reduce
the energy consumption. However, this approach may create
coverage holes and the BS activation delay in terms of hardware
transition latency and software reloading could result in service
disruption. To tackle these issues, we propose a predictive BS
activation scheme under the control/data separation architecture
(CDSA). The proposed scheme exploits user context information,
network parameters, BS sleep depth and measurement databases
to send timely predictive activation requests in advance before
the connection is switched to the sleeping BS. An analytical model
is developed and closed-form expressions are provided for the
predictive activation criteria. Analytical and simulation results
show that the proposed scheme achieves a high BS activation
accuracy with low errors w.r.t. the optimum activation time.
There has recently been a real demand to design and deploy mobile communication networks
that consume significantly less energy compared to the existing s ystems. The main thrust of
this research focuses on investigation of the impacts of radio resource allocation schemes in the
current state-of-the-art Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems
on energy efficiency (EE) o f modern Radio Access Networks ( RANs), a s well a s design of
effective solutions to reduce RAN energy consumption in such networks.
Due to data traffic fluctuation of communication networks, there are often many unused radio
resource blocks in OFDMA systems. Efficient allocation of these surplus resource blocks can
lead to considerable energy savings. One of the key objectives of this thesis is to exploit
this opportunity by designing practical and effective radio resource allocation techniques that
exploit fundamental trade-off between energy consumption and bandwidth by reducing energy
consumption of the RAN while providing the required quality of service (QoS) for the network
users. The basic concept here is to exploit fluctuations of data traffic in the network.
Specifically, a novel e nergy e fficient re source al location te chnique, fo r low lo ad tr affic conditions
is proposed. This technique is then applied to three bespoke scheduling schemes,
namely Round Robin (RR), Best Channel Quality Indicator (BCQI), and Proportional Fair (PF)
for performance assessment. Comprehensive evaluation of the proposed scheduling schemes
demonstrates that adopting the proposed resource allocation technique significantly enhances
the performance of RAN in terms of energy consumption in comparison with the conventional
schemes such as the three aforementioned schedulers.
Finding an optimal method for surplus resource allocation is firstly modelled as an optimisation
problem which is subsequently solved using dynamic programming. In this context, a
Knapsack Problem (KP) is adopted to find an optimal solution for a single-cell s cenario. The
proposed heuristic method is simulated using Equal Power (EP) and Water Filling (WF) algorithms
for surplus resource allocation. It is shown that the optimal solution is achieved using
the WF algorithm leading to an EE saving of 60% compared to the greedy KP solution, whilst
significantly lower computational complexity.
The optimality of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in a multi-cell scenario to take into
This paper investigates self-backhauling with dual antenna selection at multiple small cell base stations. Both half and full duplex transmissions at the small cell base station are considered. Depending on instantaneous channel conditions, the full duplex transmission can have higher throughput than the half duplex transmission, but it is not always the case. Closed-form expressions of the average throughput are obtained, and validated by simulation results. In all cases, the dual receive and transmit antenna selection significantly improves backhaul and data transmission, making it an attractive solution in practical systems.
To flexibly support diverse communication requirements (e.g., throughput, latency, massive connection, etc.) for the next generation wireless communications, one viable solution is to divide the system bandwidth into several service subbands, each for a different type of service. In such a multi-service (MS) system, each service has its optimal frame structure while the services are isolated by subband filtering. In this paper, a framework for multi-service (MS) system is established based on subband filtered multi-carrier (SFMC) modulation. We consider both single-rate (SR) and multi-rate (MR) signal processing as two different MS-SFMC implementations, each having different performance and computational complexity. By comparison, the SR system outperforms the MR system in terms of performance while the MR system has a significantly reduced computational complexity than the SR system. Numerical results show the effectiveness of our analysis and the proposed systems. These proposed SR and MR MS-SFMC systems provide guidelines for next generation wireless system frame structure optimization and algorithm design.
Channel reciprocity in time-division duplexing (TDD) massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems can be exploited to reduce the overhead required for the acquisition of channel state information (CSI). However, perfect reciprocity is unrealistic in practical systems due to random radio-frequency (RF) circuit mismatches in uplink and downlink channels. This can result in a significant degradation in the performance of linear precoding schemes which are sensitive to the accuracy of the CSI. In this paper, we model and analyse the impact of RF mismatches on the performance of linear precoding in a TDD multi-user massive MIMO system, by taking the channel estimation error into considerations. We use the truncated Gaussian distribution to model the RF mismatch, and derive closed-form expressions of the output SINR (signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio) for maximum ratio transmission and zero forcing precoders. We further investigate the asymptotic performance of the derived expressions, to provide valuable insights into the practical system designs, including useful guidelines for the selection of the effective precoding schemes. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed analytical results.
Information-centric networking (ICN) is an emerging
networking paradigm that places content identifiers rather
than host identifiers at the core of the mechanisms and protocols
used to deliver content to end-users. Such a paradigm allows
routers enhanced with content-awareness to play a direct role
in the routing and resolution of content requests from users,
without any knowledge of the specific locations of hosted content.
However, to facilitate good network traffic engineering
and satisfactory user QoS, content routers need to exchange
advanced network knowledge to assist them with their resolution
decisions. In order to maintain the location-independency tenet
of ICNs, such knowledge (known as context information) needs
to be independent of the locations of servers. To this end, we
propose CAINE ? Context-Aware Information-centric Network
Ecosystem ? which enables context-based operations to be
intrinsically supported by the underlying ICN routing and resolution
functions. Our approach has been designed to maintain the
location-independence philosophy of ICNs by associating context
information directly to content rather than to the physical entities
such as servers and network elements in the content ecosystem,
while ensuring scalability. Through simulation, we show that
based on such location-independent context information, CAINE
is able to facilitate traffic engineering in the network, while not
posing a significant control signalling burden on the network
The hype surrounding the 5G mobile networks is well justified in view of the explosive increase in mobile traffic and the inclusion of massive ?non-human? users that form the internet of things. Advanced radio features such as network densification, cloud radio access networks (C-RAN), and untapped frequency bands jointly succeed in increasing the radio capacity to accommodate the increasing traffic demand. However, a new challenge has arisen: the backhaul (BH), the transport network that connects radio cells to the core network. The BH needs to expand in a timely fashion to reach the fast spreading small cells. Moreover, the realistic BH solutions are unable to provide the unprecedented 5G performance requirements to every cell. To this end, this research addresses the gap between the 5G stipulated BH characteristics and the available BH capabilities. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a leading trait in 5G networks. First, the RAN is heterogeneous since it comprises different cell types, radio access technologies, and architectures. Second, the BH is composed of a mix of different wired and wireless technologies with different limitations. In addition, 5G users have a broader range of capabilities and requirements than any incumbent mobile network. We exploit this trait and develop a novel scheme, termed User-Centric-BH (UCB). The UCB targets the user association mechanism which is traditionally blind to users? needs and BH conditions. The UCB builds on the existing concept of cell range extension (CRE) and proposes multiple-offset factors (CREO) whereby each reflects the cell's joint RAN and BH capability with respect to a defined attribute (e.g., throughput, latency, resilience, etc.). In parallel, users associate different weights to different attributes, hence, they can make a user-centric decision. The proposed scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art and unlocks the BH bottleneck by availing existing but misused resources to users in need.
Filtered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(F-OFDM) system is a promising waveform for 5G and beyond
to enable multi-service system and spectrum efficient network
slicing. However, the performance for F-OFDM systems has not
been systematically analyzed in literature. In this paper, we first
establish a mathematical model for F-OFDM system and derive
the conditions to achieve the interference-free one-tap channel equalization.
In the practical cases (e.g., insufficient guard interval,
asynchronous transmission, etc.), the analytical expressions for
inter-symbol-interference (ISI), inter-carrier-interference (ICI)
and adjacent-carrier-interference (ACI) are derived, where the
last term is considered as one of the key factors for asynchronous
transmissions. Based on the framework, an optimal power compensation
matrix is derived to make all of the subcarriers having
the same ergodic performance. Another key contribution of the
paper is that we propose a multi-rate F-OFDM system to enable
low complexity low cost communication scenarios such as narrow
band Internet of Things (IoT), at the cost of generating intersubband-
interference (ISubBI). Low computational complexity
algorithms are proposed to cancel the ISubBI. The result shows
that the derived analytical expressions match the simulation
results, and the proposed ISubBI cancelation algorithms can
significantly save the original F-OFDM complexity (up to 100
times) without significant performance loss.
Network-enabled sensing and actuation devices are key enablers to connect real-world objects to the cyber
world. The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of the network-enabled devices and communication technologies
that allow connectivity and integration of physical objects (Things) into the digital world (Internet). Enormous
amounts of dynamic IoT data are collected from Internet-connected devices. IoT data is usually multi-variant
streams that are heterogeneous, sporadic, multi-modal and spatio-temporal. IoT data can be disseminated
with different granularities and have diverse structures, types and qualities. Dealing with the data deluge
from heterogeneous IoT resources and services imposes new challenges on indexing, discovery and ranking
mechanisms that will allow building applications that require on-line access and retrieval of ad-hoc IoT data.
However, the existing IoT data indexing and discovery approaches are complex or centralised which hinders
their scalability. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a holistic overview of the state-of-the-art on
indexing, discovery and ranking of IoT data. The paper aims to pave the way for researchers to design, develop,
implement and evaluate techniques and approaches for on-line large-scale distributed IoT applications and
Energy efficiency (EE) is a key design criterion
for the next generation of communication systems. Equally,
cooperative communication is known to be very effective for enhancing
the performance of such systems. This paper proposes a
breakthrough approach for maximizing the EE of multiple-inputmultiple-
output (MIMO) relay-based nonregenerative cooperative
communication systems by optimizing both the source and
relay precoders when both relay and direct links are considered.
We prove that the corresponding optimization problem is at least
strictly pseudo-convex, i.e. having a unique solution, when the
relay precoding matrix is known, and that its Lagrangian can
be lower and upper bounded by strictly pseudo-convex functions
when the source precoding matrix is known. Accordingly, we
then derive EE-optimal source and relay precoding matrices that
are jointly optimize through alternating optimization. We also
provide a low-complexity alternative to the EE-optimal relay
precoding matrix that exhibits close to optimal performance,
but with a significantly reduced complexity. Simulations results
show that our joint source and relay precoding optimization can
improve the EE of MIMO-AF systems by up to 50% when
compared to direct/relay link only precoding optimization.
This article presents a comprehensive survey of the literature on self-interference management schemes required to achieve a single frequency full duplex communication in wireless communication networks. A single frequency full duplex system often referred to as in-band full duplex (FD) system has emerged as an interesting solution for the next generation mobile networks where scarcity of available radio spectrum is an important issue. Although studies on the mitigation of self-interference have been documented in the literature, this is the first holistic attempt at presenting not just the various techniques available for handling self-interference that arises when a full duplex device is enabled, as a survey, but it also discusses other system impairments that significantly affect the self-interference management of the system, and not only in terrestrial systems, but also on satellite communication systems. The survey provides a taxonomy of self-interference management schemes and shows by means of comparisons the strengths and limitations of various self-interference management schemes. It also quantifies the amount of self-interference cancellation required for different access schemes from the 1 st generation to the candidate 5 th generation of mobile cellular systems. Importantly, the survey summarises the lessons learnt, identifies and presents open research questions and key research areas for the future. This paper is intended to be a guide and take off point for further work on self-interference management in order to achieve full duplex transmission in mobile networks including heterogeneous cellular networks which is undeniably the network of future wireless systems.
This paper proposes a low-complexity hybrid beamforming
design for multi-antenna communication systems. The
hybrid beamformer comprises of a baseband digital beamformer
and a constant modulus analog beamformer in radio frequency
(RF) part of the system. As in Singular-Value-Decomposition
(SVD) based beamforming, hybrid beamforming design aims to
generate parallel data streams in multi-antenna systems, however,
due to the constant modulus constraint of the analog beamformer,
the problem cannot be solved, similarly. To address this problem,
mathematical expressions of the parallel data streams are
derived in this paper and desired and interfering signals are
specified per stream. The analog beamformers are designed by
maximizing the power of desired signal while minimizing the
sum-power of interfering signals. Finally, digital beamformers are
derived through defining the equivalent channel observed by the
transmitter/receiver. Regardless of the number of the antennas
or type of channel, the proposed approach can be applied to
wide range of MIMO systems with hybrid structure wherein
the number of the antennas is more than the number of the
RF chains. In particular, the proposed algorithm is verified for
sparse channels that emulate mm-wave transmission as well as
rich scattering environments. In order to validate the optimality,
the results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art and
it is demonstrated that the performance of the proposed method
outperforms state-of-the-art techniques, regardless of type of the
channel and/or system configuration.
It has been envisaged that in future 5G networks user devices will become an integral part by participating in the transmission of mobile content traffic typically through Deviceto- device (D2D) technologies. In this context, we promote the concept of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), where content-aware mobile network edge is equipped with necessary knowledge on device mobility in order to distribute popular mobile content items to interested clients via a small number of helper devices. Towards this end, we present a device-level Information Centric Networking (ICN) architecture that is able to perform intelligent content distribution operations according to necessary context information on mobile user mobility and content characteristics. Based on such a platform, we further introduce device-level online content caching and offline helper selection algorithms in order to optimise the overall system efficiency. In particular, this paper sheds distinct light on the importance of user mobility data analytics based on which helper selection can lead to overall system optimality. Based on representative user mobility models, we conducted realistic simulation experiments and modelling which have proven the efficiency in terms of both network traffic offloading gains and user-oriented performance improvements. In addition, we show how the framework can be flexibly configured to meet specific delay tolerance constraints according to specific context policies.
The concept of Ultra Dense Networks (UDNs) is
often seen as a key enabler of the next generation mobile
networks. The massive number of BSs in UDNs represents a
challenge in deployment, and there is a need to understand the performance behaviour and benefit of a network when BS locations are carefully selected. This can be of particular importance to the network operators who deploy their networks
in large indoor open spaces such as exhibition halls, airports or train stations where locations of BSs often follow a regular pattern. In this paper we study performance of UDNs in downlink
for regular network produced by careful BS site selection and compare to the irregular network with random BS placement. We first develop an analytical model to describe the performance of regular networks showing many similar performance behaviour
to that of the irregular network widely studied in the literature. We also show the potential performance gain resulting from proper site selection. Our analysis further shows an interesting finding that even for over-densified regular networks, a nonnegligible
system performance could be achieved.
This paper presents empirically-based large-scale
propagation path loss models for small cell fifth generation (5G)
cellular system in the millimeter-wave bands, based on practical
propagation channel measurements at 26 GHz, 32 GHz, and
39 GHz. To characterize path loss at these frequency bands
for 5G small cell scenarios, extensive wideband and directional
channel measurements have been performed on the campus of the
University of Surrey. Close-in reference (CI), and 3GPP path loss
models have been studied, and large-scale fading characteristics
have been obtained and presented.
Wideband millimeter-wave (mmWave) directional
propagation measurements were conducted in the 32 GHz and
39 GHz bands in outdoor line-of-sight (LoS) small cell scenarios.
The measurement provides spatial and temporal statistics that
will be useful for small-cell outdoor wireless networks for future
mmWave bands. Measurements were performed at two outdoor
environments and repeated for all polarization combinations.
Measurement results show little spread in the angular and delay
domains for the LoS scenario. Moreover root-mean-squared
(RMS) delay spread at different polarizations show small difference
which can be due to specific scatterers in the channel.
This paper presents details of the indoor wideband
and directional propagation measurements at 26 GHz in which
a wideband channel sounder using a millimeter wave (mmWave)
signal analyzer and vector signal generator was employed. The
setup provided 2 GHz bandwidth and the mechanically steerable
directional lens antenna with 5 degrees beamwidth provides 5
degrees of directional resolution over the azimuth. Measurements
provide path loss, delay and spatial spread of the channel.
Angular and delay dispersion are presented for line-of-sight (LoS)
and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) scenarios.
Network densification with small cell deployment
is being considered as one of the dominant themes in the
fifth generation (5G) cellular system. Despite the capacity gains,
such deployment scenarios raise several challenges from mobility
management perspective. The small cell size, which implies a
small cell residence time, will increase the handover (HO) rate
dramatically. Consequently, the HO latency will become a critical
consideration in the 5G era. The latter requires an intelligent, fast
and light-weight HO procedure with minimal signalling overhead.
In this direction, we propose a memory-full context-aware HO
scheme with mobility prediction to achieve the aforementioned
objectives. We consider a dual connectivity radio access network
architecture with logical separation between control and data
planes because it offers relaxed constraints in implementing the
predictive approaches. The proposed scheme predicts future HO
events along with the expected HO time by combining radio
frequency performance to physical proximity along with the user
context in terms of speed, direction and HO history. To minimise
the processing and the storage requirements whilst improving
the prediction performance, a user-specific prediction triggering
threshold is proposed. The prediction outcome is utilised to
perform advance HO signalling whilst suspending the periodic
transmission of measurement reports. Analytical and simulation
results show that the proposed scheme provides promising gains
over the conventional approach.
Spectrum sharing and employing highly directional
antennas in the mm-wave bands are considered among
the key enablers for 5G networks. Conventional interference
avoidance techniques like listen-before-talk (LBT) may not
be efficient for such coexisting networks. In this paper, we
address a coexistence mechanism by means of distributed
beam scheduling with minimum cooperation between spectrum
sharing subsystems without any direct data exchange
between them. We extend a ?Good Neighbor? (GN) principle
initially developed for decentralized spectrum allocation
to the distributed beam scheduling problem. To do that,
we introduce relative performance targets, develop a GN
beam scheduling algorithm, and demonstrate its efficiency
in terms of performance/complexity trade off compared to
that of the conventional selfish (SLF) and recently proposed
distributed learning scheduling (DLS) solutions by means of
simulations in highly directional antenna mm-wave scenarios.
Multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) has the potential to substantially increase the uplink network efficiency by multiplexing the user terminals' (UTs) transmissions in the spatial domain. However, demultiplexing the transmissions at the network side, known as MU-MIMO detection, can become a considerable signal processing challenge, especially in cases with a high spatial user load. During the last two decades, the MIMO detection problem has been extensively studied, and many receiver designs have been proposed that offer very good tradeoffs in complexity vs. performance. Nevertheless, MU-MIMO detection still presents challenges in signal processing scalability in the system size and modulation order. We revisit this problem but through an alternative method of joint transmitter and receiver design. Two approaches that exhibit near-optimal reliability and low complexity are presented:
First, a technique that uses real-valued modulation in fully- and over-loaded cases in large MU-MIMO systems, where there are equal or more UTs than service antennas. It is seen that the use of real constellations with a widely linear equaliser benefits from an increased spatial diversity gain over complex constellations with a linear equaliser. Moreover, a likelihood ascent search (LAS) algorithm post-processing stage is applied to further improve the error performance. Computer simulations show remarkable results for large MU-MIMO sizes in uncoded or coded cases.
Second, recognising that real-valued modulation offers poor modulation efficiency, a real-complex hybrid modulation (RCHM) scheme is proposed, where a mix of real- and complex-valued symbols are interleaved in the spatial and temporal domains. It is seen that RCHM combines the merits of real and complex modulations and enables the adjustment of the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff. Through the system outage probability analysis, the optimal ratio of the number real-to-complex symbols, as well as their optimal power allocation, is found for the RCHM pattern. Furthermore, reliability is improved with a small expense in complexity through the use of a successive interference cancellation (SIC) stage. Results are validated through the mathematical analysis of the average bit error rate and through computer simulations considering single and multiple base station scenarios, which show SNR gains over conventional approaches in excess of 5 dB at 1% BLER.
The results suggest that an expense in complexity is not the only way to improve error performance, but near-optimal reliability is also possible using simple techniques through a reduction in the multiplexing gain. Therefore, rather than a two-way complexity vs. performance tradeoff in MU-MIMO detection, a three-way tradeoff may be more appropriate, and is roughly expressed in the following statement:
?Low complexity, high reliability, high multiplexing gain: choose two.?
In order to minimize the downloading time of short-lived applications like web browsing,
web application and short video clips, the recently standardized HTTP/2 adopts stream multiplexing
on one single TCP connection. However, aggregating all content objects within one single connection
suffers from the Head-of-Line blocking issue. QUIC, by eliminating such an issue on the basis of UDP,
is expected to further reduce the content downloading time. However, in mobile network environments,
the single connection strategy still leads to a degraded and high variant completion time due to the
unexpected hindrance of congestion window growth caused by the common but uncertain fluctuations in
round trip time and also random loss event at the air interface. To retain resilient congestion window against
such network fluctuations, we propose an intelligent connection management scheme based on QUIC
which not only employs adaptively multiple connections but also conducts a tailored state and congestion
window synchronization between these parallel connections upon the detection of network fluctuation
events. According to the performance evaluation results obtained from an LTE-A/Wi-Fi testing network,
the proposed multiple QUIC scheme can effectively overcome the limitations of different congestion
control algorithms (e.g. the loss-based New Reno/CUBIC and the rate-based BBR), achieving substantial
performance improvement in both median (up to 59.1%) and 95th completion time (up to 72.3%). The
significance of this piece of work is to achieve highly robust short-lived content downloading performance
against various uncertainties of network conditions as well as with different congestion control schemes.
The random access (RA) mechanism of Long Term
Evolution (LTE) networks is prone to congestion when a large
number of devices attempt RA simultaneously, due to the
limited set of preambles. If each RA attempt is made by means
of transmission of multiple consecutive preambles (codewords)
picked from a subset of preambles, as proposed in , collision
probability can be significantly reduced. Selection of an optimal
preamble set size  can maximise RA success probability in the
presence of a trade-off between codeword ambiguity and code
collision probability, depending on load conditions. In light of this
finding, this paper provides an adaptive algorithm, called Multipreamble
RA, to dynamically determine the preamble set size
in different load conditions, using only the minimum necessary
uplink resources. This provides high RA success probability, and
makes it possible to isolate different network service classes by
separating the whole preamble set into subsets each associated
to a different service class; a technique that cannot be applied
effectively in LTE due to increased collision probability. This
motivates the idea that preamble allocation could be implemented
as a virtual network function, called vPreamble, as part of
a random access network (RAN) slice. The parameters of a
vPreamble instance can be configured and modified according
to the load conditions of the service class it is associated to.
Enormous amounts of dynamic observation and
measurement data are collected from sensors in Wireless
Sensor Networks (WSNs) for the Internet of Things (IoT)
applications such as environmental monitoring. However, continuous
transmission of the sensed data requires high energy
consumption. Data transmission between sensor nodes and
cluster heads (sink nodes) consumes much higher energy than
data sensing in WSNs. One way of reducing such energy
consumption is to minimise the number of data transmissions.
In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Method for Data Reduction
(AM-DR). Our method is based on a convex combination
of two decoupled Least-Mean-Square (LMS) windowed filters
with differing sizes for estimating the next measured values
both at the source and the sink node such that sensor nodes
have to transmit only their immediate sensed values that
deviate significantly (with a pre-defined threshold) from the
predicted values. The conducted experiments on a real-world
data show that our approach has been able to achieve up to
95% communication reduction while retaining a high accuracy
(i.e. predicted values have a deviation of ý+0:5 from real data
The spatially-incoherent radiators in visible light
communication (VLC) constrain the optical carrier to be only
driven by a real electrical sub-carrier, which cannot be quadrature
modulated as in classic RF-based systems. This restriction,
in turn, severely limits the transmission throughput of VLC
systems. To overcome this technical challenge, we propose a
novel coherent transmission scheme for VLC, in which the
optical carrier is only treated as a purely amplitude-modulated
carrier capable of transmitting two-dimensional (2D) symbols
(e.g. quadrature modulated symbols). The ability of our new
coherent transmission scheme to transmit 2D symbols is validated
through analytical symbol error rate derivation and Matlab
simulations. Results show that our scheme can improve both
the spectral and energy efficiency of VLC systems, i.e. by either
doubling the spectral efficiency or achieving more than 45%
energy efficiency improvement, when compared to its existing
Data discovery for sensor data in an M2M network uses probabilistic models, such as Gaussian Mixing Models (GMMs) to represent attributes of the sensor data. The parameters of the probabilistic models can be provided to a discovery server (DS) that respond to queries concerning the sensor data. Since the parameters are compressed compared to the attributes of the sensor data itself, this can simplify the distribution of discovery data. A hierarchical arrangement of discovery servers can also be used with multiple levels of discovery servers where higher level discovery servers using more generic probabilistic models.
Energy consumption of sensor nodes is a key factor affecting the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Prolonging network lifetime not only requires energy efficient operation, but also even dissipation of energy among sensor nodes. On the other hand, spatial and temporal variations in sensor activities create energy imbalance across the network. Therefore, routing algorithms should make an appropriate trade-off between energy efficiency and energy consumption balancing to extend the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a Distributed Energy-aware Fuzzy Logic based routing algorithm (DEFL) that simultaneously addresses energy efficiency and energy balancing. Our design captures network status through appropriate energy metrics and maps them into corresponding cost values for the shortest path calculation. We seek fuzzy logic approach for the mapping to incorporate human logic. We compare the network lifetime performance of DEFL with other popular solutions including MTE, MDR and FA. Simulation results demonstrate that the network lifetime achieved by DEFL exceeds the best of all tested solutions under various traffic load conditions. We further numerically compute the upper bound performance and show that DEFL performs near the upper bound.
Hybrid networks consisting of both millimeter
wave (mmWave) and microwave (¼W) capabilities are
strongly contested for next generation cellular communications.
A similar avenue of current research is deviceto-
device (D2D) communications, where users establish
direct links with each other rather than using central base
stations (BSs). However, a hybrid network, where D2D
transmissions coexist, requires special attention in terms
of efficient resource allocation. This paper investigates
dynamic resource sharing between network entities in a
downlink (DL) transmission scheme to maximize energy
efficiency (EE) of the cellular users (CUs) served by either
(¼W) macrocells or mmWave small cells, while maintaining
a minimum quality-of-service (QoS) for the D2D
users. To address this problem, firstly a self-adaptive power
control mechanism for the D2D pairs is formulated, subject
to an interference threshold for the CUs while satisfying
their minimum QoS level. Subsequently, a EE optimization
problem, which is aimed at maximizing the EE for both
CUs and D2D pairs, has been solved. Simulation results
demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm,
which studies the inherent tradeoffs between system EE,
system sum rate and outage probability for various QoS
levels and varying density of D2D pairs and CUs.
Ultra densification in heterogeneous networks
(HetNets) and the advent of millimeter wave (mmWave) technology
for fifth generation (5G) networks have led the researchers
to redesign the existing resource management techniques. A
salient feature of this activity is to accentuate the importance
of computationally intelligent (CI) resource allocation schemes
offering less complexity and overhead. This paper overviews the
existing literature on resource management in mmWave-based
HetNets with a special emphasis on CI techniques and further
proposes frameworks that ensure quality-of-service requirements
for all network entities. More specifically, HetNets with mmWavebased
small cells pose different challenges as compared to an allmicrowave-
based system. Similarly, various modes of small cell
access policies and operations of base stations in dual mode, i.e.,
operating both mmWave and microwave links simultaneously,
offer unique challenges to resource allocation. Furthermore, the
use of multi-slope path loss models becomes inevitable for analysis
owing to irregular cell patterns and blocking characteristics of
mmWave communications. This paper amalgamates the unique
challenges posed because of the aforementioned recent developments
and proposes various CI-based techniques including game
theory and optimization routines to perform efficient resource
This paper presents details of the wideband directional propagation
measurements of millimetre-wave (mmWave) channels
in the 26 GHz, 32 GHz, and 39 GHz frequency bands
in an indoor typical office environment. More than 14400
power delay profiles (PDPs) were measured across the 26
GHz band and over 9000 PDPs have been recorded for the
32 GHz and 39 GHz bands at each measurement point. A
mmWave wideband channel sounder has been used, where
signal analyzer and vector signal generator was employed.
Measurements have been conducted for both co- and crossantenna
polarization. The setup provided 2GHz bandwidth
and the mechanically steerable directional horn antenna with
8 degrees beamwidth provides 8 degrees of directional resolution
over the azimuth for 32 GHz and 39 GHz while 26
GHz measurement setup provides the angular resolution of
5 degrees. Measurements provide path loss, delay and spatial
spread of the channel. Large-scale fading characteristics,
RMS delay spread, RMS angular spread, angular and
delay dispersion are presented for three mmWave bands
for the line-of-sight (LoS) scenario.
The design of efficient wireless fronthaul connections for future heterogeneous networks incorporating emerging paradigms such as cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a challenging task that requires the most effective utilization of fronthaul network resources. In this paper, we propose to use distributed compression to reduce the fronthaul traffic in uplink Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) for C-RAN. Unlike the conventional approach where each coordinating point quantizes and forwards its own observation to the processing centre, these observations are compressed before forwarding. At the processing centre, the decompression of the observations and the decoding of the user message are conducted in a successive manner. The essence of this approach is the optimization of the distributed compression using an iterative algorithm to achieve maximal user rate with a given fronthaul rate. In other words, for a target user rate the generated fronthaul traffic is minimized. Moreover, joint decompression and decoding is studied and an iterative optimization algorithm is devised accordingly. Finally, the analysis is extended to multi-user case and our results reveal that, in both dense and ultra-dense urban deployment scenarios, the usage of distributed compression can efficiently reduce the required fronthaul rate and a further reduction is obtained with joint operation.
When dealing with a large number of devices, the existing indexing solutions for the discovery of IoT sources often fall short
to provide an adequate scalability. This is due to the high computational complexity and communication overhead that is required to
create and maintain the indices of the IoT sources particularly when their attributes are dynamic. This paper presents a novel approach
for indexing distributed IoT sources and paves the way to design a data discovery service to search and gain access to their data. The
proposed method creates concise references to IoT sources by using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Furthermore, a summary update
mechanism is introduced to tackle the change of sources availability and mitigate the overhead of updating the indices frequently. The
proposed approach is benchmarked against a standard centralized indexing and discovery solution. The results show that the proposed
solution reduces the communication overhead required for indexing by three orders of magnitude while depending on IoT network
architecture it may slightly increase the discovery time
Multi-band and multi-tier network densification is
being considered as the most promising solution to overcome the
capacity crunch problem of cellular networks. In this direction,
small cells (SCs) are being deployed within the macro cell (MC)
coverage, to off-load some of the users associated with the MCs.
This deployment scenario raises several problems. Among others,
signalling overhead and mobility management will become
critical considerations. Frequent handovers (HOs) in ultra dense
SC deployments could lead to a dramatic increase in signalling
overhead. This suggests a paradigm shift towards a signalling
conscious cellular architecture with smart mobility management.
In this regards, the control/data separation architecture (CDSA)
with dual connectivity is being considered for the future radio
access. Considering the CDSA as the radio access network
(RAN) architecture, we quantify the reduction in HO signalling
w.r.t. the conventional approach. We develop analytical models
which compare the signalling generated during various HO
scenarios in the CDSA and conventionally deployed networks.
New parameters are introduced which can with optimum value
significantly reduce the HO signalling load. The derived model
includes HO success and HO failure scenarios along with specific
derivations for continuous and non-continuous mobility users.
Numerical results show promising CDSA gains in terms of saving
in HO signalling overhead.
This paper introduces a millimeter-wave multipleinput-
multiple-output (MIMO) antenna for autonomous (selfdriving)
cars. The antenna is a modified four-port balanced
antipodal Vivaldi which produces four directional beams and
provides pattern diversity to cover 90 deg angle of view. By using
four antennas of this kind on four corners of the car?s bumper, it
is possible to have a full 360 deg view around the car. The
designed antenna is simulated by two commercially full-wave
packages and the results indicate that the proposed method can
successfully bring the required 90 deg angle of view.
In this paper, a novel approach, namely realcomplex
hybrid modulation (RCHM), is proposed to scale up
multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) detection
with particular concern on the use of equal or approximately
equal service antennas and user terminals. By RCHM, we mean
that user terminals transmit their data sequences with a mix of
real and complex modulation symbols interleaved in the spatial
and temporal domain. It is shown, through the system outage
probability, RCHM can combine the merits of real and complex
modulations to achieve the best spatial diversity-multiplexing
trade-off that minimizes the required transmit-power given a
sum-rate. The signal pattern of RCHM is optimized with respect
to the real-to-complex symbol ratio as well as power allocation.
It is also shown that RCHM equips the successive interference
canceling MU-MIMO receiver with near-optimal performances
and fast convergence in Rayleigh fading channels. This result is
validated through our mathematical analysis of the average biterror-
rate as well as extensive computer simulations considering
the case with single or multiple base-stations.
This paper investigates the downlink handover (soft/softer/hard) performance of Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access (WCDMA) based 3rd generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), as it is known that
the downlink capacity of UMTS is very sensitive to the extent of overlap area between adjacent cells and power margin between them. Factors influencing the handover performance such as the correlation between the multipath radio channels of the two links, limiting number of Rake fingers in a handset, imperfect channel estimation, etc. that cannot be modeled adequately in system-level simulations are investigated via link-level simulations. It is also shown that the geometry factor has an influence on the handover performance and exhibits a threshold value (which depends on the correlation between the multipath
channels associated with the two links in a handover) above
which the performance starts degrading. The variation of the
handover gain with the closed loop power control (CLPC) stepsize and space-time transmit diversity (STTD) is also quantified. These comprehensive results can be used as guidelines for more accurate coverage and capacity planning of UMTS networks.
A Ka-band inset-fed microstrip patches linear antenna
array is presented for the fifth generation (5G) applications
in different countries. The bandwidth is enhanced by stacking
parasitic patches on top of each inset-fed patch. The array
employs 16 elements in an H-plane new configuration. The
radiating patches and their feed lines are arranged in an
alternating out-of-phase 180-degree rotating sequence to decrease
the mutual coupling and improve the radiation pattern symmetry.
A (24.4%) measured bandwidth (24.35 to 31.13 GHz)is achieved
with -15 dB reflection coefficients and 20 dB mutual coupling
between the elements. With uniform amplitude distribution, a
maximum broadside gain of 19.88 dBi is achieved. Scanning the
main beam to 49.5° from the broadside achieved 18.7 dBi gain
with -12.1 dB sidelobe level (SLL). These characteristics are in
good agreement with the simulations, rendering the antenna to
be a good candidate for 5G applications.
In this paper, we consider multigroup multicast
transmissions with different types of service messages in an
overloaded multicarrier system, where the number of transmitter
antennas is insufficient to mitigate all inter-group interference.
We show that employing a rate-splitting based multiuser beamforming
approach enables a simultaneous delivery of the multiple
service messages over the same time-frequency resources in a
non-orthogonal fashion. Such an approach, taking into account
transmission power constraints which are inevitable in practice,
outperforms classic beamforming methods as well as current
standardized multicast technologies, in terms of both spectrum
efficiency and the flexibility of radio resource allocation.
This paper proposes a novel carrier frequency offset (CFO)
estimation method for generalized MC-CDMA systems in unknown frequency-selective channels utilizing hidden pi-
lots. It is established that CFO is identifiable in the frequency domain by employing cyclic statistics (CS) and linear re-gression (LR) algorithms. We show that the CS-based estimator is capable of mitigating the normalized CFO (NCFO) to a small error value. Then, the LR-based estimator can be employed to offer more accurate estimation by removing the residual quantization error after the CS-based estimator.
By performing the Floquet-mode analysis of a periodic
slotted waveguide, a multiple-beam leaky wave antenna
is proposed in the millimetre-wave (mmW) band. Considering
the direction of surface current lines on the broad/side-walls of
the waveguide, the polarization of constructed beams are also
controlled. The simulation results are well matched with the
initial mathematical analysis.
WSN applications demand prolonged network operation in which manually replenishing the scarce battery resources of sensor nodes are not usually possible. When the limited energy of sensor nodes is completely exhausted, this leads to reduced coverage and may cause network partitioning, which dramatically reduces the network lifetime. In this respect, network lifetime enhancement is considered the most critical aspect of WSN performance. Prolonging network lifetime requires mechanisms that provide energy consumption balancing (ECB) in addition to energy efficiency (EE).
This thesis investigates network lifetime maximization problem and proposes solutions to address both EE and ECB. The scope covers two separate but equally important fronts: duty cycling mechanisms and maximum lifetime routing strategies. Duty cycling significantly reduces the energy consumption of sensor nodes resulting from idle listening. Meanwhile, maximum lifetime routing schemes aim at balancing traffic loads and hence energy consumption among sensor nodes across the network.
In this regard, our contributions are in three-folds. First, a distributed sleep mechanism is proposed for the non-beacon-enabled mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol, to support energy-efficient operation in WSNs. In addition to achieving energy savings, our mechanism helps reshape generated traffic so that the overall channel contention is reduced. This effect in turns improves packet delivery ratio at the data sink.
Second, we propose a Control-theoretic Duty Cycle Adaptation algorithm (CDCA) to adapt nodes duty cycle based on time-varying and/or spatially non-uniform data traffic loads. The proposed mechanism is distributed; hence each node adjusts its duty cycle independently. We introduce a novel concept called virtual queue, which provides better insight into actual traffic conditions in comparison to existing schemes and prevents excessive packet drop. Using NS-3 simulation, we demonstrate the performance improvements obtained from CDCA in comparison to the state of the art. Furthermore, a stability analysis is conducted to investigate system stability conditions.
Third, we formulate the maximum lifetime routing problem as a minimax optimization problem, and numerically obtain the upper bound network lifetime. Moreover, we propose a Distributed Energy-aware Fuzzy-Logic based routing algorithm (DEFL). DEFL makes an appropriate trade-off between energy efficiency and energy consumption balancing and successfully extends the network lifetime under different network conditions. The simulation results demonstrate that DEFL outperforms all tested algorithms and performs very close to the upper bound.
Keywords: Network Lifetime Maximization, Energy Efficiency, Energy Consumption Balancing, MAC, Routing, Wireless Sensor Networks.
This paper studies adaptive power allocation among sub-carriers in MC-CDMA. Due to intrinsic nature of MC-CDMA; Carrier Based power allocation schemes cause MAI (Multiple Access Interference) enhancements, hence fail at higher
system loads. We propose a Band Based Dynamic Link Adaptation (BBDLA) scheme that preserves orthogonality
(among users) by spreading user?s signal only over a Band of
adjacent N sub-carriers (N
bandwidth (Bc) of the channel. Hence, it allows Band Based
power allocation without causing any MAI. However, with only N orthogonal users supported on a particular Band, BBDLA essentially proposes a hybrid of FDMA with MC-CDMA where Bands and transmit powers are optimally assigned to users by Base Station (in accordance with their channel state). Optimum Band allocation for BBDLA is found to be computationally intractable hence a sub-optimal heuristic approach is proposed with equal power distribution among all assigned Bands for each user. Effect of Bc over choice of N is studied and BBDLA with suitably chosen N, is shown to outperform other published Carrier Based power allocation schemes while it maintain almost single user BER performance up to 62% of full system loading
Energy ef?ciency (EE) is a key ?gure of merit for designing the next generation of communication systems. Meanwhile, relay-based cooperative communication, through machine-to-machine and other related technologies, is also playing an important part in the development of these systems. This paper designs an energy ef?cient precoding method for optimizing the EE/energy consumption of two-way multi-input multi-output (MIMO)-amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems by using pseudo-convexity analysis to design EE-optimal precoding matrices. More precisely, we derive an EE-optimal source precoding matrix in closed-form, design a numerical approach for obtaining an optimal relay precoding matrix, prove the optimality of these matrices, when treated separately, and provide lowcomplexity bespoke algorithms to generate them. These matrices are then jointly optimized through an alternating optimization process that is proved to be systematically convergent. Performance evaluation indicates that our method can be globally optimal in some scenarios and that it is signi?cantly more energy ef?cient (i.e. up to 60% more energy ef?cient) than existing EEbased one-way or two-way MIMO-AF precoding methods.
A Ka-band inset-fed microstrip patches linear antenna
array is presented for the fifth generation (5G) applications
in different countries. The bandwidth is enhanced by stacking
parasitic patches on top of each inset-fed patch. The array
employs 16 elements in an H-plane new configuration. The
radiating patches and their feed lines are arranged in an
alternating out-of-phase 180-degree rotating sequence to decrease
the mutual coupling and improve the radiation pattern symmetry.
A (24.4%) measured bandwidth (24.35 to 31.13 GHz)is achieved
with -15 dB reflection coefficients and 20 dB mutual coupling
between the elements. With uniform amplitude distribution, a
maximum broadside gain of 19.88 dBi is achieved. Scanning the
main beam to 49.5æ
from the broadside achieved 18.7 dBi gain
with -12.1 dB sidelobe level (SLL). These characteristics are in
good agreement with the simulations, rendering the antenna to
be a good candidate for 5G applications.
The first 5G (5th generation wireless systems) New
Radio Release-15 was recently completed. However, the specification
only considers the use of unicast technologies and the extension
to point-to-multipoint (PTM) scenarios is not yet considered.
To this end, we first present in this work a technical overview of
the state-of-the-art LTE (Long Term Evolution) PTM technology,
i.e., eMBMS (evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services),
and investigate the physical layer performance via link-level
simulations. Then based on the simulation analysis, we discuss
potential improvements for the two current eMBMS solutions,
i.e., MBSFN (MBMS over Single Frequency Networks) and SCPTM
(Single-Cell PTM). This work explicitly focus on equipping
the current eMBMS solutions with 5G candidate techniques, e.g.,
multiple antennas and millimeter wave, and its potentials to meet
the requirements of next generation PTM transmissions.
It is foreseen that the next generation of cellular network would integrate the relaying or multihop scheme. In a multihop cellular architecture, the users are not only able to communicate directly to the base station (BS) but can also use some relay stations to relay their data to the BS. In such architecture, it may happen that a relayed user handover to another relay station during its communication: this process is called the inter-relay handoff. The main objective of this paper is to study how frequent the inter-relay handoff occurs and its impact on the relaying system performance. For this, different algorithms to decide when a user should inter-relay handover are proposed and tested through a dynamic system level simulator. We compare the capacity gain for the different algorithm with the conventional cellular networks using the UMTS FDD mode.
The result showed that with an appropriate inter-relay handoff scheme, the uplink capacity gain of 35% is readily achievable.
The aim of this paper is to handle the multifrequency
synchronization problem inherent in orthogonal
frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) uplink
communications, where the carrier frequency offset (CFO)
for each user may be different, and they can be hardly
compensated at the receiver side. Our major contribution
lies in the development of a novel OFDM receiver that
is resilient to unknown random CFO thanks to the use
of a CFO-compensator bank. Specifically, the whole CFO
range is evenly divided into a set of sub-ranges, with
each being supported by a dedicated CFO compensator.
Given the optimization for CFO compensator a NP-hard
problem, a machine deep-learning approach is proposed
to yield a good sub-optimal solution. It is shown that the
proposed receiver is able to offer inter-carrier interference
free performance for OFDMA systems operating at a wide
range of SNRs.
Recent advancements in sensing, networking technologies and collecting real-world data on a large scale and from various environments
have created an opportunity for new forms of services and applications. This is known under the umbrella term of the Internet of
Things (IoT). Physical sensor devices constantly produce very large amounts of data. Methods are needed which give the raw sensor measurements a meaningful interpretation for building automated decision support systems. One of the main research challenges in this domain is to extract actionable information from real-world data, that is information that can readily be used to make informed automatic
decisions in intelligent systems. Most existing approaches are application or domain dependent or are only able to deal with specific data
sources of one kind. This PhD research concerns multiple approaches for analysing IoT data streams. We propose a method which determines how many different clusters can be found in a stream based on the data distribution. After selecting the number of clusters, we use an online clustering mechanism to cluster the incoming data from the streams. Our approach remains adaptive to drifts by adjusting itself as the data changes. The work is benchmarked against state-of-the art stream clustering algorithms on data streams with data drift. We show how our method can be applied in a use case scenario involving near real-time traffic data. Our results allow to cluster, label and interpret IoT data streams dynamically according to the data distribution. This enables to adaptively process large volumes of dynamic data online based on the current situation. We show how our method adapts itself to the changes and we demonstrate how the number of clusters in a real-world data stream can be determined by analysing the data distributions.
Using the ideas and concepts of this approach as a starting point we designed another novel dynamic and adaptable clustering approach
that is more suitable for multi-variate time-series data clustering. Our solution uses probability distributions and analytical methods to adjust the centroids as the data and feature distributions change over time. We have evaluated our work against some well-known time-series clustering methods and have shown how the proposed method can reduce the complexity and perform efficient in multi-variate datastreams.
Finally we propose a method that uncovers hidden structures and relations between multiple IoT data streams. Our novel solution uses Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), a topic extraction method that is generally used in text analysis. We apply LDA on meaningful labels that describe the numerical data in human understandable terms. To create the labels we use Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX), a method that converts raw data into string-based patterns. The extracted patterns are then transformed with a rule engine into the labels.
The work investigates how heterogeneous sensory data from multiple sources can be processed and analysed to create near real-time intelligence and how our proposed method provides an efficient way to interpret patterns in the data streams. The proposed method provides a novel way to uncover the correlations and associations between different pattern in IoT data streams. The evaluation results show that the proposed solution is able to identify the correlation with high efficiency with an F-measure up to 90%.
Overall, this PhD research has designed, implemented and evaluated unsupervised adaptive algorithms to analyse, structure and extract information from dynamic and multi-variate sensory data streams. The results of this research has significant impact in designing flexible and scalable solutions in analysing real-world sensory data streams and specially in cases where labelled and annotated data is not available or it is too costly to be collected. Research and advancements in healthcare and smarter cities are two key areas that can directly fr
This work aims to handle the joint transmitter
and noncoherent receiver optimization for multiuser single-input
multiple-output (MU-SIMO) communications through unsupervised
deep learning. It is shown that MU-SIMO can be modeled
as a deep neural network with three essential layers, which
include a partially-connected linear layer for joint multiuser
waveform design at the transmitter side, and two nonlinear layers
for the noncoherent signal detection. The proposed approach
demonstrates remarkable MU-SIMO noncoherent communication
performance in Rayleigh fading channels.
Nowadays, dense network deployment is being
considered as one of the effective strategies to meet capacity
and connectivity demands of the fifth generation (5G) cellular
system. Among several challenges, energy consumption will be a
critical consideration in the 5G era. In this direction, base station
on/off operation, i.e., sleep mode, is an effective technique to
mitigate the excessive energy consumption in ultra-dense cellular
networks. However, current implementation of this technique is
unsuitable for dynamic networks with fluctuating traffic profiles
due to coverage constraints, quality-of-service requirements and
hardware switching latency. In this direction, we propose an
energy/load proportional approach for 5G base stations with
control/data plane separation. The proposed approach depends on
a multi-step sleep mode profiling, and predicts the base station
vacation time in advance. Such a prediction enables selecting
the best sleep mode strategy whilst minimizing the effect of
base station activation/reactivation latency, resulting in significant
energy saving gains.
To avoid unnecessarily using a massive number of
base station antennas to support a large number of users spatially
multiplexed multi-user MIMO systems, optimal detection
methods are required to demultiplex the mutually interfering
information streams. Sphere decoding (SD) can achieve this,
but its complexity and latency becomes impractical for large
MIMO systems. Low complexity detection solutions such as linear
detectors (e.g., MMSE) or likelihood ascendant search (LAS)
approaches, have significantly lower latency requirements than
SD but their achievable throughput is far from optimal. This
work presents the concept of Antipodal detection and decoding,
that can deliver very high throughput with practical latency
requirements, even in systems where the number of user antennas
reaches the number of base station antennas. The Antipodal
detector either results in a highly reliable vector solution, or it
does not find a vector solution at all (i.e., it results in an erasure),
skipping the heavy processing load related to finding vector
solutions that have a very high likelihood to be erroneous. Then,
a belief-propagation-based decoder is proposed, that restores
these erasures and further corrects remaining erroneous vector
solutions. We show that for 32å32, 64-QAM modulated systems,
and for packet error rates below 10%, Antipodal detection and
decoding requires 9 dB less transmitted power than systems
employing soft MMSE or LAS detection and LDPC decoding
with similar complexity requirements. For the same scenario, our
Antipodal method achieves practical throughput gains of more
than 50% compared to soft MMSE and soft LAS-based methods.
The recent paradigm shift towards the transmission of large numbers of mutually interfering information streams, as in the
case of aggressive spatial multiplexing, combined with requirements towards very low processing latency despite the frequency
plateauing of traditional processors, initiates a need to revisit the fundamental maximum-likelihood (ML) and, consequently, the
sphere-decoding (SD) detection problem. This work presents the design and VLSI architecture of MultiSphere; the first method to
massively parallelize the tree search of large sphere decoders in a nearly-concurrent manner, without compromising their
maximum-likelihood performance, and by keeping the overall processing complexity comparable to that of highly-optimized sequential
sphere decoders. For a 10 å 10 MIMO spatially multiplexed system with 16-QAM modulation and 32 processing elements, our
MultiSphere architecture can reduce latency by 29å against well-known sequential SDs, approaching the processing latency of linear
detection methods, without compromising ML optimality. In MIMO multicarrier systems targeting exact ML decoding, MultiSphere
achieves processing latency and hardware efficiency that are orders of magnitude improved compared to approaches employing one
SD per subcarrier. In addition, for 16å16 both ?hard?- and ?soft?-output MIMO systems, approximate MultiSphere versions are shown to
achieve similar error rate performance with state-of-the art approximate SDs having akin parallelization properties, by using only one
tenth of the processing elements, and to achieve up to approximately 9å increased energy efficiency.
Considering a densely populated area where
a mobile device, with a single RF chain, shares its message
with a set of mobile devices through narrowband mmWave
channel, an analogue-beam splitting approach is proposed
to achieve a good capacity and coverage trade-off. The
proposed approach aims at maximizing the capacity of
the mmWave multicast channel through antenna-element
grouping and adaptive phase shifting, which takes into
account of the inter-beam interference. When receivers are
randomly distributed on a circle centered at the transmitter,
according to the uniform distribution, it is found
that the impact of inter-beam interference on the channel
capacity can be negligibly small, and thus the analoguebeam
splitting approach can be largely simplified in practice.
Computer simulations are carried out to elaborate our
theoretical study and demonstrate considerable advantages
of the proposed analogue-beam splitting approach.
This paper addresses the problem of opportunistic
spectrum access in support of mission-critical ultra-reliable and
low latency communications (URLLC). Considering the ability
of supporting short packet transmissions in URLLC scenarios,
a new capacity metric in finite blocklength regime is introduced
as the traditional performance metrics such as ergodic capacity
and outage capacity are no longer applicable. We focus on an
opportunistic spectrum access system in which the secondary
user (SU) opportunistically occupies the frequency resources of
the primary user (PU) and transmits reliable short packets to
its destination. An achievable rate maximization problem is then
formulated for the SU in supporting URLLC services, subject to
a probabilistic received-power constraint at the PU receiver and
imperfect channel knowledge of the SU-PU link. To tackle this
problem, an optimal power allocation policy is proposed. Closedform
expressions are then derived for the maximum achievable
rate in finite blocklength regime, the approximate transmission
rate at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and the optimal average
power. Numerical results validate the accuracy of the proposed
closed-form expressions and further reveal the impact of channel
estimation error, block error probability, finite blocklength and
Network-enabled sensing and actuation devices are key enablers to connect real-world objects to the cyber world. The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of network-enabled devices and communication technologies that allow connectivity and integration of physical objects (Things) into the digital world (Internet).
Dealing with the data deluge from heterogeneous IoT resources and services imposes new challenges on indexing, discovery and ranking mechanisms. Novel indexing and discovery methods will enable developing applications that use on-line access and retrieval of ad-hoc IoT data.
Investigation of the related work leads to the conclusion that there has been significant work on processing and analysing sensor data streams. However, there is still a need for integrating solutions that contemplate the work-flow from connecting IoT resources to make their published data indexable, searchable and discoverable.
This research proposes a set of novel solutions for indexing, processing and discovery in IoT networks. The work proposes novel distributed in-network and spatial indexing solutions. The proposed solutions scale well and provide up to 92% better response time and higher success rates in response to data search queries compared to a baseline approach.
A co-operative, adaptive, change detection algorithm has also been developed. It is based on a convex combination of two decoupled Least Mean Square (LMS) windowed filters. The approach provides better performance and less complexity compared to the state-of-the-art solutions. The change detection algorithm can also be applied to distributed networks in an on-line fashion. This co-operative approach allows publish/subscribe based and change based discovery solutions in IoT.
Continuous transmission of large volumes of data collected by sensor nodes induces a high communication cost
for each individual node in IoT networks. An Adaptive Method for Data Reduction (AM-DR) has been proposed for reducing the number of data transmissions in IoT networks. In AM-DR, identical predictive models are constructed at both the sensor and the sink nodes to describe data evolution such that sensor nodes require transmitting only their readings that deviate significantly from actual values. This has a significant impact on reducing the data load in IoT data discovery scenarios.
Finally, a solution for quality and energy-aware resource discovery and accessing IoT resources has been proposed. The solution effectively achieves a communication reduction while retaining a high prediction accuracy (i.e. only a deviation of ±1.0 degree between actual and predicted sensor readings). Furthermore, an energy cost model has been discussed to demonstrate how the proposed approach reduces energy consumption significantly and effectively prolongs the network lifetime.
There has been a keen interest in detecting abrupt
sequential changes in streaming data obtained from sensors
in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for Internet of Things
(IoT) applications such as fire/fault detection, activity recognition
and environmental monitoring. Such applications require (near)
online detection of instantaneous changes. This paper proposes
an Online, adaptive Filtering-based Change Detection (OFCD)
algorithm. Our method is based on a convex combination of
two decoupled Least Mean Square (LMS) windowed filters with
differing sizes. Both filters are applied independently on data
streams obtained from sensor nodes such that their convex combination
parameter is employed as an indicator of abrupt changes
in mean values. An extension of our method (OFCD) based
on a Cooperative scheme between multiple sensors (COFCD) is
also presented. It provides an enhancement of both convergence
and steady-state accuracy of the convex weight parameter. Our
conducted experiments show that our approach can be applied in
distributed networks in an online fashion. It also provides better
performance and less complexity compared with the state-of-theart
on both of single and multiple sensors.
In time-division-duplexing (TDD) massive multipleinput
multiple-output (MIMO) systems, channel reciprocity is
exploited to overcome the overwhelming pilot training and
the feedback overhead. However, in practical scenarios, the
imperfections in channel reciprocity, mainly caused by radiofrequency
mismatches among the antennas at the base station
side, can significantly degrade the system performance and might
become a performance limiting factor. In order to compensate
for these imperfections, we present and investigate two new
calibration schemes for TDD-based massive multi-user MIMO
systems, namely, relative calibration and inverse calibration.
In particular, the design of the proposed inverse calibration
takes into account a compound effect of channel reciprocity
error and channel estimation error. We further derive closedform
expressions for the ergodic sum rate, assuming maximum
ratio transmissions with the compound effect of both errors. We
demonstrate that the inverse calibration scheme outperforms the
traditional relative calibration scheme. The proposed analytical
results are also verified by simulated illustrations.
Chen Hongzhi, Mi De, Fuentes Manuel, Garro Eduardo, Carcel Jose Luis, Mouhouche Belkacem, Xiao Pei, Tafazolli Rahim On the Performance of PDCCH in LTE and 5G New Radio,Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 9-13 Dec 2018 (GlobeComm 2018)
5G New Radio (NR) Release 15 has been specified
in June 2018. It introduces numerous changes and
potential improvements for physical layer data transmissions,
although only point-to-point (PTP) communications are considered.
In order to use physical data channels such as the
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH), it is essential
to guarantee a successful transmission of control information
via the Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH).
Taking into account these two aspects, in this paper, we
first analyze the PDCCH processing chain in NR PTP as
well as in the state-of-the-art Long Term Evolution (LTE)
point-to-multipoint (PTM) solution, i.e., evolved Multimedia
Broadcast Multicast Service (eMBMS). Then, via link level
simulations, we compare the performance of the two technologies,
observing the Bit/Block Error Rate (BER/BLER) for
various scenarios. The objective is to identify the performance
gap brought by physical layer changes in NR PDCCH as
well as provide insightful guidelines on the control channel
configuration towards NR PTM scenarios.
The rapid growth in mobile communications due to the exponential demand for wireless access is causing the distribution and maintenance of cellular networks to become more complex, expensive and time consuming. Lately, extensive research and standardisation work has been focused on the novel paradigm of self-organising network (SON). SON is an automated technology that allows the planning, deployment, operation, optimisation and healing of the network to become faster and easier by reducing the human involvement in network operational tasks, while optimising the network coverage, capacity and quality of service. However, these SON autonomous features cannot be achieved with the current drive test coverage assessment approach due to its lack of automaticity which results in huge delays and cost. Minimization of drive test (MDT) has recently been standardized by 3GPP as a key self- organising network (SON) feature. MDT allows coverage to be estimated at the base station using user equipment (UE) measurement reports with the objective to eliminate the need for drive tests. However, most MDT based coverage estimation methods recently proposed in literature assume that UE position is known at the base station with 100% accuracy, an assumption that does not hold in reality. In this work, we develop a novel and accurate analytical model that allows the quantification of error in MDT based autonomous coverage estimation (ACE) as a function of error in UE as well as base station (user deployed cell) positioning. We first consider a circular cell with an omnidirectional antenna and then we use a three-sectored cell and see how the system is going to be affected by the UE and the base station (user deployed cell) geographical location information errors. Our model also allows characterization of error in ACE as function of standard deviation of shadowing in addition to the path-loss.
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a promising
paradigm of computer networks, offering a programmable and
centralised network architecture. However, although such a
technology supports the ability to dynamically handle network
traffic based on real-time and flexible traffic control, SDN-based
networks can be vulnerable to dynamic change of flow control
rules, which causes transmission disruption and packet loss in
SDN hardware switches. This problem can be critical because the
interruption and packet loss in SDN switches can bring additional
performance degradation for SDN-controlled traffic flows in the
data plane. In this paper, we propose a novel robust flow control
mechanism referred to as Priority-based Flow Control (PFC)
for dynamic but disruption-free flow management when it is
necessary to change flow control rules on the fly. PFC minimizes
the complexity of flow modification process in SDN switches
by temporarily adapting the priority of flow rules in order to
substantially reduce the time spent on control-plane processing
during run-time. Measurement results show that PFC is able
to successfully prevent transmission disruption and packet loss
events caused by traffic path changes, thus offering dynamic and
lossless traffic control for SDN switches.
The cognitive interference channel extends the classical two-user interference channel to have unidirectional cooperation at the transmitters. In this model, the cognitive transmitter is assumed to have noncausal knowledge of the other transmitter's current message (primary message). This a priori knowledge is used by the cognitive user to accomplish its two main purposes, i.e., to relay the primary message in order to boost the primary user's data rate and to maximise its own data rate by cancelling the interference at its receiver. The cognitive interference channel is well studied in the literature and capacity results are available for the weak and very strong interference regimes, amongst others. A general solution is still elusive. In this thesis we study the capacity region of cognitive structures that are based in their core on the cognitive interference channel but with the aggregate that an additional node is considered, e.g., an additional receiver node, an additional transmitter node or a relay node.
The cognitive broadcast interference channel consists of the cognitive interference channel with an additional receiver. The cognitive side serves either one or two receivers and the interference goes from the cognitive transmitter to the primary receiver only. In this model we provide a general achievable rate region when the cognitive side serves two receivers. We analyse the discrete memoryless channel and show that the region simplifies to existing results in the literature when certain assumptions are made. An achievable rate region for the Gaussian channel is also provided for the case where the cognitive side sends common information to both receivers. When the cognitive side serves only one receiver, we provide an achievable rate region and an outer bound and show the gap graphically.
The cognitive interference channel with a relay consists of the cognitive interference channel with an additional relay node. In this model we show that as in the interference channel with a relay, interference forwarding is also beneficial. We describe analytically achievable rate regions and show the benefits of interference forwarding. We also provide an achievable rate region with generalised interference forwarding, i.e., the relay forwards the intended message and the interference simultaneously, and show that allowing the relay to allocate part of its power to forward interference is beneficial when we are in the strong but not in the very strong interference regime.
The cognitive interference channel with causal unidirectional destination cooperation is formed by transferring the relaying capabilities of the relay node in the previous model to the cognitive receiver and its operation is causal rather than strictly causal. In this model we show that instantaneous amplify and forward is good enough to achieve the capacity region of the Gaussian channel. We derive analytically an inner and outer bounds and show that they coincide for certain values of the antenna gain at the relay in the very strong interference regime. We also analyse the cognitive interference channel with a relay for the case where the relay operates causally. The capacity region is obtained for a special case of very strong interference.
The cognitive multiple access interference channel consists of the cognitive interference channel with an additional cognitive transmitter. In this model the interference goes from the primary user to the cognitive receiver only. The cognitive users form a MAC channel. We show for this scenario that dirty paper coding achieves the capacity region in the Gaussian case. In the analysis we make use of encoding techniques first utilised for the MAC with state available noncausally at the encoder.
With the massive deployment of broadband access to the end-users, the continuous improvement of the hardware capabilities of end devices and better video compression techniques, acceptable conditions have been met to unleash over-the-top bandwidth demanding and time-stringent P2P applications, as multiview real-time media distribution. Such applications enable the transmission of multiple views of the same scene, providing consumers with a more immersive visual experience.
This thesis proposes an architecture to distribute multiview real-time media content using a hybrid DVB-T2, client-server and P2P paradigms, supported by an also novel QoS solution. The approach minimizes packet delay, inter-ISP traffic and traffic at the ISP core network, which are some of the main drawbacks of P2P networks, whilst still meeting stringent QoS demands. The proposed architecture uses DVB-T2 to distribute a self-contained and fully decodable base-layer video signal, assumed to be always available to the end-user, and an IP network to distribute in parallel - with increased delay - additional IP video streams. The result is a decoded video quality that adapts to individual end-user conditions and maximizes viewing experience.
To achieve its target goal this architecture: defines new services for the ISP?s services network and new roles for the ISP core, edge and border routers; makes use of pure IP multicast transmission at the ISP?s core network, greatly minimizing bandwidth consumption; constructs a geographically contained P2P network that uses P2P application-level multicast trees to assist the distribution of the IP video streams at the ISP access networks, greatly reducing inter-ISP traffic, and; describes a novel QoS control architecture that takes advantage of the Internet resource over-provisioning techniques to meet stringent QoS demands in a scalable manner.
The proposed architecture has been implemented in both real testbed implementation and ns-2 simulations. Results have shown a highly scalable P2P overlay construction algorithm with very fast computation of application-level multicast trees (in the order of milliseconds) and efficient reaction to peer-churn, with no perceptually annoying impairments noticed. Furthermore, huge bandwidth savings are achieved at the ISP core network, which considerably lower the management and investment costs in infrastructure. The QoS based results have also shown that the proposed approach effectively deploys a fast and scalable resource and admission control mechanism, greatly minimizing QoS related signalling events by using a per-class over-provisioning approach and thus preventing per-flow QoS reservation signalling messages. Moreover, the QoS control architecture is aware of network link resources in real-time and supports for service differentiation and network convergence by guaranteeing that each admitted traffic flow receives the contracted QoS.
Finally, the proposed Scalable Architecture for Multiview Real-Time Media Distribution for Next Generation Networks, as a component for a large project demonstrator, has been evaluated by an independent panel of experts following ITU recommendations, obtaining an excellent evaluation as computed by Mean Opinion Score.
We are on the brink of a new era for the wireless telecommunications, an era that will
change the way that business is done. The fifth generation (5G) systems will be the first realization in this
new digital era where various networks will be interconnected forming a unified system. With support
for higher capacity as well as low-delay and machine-type communication services, the 5G networks
will significantly improve performance over the current fourth generation (4G) systems and will also
offer seamless connectivity to numerous devices by integrating different technologies, intelligence, and
flexibility. In addition to ongoing 5G standardization activities and technologies under consideration in the
Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
based technologies operating on unlicensed bands, will also be an integral part of a 5G eco-system. Along
with the 3GPP-based cellular technology, IEEE standards and technologies are also evolving to keep pace
with the user demands and new 5G services. In this article, we provide an overview of the evolution of
the cellular and Wi-Fi standards over the last decade with particular focus on Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical (PHY) layers, and highlight the ongoing activities in both camps driven by the 5G
requirements and use-cases.
This paper investigates a secure wireless powered
integrated service system with full duplex self-energy recycling.
Specifically, an energy-constrained information transmitter (IT),
powered by a power station (PS) in a wireless fashion, broadcasts
two types of services to all users: a multicast service intended for
all users, and a confidential unicast service subscribed to by only
one user while protecting it from any other unsubscribed users
and an eavesdropper. Our goal is to jointly design the optimal
input covariance matrices for the energy beamforming, the multicast
service, the confidential unicast service, and the artificial
noises from the PS and the IT, such that the secrecy-multicast
rate region (SMRR) is maximized subject to the transmit power
constraints. Due to the non-convexity of the SMRR maximization
(SMRRM) problem, we employ a semidefinite programmingbased
two-level approach to solve this problem and find all of
its Pareto optimal points. In addition, we extend the SMRRM
problem to the imperfect channel state information case where
a worst-case SMRRM formulation is investigated. Moreover, we
exploit the optimized transmission strategies for the confidential
service and energy transfer by analyzing their own rank-one
profile. Finally, numerical results are provided to validate our
Web-based content is a dominant application type in mobile network but accessing such content suffers from poor downloading latency. In modern mobile networks, accelerating web content downloading faces three distinctive challenges. First the web contents enter a rich-media era, with an explosion of the content size and an evolution of content structure which not only requires increased network resources but also incurs noticeable computation latency. Second the unavoidable network uncertainties like RTT variation and random loss aggravate such degraded downloading time, although the network has already offered augmented resources like high bandwidth, low packet loss and latency. Third, the newly standardised protocols like HTTP 2.0 and QUIC are expected to provide an optimised resource utilisation, but existing understanding of such protocols when applying on web content is still superficial. By realising these intertwined technical aspects, we examined three web downloading scenarios, figured out how these aspects qualitatively affect downloading time and then proposed optimisation intelligence accordingly. First, we focused on the fixed single connection number of HTTP 2.0 which cannot be adaptive for various content size and network conditions. By clarifying the numerical relationship between content size, network condition and connection number, we proposed a context-aware mobile edge
hint framework. In this framework, a mobile edge hint server offline collects the meta-data of popular webpages as well as the network condition and performs online hints of such information upon receiving the user request. Then the user can execute a novel algorithm to select an optimal connection number by understanding the specific network condition and content characteristics
through the edge hint. Both numerical and test-bed based results validate that this framework
can bring a noticeable acceleration of webpage downloading. Second, we turned our attention to
the computation latency which is caused by the unavoidable computation task during webpage
downloading. We seek for a transport layer approach since pure application layer approaches are
recognised to have practicality and security limitation. To this end, a non-URL based mobile
edge computing framework is proposed to serve a novel transport layer IW selection algorithm at
the client side. This framework is validated to have remarkable performance improvement when
computation latency occupies less than 50% of total downloading time. Third, we investigated
QUIC's performance on web content, especially in the presence of network uncertainties. The
evaluation results carried out on real mobile networks reveal that the different congestion control
algorithms plugged in QUIC can lead to distinctive shortages under network fluctuations.
Then we proposed a mQUIC scheme which performs a customised state and congestion window
synchronisation algorithm based on multiple coordinated connections. We conducted extensive
evaluations of mQUIC and the results substantiated faster and robust downloading time can be
achieved by mQUIC when compared to plain QUIC enable contents.
A compact size, dual-band wearable antenna for
off-body communication operating at the both 2.45 and 5.8
GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band is
presented. The antenna is a printed monopole on an FR4
substrate with a modified loaded ground plane to make the
antenna profile compact. Antennas? radiation characteristics
have been optimized while the proposed antenna placed close
to the human forearm. The fabricated antenna operating on
the forearm has been measured to verify the simulation results.
In this paper, a novel unsupervised deep learning
approach is proposed to tackle the multiuser frequency synchronization
problem inherent in orthogonal frequency-division
multiple-access (OFDMA) uplink communications. The key idea
lies in the use of the feed-forward deep neural network (FF-DNN)
for multiuser interference (MUI) cancellation taking advantage
of their strong classification capability. Basically, the proposed
FF-DNN consists of two essential functional layers. One is
called carrier-frequency-offsets (CFOs) classification layer that
is responsible for identifying the users? CFO range, and another
is called MUI-cancellation layer responsible for joint multiuser
detection (MUD) and frequency synchronization. By such means,
the proposed FF-DNN approach showcases remarkable MUIcancellation
performances without the need of multiuser CFO
estimation. In addition, we also exhibit an interesting phenomenon
occurred at the CFO-classification stage, where the
CFO-classification performance get improved exponentially with
the increase of the number of users. This is called multiuser
diversity gain in the CFO-classification stage, which is carefully
studied in this paper.
In this paper, unsupervised deep learning solutions
for multiuser single-input multiple-output (MU-SIMO) coherent
detection are extensively investigated. According to the ways
of utilizing the channel state information at the receiver side
(CSIR), deep learning solutions are divided into two groups.
One group is called equalization and learning, which utilizes the
CSIR for channel equalization and then employ deep learning for
multiuser detection (MUD). The other is called direct learning,
which directly feeds the CSIR, together with the received signal,
into deep neural networks (DNN) to conduct the MUD. It is found
that the direct learning solutions outperform the equalizationand-
learning solutions due to their better exploitation of the
sequence detection gain. On the other hand, the direct learning
solutions are not scalable to the size of SIMO networks, as
current DNN architectures cannot efficiently handle many cochannel
interferences. Motivated by this observation, we propose
a novel direct learning approach, which can combine the merits
of feedforward DNN and parallel interference cancellation. It is
shown that the proposed approach trades off the complexity for
the learning scalability, and the complexity can be managed due
to the parallel network architecture.
Decentralized dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) that exploits adaptive antenna array interference mitigation diversity at the receiver, is studied for interference-limited environments with high level of frequency reuse. The system consists of base stations (BSs) that can optimize uplink frequency allocation to their user equipments (UEs) to minimize impact of interference on the useful signal, assuming no control over resource allocation of other BSs sharing the same bands. To this end?, good neighbor? (GN) rules allow effective trade-off between the equilibrium and transient decentralized DSA behavior if the performance targets are adequate to the interference scenario. In this paper, we 1) extend the GN rules by including a spectrum occupation control that allows adaptive selection of the performance targets; 2) derive estimates of absorbing state statistics that allow formulation of applicability areas for different DSA algorithms; 3) define a semi-analytic absorbing Markov chain model and study convergence probabilities and rates of DSA with occupation control including networks with possible partial breaks of the GN rules. For higher-dimension networks, we develop simplified search GN algorithms with occupation and power control and demonstrate their efficiency by means of simulations.
Physical layer security (PLS) technologies have attracted
much attention in recent years for their potential to
provide information-theoretically secure communications. Artificial
Noise (AN)-aided transmission is considered as one of
the most practicable PLS technologies, as it can realize secure
transmission independent of the eavesdropper?s channel status.
In this paper, we reveal that AN transmission has the dependency
of eavesdropper?s channel condition by introducing our proposed
attack method based on a supervised-learning algorithm which
utilizes the modulation scheme, available from known packet
preamble and/or header information, as supervisory signals of
training data. Numerical simulation results with the comparison
to conventional clustering methods show that our proposed
method improves the success probability of attack from 4.8%
to at most 95.8% for the QPSK modulation. It implies that
the transmission to the receiver in the cell-edge with low order
modulation will be cracked if the eavesdropper?s channel is good
enough by employing more antennas than the transmitter. This
work brings new insights into the effectiveness of AN schemes and
provides useful guidance for the design of robust PLS techniques
for practical wireless systems.
In this paper, we investigate the hybrid precoding
design for joint multicast-unicast millimeter wave (mmWave) system, where the simultaneous wireless information and power transform is considered at receivers. The subarray-based sparse radio frequency chain structure is considered at base station (BS).
Then, we formulate a joint hybrid analog/digital precoding and power splitting ratio optimization problem to maximize the energy efficiency of the system, while the maximum transmit power at BS and minimum harvested energy at receivers are considered. Due to the difficulty in solving the formulated problem, we first design the codebook-based analog precoding approach and then, we only need to jointly optimize the digital precoding and power splitting ratio. Next, we equivalently transform the fractional objective function of the optimization problem into a subtractive form one and propose a two-loop iterative algorithm to solve it. For the outer loop, the classic Bi-section iterative algorithm is applied.
For the inner loop, we transform the formulated problem into a convex one by successive convex approximation techniques, which is solved by a proposed iterative algorithm. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Abstract?Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is a
promising technology in future wireless networks because of its wide bandwidths that can achieve high data rates. However, high beam directionality at the transceiver is needed due to the large path loss at mmWave. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the beam alignment and power allocation problem in a nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) mmWave system. Diýerent from the traditional beam alignment problem, we consider the NOMA scheme during the beam alignment phase when two users
are at the same or close angle direction from the base station. Next, we formulate an optimization problem of joint beamwidth selection and power allocation to maximize the sum rate, where the quality of service (QoS) of the users and total power constraints are imposed. Since it is diýcult to directly solve the formulated
problem, we start by fixing the beamwidth. Next, we transform the power allocation optimization problem into a convex one, and a closed-form solution is derived. In addition, a one-dimensional search algorithm is used to find the optimal beamwidth. Finally, simulation results are conducted to compare the performance of the proposed NOMA-based beam alignment and power allocation scheme with that of the conventional OMA scheme.
In visible light communication systems, the intensity modulation/direct
detection channel inherently restricts the transmitted signal to be unipolar
(nonnegative only) and incoherent. Those restrictions limit the types of
transceivers that can be used in visible light communication systems; indeed,
the intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers can be readily
utilized, whereas classic radio frequency methods (e.g., schemes such as
pulse amplitude modulation, quadrature amplitude modulation and orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing) require adjustments that reduce their
conventional efficiency. A continuous effort has been made to adapt radio
frequency transceiver techniques to visible light communication; however, up
to date, the proposed solutions came at the expense of the energy efficiency
of the systems. In turn, it severely affects the bit error rate performance
of the system. In light of this, the topic of this thesis is to design energy
efficient transmission schemes to expand the set of legacy radio frequency
modulation methods that can be efficiently used in visible light communication
systems. Thus, the first contribution of this dissertation is a unipolar
transmission technique that allows conveying bipolar symbols through the
intensity modulation/direct detection channel without severely consuming
the amount of transmit power. The second contribution is proposing a
new technique to simultaneously transmit the two parts of two-dimensional
signals over the intensity modulation/direct detection channel. The schemes
are proposed with the objective of minimizing the transmitted power and
reducing the direct current component of two-dimensional transmit signals
by relying on multi-waveform transmission techniques, and, in turn,
providing a high-energy efficient transmission scheme for two-dimensional
signals. The third contribution is a low complex multi-input multi-output
system capable of transmitting unipolar two-dimensional signals. Finally,
the error rate expressions of our proposed transceivers in this work are
derived, and the performance gains of the proposed schemes are evaluated
through Monte-Carlo simulations. The findings show that our schemes
could enhance the energy efficiency of the existing transmission techniques
in visible light communication systems.
Simultaneous improvement of matching and isolation for a modified two-element microstrip patch antenna array is proposed. Two simple patch antennas in a linear array structure are designed, whereas, the impedance matching and isolation are improved without using any conventional matching networks. The presented low profile multifunctional via-less structure comprises of only two narrow T-shaped stubs connected to feed lines, a narrow rectangular stub between them, and a narrow rectangular slot on the ground plane. This design provides a simple, compact structure with low mutual coupling, low cost and no adverse effects on the radiation and resonance. To validate the design, a compact very-closely-spaced antenna array prototype is fabricated at 5.5 GHz which is suitable for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement with a 16 dB, and 40 dB of improvements in the matching and isolation, respectively.
In this paper, a high flat gain waveguide-fed aperture antenna has been proposed. For this purpose, two layers of FR4 dielectric as superstrates have been located in front of the aperture to enhance the bandwidth and the gain of the antenna. Moreover, a conductive shield, which is connected to the edges of the ground plane and surrounding aperture and superstrates, applied to the proposed structure to improve its radiation characteristics. The proposed antenna has been simulated with HFSS and optimized with parametric study and the following results have been obtained. The maximum gain of 13.0 dBi and 0.5-dBi gain bandwidth of 25.9 % (8.96 ? 11.63 GHz) has been achieved. The 3-dBi gain bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 40.7% (8.07-12.20 GHz), which has a suitable reflection coefficient (d-10dBi) in whole bandwidth. This antenna comprises a compact size of (1.5»×1.5»), easy structure and low-cost fabrication.
In this paper, an ultra-wideband, Dielectric
Resonator Antenna (DRA) has been proposed. The proposed
antenna is based on isosceles triangular DRA (TDRA), which is
fed from the base side using a 50© probe. For bandwidth
enhancement and radiation characteristics improvement, a
partially cylindrical-shape hole is etched from its base side
which approached probe feed to the center of TDRA. The
dielectric resonator (DR) is located over an extended conducting
ground plane. This technique has significantly enhanced
antennas bandwidth from 48.8% to 80% (5.29-12.35 GHz),
while the biggest problem was radiation characteristics. The
basis antenna possesses negative gain in a wide range of
bandwidth from 7.5 GHz to 10.5 GHz down to -13.8 dBi. Using
this technique improve antenna gain over 1.6 dBi for whole
bandwidth, while peak gain is 7.2 dBi.
In this letter, we study the beamforming design in a lens-antenna array-based joint multicast-unicast millimeter wave massive MIMO system, where the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer at users is considered. First, we develop a beam selection scheme based on the structure of the lens-antenna array and then, the zero forcing precoding is adopted to cancel the inter-unicast interference among users. Next, we formulate a sum rate maximization problem by jointly optimizing the unicast power, multicast beamforming and power splitting ratio. Meanwhile, the maximum transmit power constraint for the base station and the minimum harvested energy for each user are imposed. By employing the successive convex approximation technique, we transform the original optimization problem into a convex one, and propose an iterative algorithm to solve it. Finally, simulation results are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
This paper presents a parallel computing approach
that is employed to reconstruct original information bits from
a non-recursive convolutional codeword in noise, with the goal
of reducing the decoding latency without compromising the
performance. This goal is achieved by means of cutting a
received codeword into a number of sub-codewords (SCWs)
and feeding them into a two-stage decoder. At the first stage,
SCWs are decoded in parallel using the Viterbi algorithm or
equivalently the brute force algorithm. Major challenge arises
when determining the initial state of the trellis diagram for each
SCW, which is uncertain except for the first one; and such results
in multiple decoding outcomes for every SCW. To eliminate or
more precisely exploit the uncertainty, an Euclidean-distance
minimization algorithm is employed to merge neighboring SCWs;
and this is called the merging stage, which can also run in
parallel. Our work reveals that the proposed two-stage decoder
is optimal and has its latency growing logarithmically, instead
of linearly as for the Viterbi algorithm, with respect to the
codeword length. Moreover, it is shown that the decoding latency
can be further reduced by employing artificial neural networks
for the SCW decoding. Computer simulations are conducted
for two typical convolutional codes, and the results confirm our
This paper presents a machine learning (ML) based
model to predict the diffraction loss around the human body.
Practically, it is not reasonable to measure the diffraction loss
changes for all possible body rotation angles, builds and line
of sight (LoS) elevation angles. A diffraction loss variation
prediction model based on a non-parametric learning technique
called Gaussian process (GP) is introduced. Analysed results state
that 86% correlation and normalised mean square error (NMSE)
of 0.3 on the test data is achieved using only 40% of measured
data. This allows a 60% reduction in required measurements in
order to achieve a well-fitted ML loss prediction model. It also
confirms the model generalizability for non-measured rotation
In this paper, we present a novel random access
method for future mobile cellular networks that support machine
type communications. Traditionally, such networks establish
connections with the devices using a random access procedure,
however massive machine type communication poses several
challenges to the design of random access for current systems.
State-of-the-art random access techniques rely on predicting
the traffic load to adjust the number of users allowed to
attempt the random access preamble phase, however this delays
network access and is highly dependent on the accuracy of
traffic prediction and fast signalling. We change this paradigm by
using the preamble phase to estimate traffic and then adapt the
network resources to the estimated load. We introduce Preamble
Barring that uses a probabilistic resource separation to allow
load estimation in a wide range of load conditions and combine
it with multiple random access responses. This results in a
load adaptive method that can deliver near-optimal performance
under any load condition without the need for traffic prediction
or signalling, making it a promising solution to avoid network
congestion and achieve fast uplink access for massive MTC.
Owing to growth in the popularity of mobile phones, solutions for more efficient mobile network resource management have been increasingly demanded by network operators. Predicting the future state of the network and allocating the network resources based on the predicted state has been proposed as an effective method for efficient management of the network resources by the research community. One of the major factors that changes the future state of network is changes in the behavior of users. As the result, to forecast the future state of network, a major task is to predict the future behaviors of users. This task is accomplished by User Behavior Prediction Models (UBPrMs). In order to maintain the quality of the service, such methods are expected to provide sufficiently accurate prediction. However, the existing methods often are not able to meet this performance requirement.
The accuracy of a predictive model is affected by two distinct sources of error, namely Modeling Error (ME) and Sampling Error (SaE). As the result, one ought to consider both sources of error while improving the performance of a model. To do this, this thesis aims to study and alleviate the impact of the mentioned sources of error on the performance of a UBPrM.
To treat the ME, we propose a novel group-level user behaviors prediction framework as a more accurate alternative for population-level user behaviors prediction models and a more computationally efficient alternative for individual-level user behaviors prediction. The novel framework is called Event Profiling Method (EPM). To diminish the impact of ME, the proposed event-based method takes advantage of similarities amongst users' behavior and the existing underlying patterns that repetitively occur in the network.
To evaluate the proposed framework, EPM method needs to be implemented in real-world scenarios. Video popularity prediction is considered as a suitable use case for EPM. For this purpose, this thesis utilizes the ideas of EPM framework to propose a novel approach for enhancing the video popularity prediction models. Using the proposed approach, we enhance three popularity prediction techniques that outperform the accuracy of the prior state-of-the-art solutions. The major components of the proposed approach are three novel mechanisms for "user grouping", "content classification" and "dominant-follower users identification". The user grouping method is an unsupervised clustering approach that divides the users into an adequate number of user groups with similar interests. The content classification approach identifies the classes of videos with similar early popularity trends. The dominant-follower identification technique divides the users in each group into two distinct subgroups based on their reaction time to the released videos. To predict the popularity of the newly-released videos, our proposed popularity prediction model trains its parameters in each user group and its associated video popularity classes and user subgroups. Evaluations are performed through a 5-fold cross validation and on a dataset containing one month video request records of 26,706 number of BBC iPlayer users. Our analysis shows that the accuracy of the proposed solution outperforms the state-of-the-art including S-H, ML, MRBF models on average by 59%, 27% and 21%, respectively.
Afterwards, this thesis proposes a novel combination technique for multi-dimensional user profiles that is able to treat the SaE. In doing so, the proposed technique considers the samples of other users' behavior (or in general, other items) as a biased approximation of each user (or an item). The method utilizes two conditions on the magnitude and sign of the estimated bias between two users to decide on combining their profiles or not. The proposed technique is evaluated against synthesized and real-world datasets. Our results show that the proposed method provides better estimations of the st
Chu Zheng, Yu Wenjuan, Xiao Pei, Zhou Fuhui, Al-Dhahir Naofal, ul Quddus Atta, Tafazolli Rahim (2019) Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing for D2D-Based URLLC,IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology pp. 1-1
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
A device-to-device (D2D) ultra reliable low latency communications (URLLC) network is investigated in this paper. Specifically, a D2D transmitter opportunistically accesses the radio resource provided by a cellular network and directly transmits short packets to its destination. A novel performance metric is adopted for finite block-length code. We quantify the maximum achievable rate for the D2D network, subject to a probabilistic interference power constraint based on imperfect channel state information (CSI). First, we perform a convexity analysis which reveals that the finite block-length rate for the D2D pair in short-packet transmission is not always concave. To address this issue, we propose two effective resource allocation schemes using the successive convex approximation (SCA)-based iterative algorithm. To gain more insights, we exploit the mono- tonicity of the average finite block-length rate. By capitalizing on this property, an optimal power control policy is proposed, followed by closed-form expressions and approximations for the optimal average power and the maximum achievable average rate in the finite block-length regime. Numerical results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed resource allocation schemes and validate the accuracy of the derived theoretical results.
Selinis Ioannis, Katsaros Konstantinos, Vahid Seiamak, Tafazolli Rahim (2018) Control OBSS/PD Sensitivity Threshold for IEEE 802.11ax BSS Color,Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2018) pp. 1-7
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
IEEE 802.11ax Spatial Reuse (SR) is a new category in the IEEE 802.11 family, aiming at improving the spectrum efficiency and the network performance in dense deployments. The main and perhaps the only SR technique in that amendment is the Basic Service Set (BSS) Color. It aims at increasing the number of concurrent transmissions in a specific area, based on a newly defined Overlapping BSS/Preamble-Detection (OBSS/PD) threshold and the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) from Overlapping BSSs (OBSSs). In this paper, we propose a Control OBSS/PD Sensitivity Threshold (COST) algorithm for adjusting OBSS/PD threshold based on the interference level and RSSI from the associated recipient(s). In contrast to the Dynamic Sensitivity Control (DSC) algorithm that was proposed for setting OBSS/PD, COST is fully aware of any changes in OBSSs and can be applied to any IEEE 802.11ax node. Simulation results in various scenarios, show a clear performance improvement of up to 57% gain in throughput over a conservative fixed OBSS/PD for the legacy BSS Color and DSC.
Future wireless local area networks (WLANs) are expected to serve thousands of users in diverse environments. To address the new challenges that WLANs will face, and to overcome the limitations that previous IEEE standards introduced, a new IEEE 802.11 amendment is under development. IEEE 802.11ax aims to enhance spectrum efficiency in a dense deployment; hence system throughput improves. Dynamic Sensitivity Control (DSC) and BSS Color are the main schemes under consideration in IEEE 802.11ax for improving spectrum efficiency In this paper, we evaluate DSC and BSS Color schemes when physical layer capture (PLC) is modelled. PLC refers to the case that a receiver successfully decodes the stronger frame when collision occurs. It is shown, that PLC could potentially lead to fairness issues and higher throughput in specific cases. We study PLC in a small and large scale scenario, and show that PLC could also improve fairness in specific scenarios.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11ax Spatial Reuse (SR) is a new feature in the IEEE 802.11 family, aiming at improving the spectrum efficiency and the network performance in dense deployments. The main and perhaps the only SR technique in that amendment is the Basic Service Set (BSS) Color. It aims at increasing the number of concurrent transmissions in a specific area, based on a newly defined Overlapping BSS/Preamble-Detection threshold. In this paper, we overview the latest developments introduced in the IEEE 802.11ax for the SR and propose a rate control algorithm developed to exploit the BSS Color scheme. Our proposed algorithm, Damysus is specifically designed to function in dense environments where other off-the-shelf algorithms show poor performance. Simulation results in various dense scenarios, show a clear performance improvement of up to 113% gain in throughput over the well known MinstrelHT algorithm.
Coping with the extreme growth of the number of users is one of the main challenges for the future IEEE 802.11 networks. The high interference level, along with the conventional standardized carrier sensing approaches, will degrade the network performance. To tackle these challenges, the Dynamic Sensitivity Control (DSC) and the BSS Color scheme are considered in IEEE 802.11ax and IEEE 802.11ah, respectively. The main purpose of these schemes is to enhance the network throughput and improve the spectrum efficiency in dense networks. In this paper, we evaluate the DSC and the BSS Color scheme along with the PARTIAL-AID (PAID) feature introduced in IEEE 802.11ac, in terms of throughput and fairness. We also, exploit the performance when the aforementioned techniques are combined. The simulations show a significant gain in total throughput when these techniques are applied.
This paper surveys the literature relating to the application of machine learning to fault management in cellular networks from an operational perspective. We summarise the main issues as 5G networks evolve, and their implications for fault management. We describe the relevant machine learning techniques through to deep learning, and survey the progress which has been made in their application, based on the building blocks of a typical fault management system. We review recent work to develop the abilities of deep learning systems to explain and justify their recommendations to network operators. We discuss forthcoming changes in network architecture which are likely to impact fault management and offer a vision of how fault management systems can exploit deep learning in the future. We identify a series of research topics for further study in order to achieve this.
This paper studies the optimum user selection scheme in a hybrid-duplex device-to-device (D2D) cellular networks. We derive an analytical integral-form expression of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the received signal-to-noise-plus-interference-ratio (SINK) at the D2D node, based on which the closed-form of the outage probability is obtained. Analysis shows that the proposed user selection scheme achieves the best SINK at the D2D node with interference to base station being limited by a pre-defined level. Hybrid duplex D2D can be switched between half and full duplex according to different residual self-interference to enhance the throughput of D2D pair. Simulation results are presented to validate the analysis.
In this paper, the capacity of OFDM/OQAM with isotropic orthogonal transfer algorithm (IOTA) pulse shaping is evaluated through information theoretic analysis. In the conventional OFDM systems the insertion of a cyclic prefix (CP) decreases the system?s spectral efficiency. As an alternative to OFDM, filter bank based multicarrier systems adopt proper pulse shaping with good time and frequency localisation properties to avoid interference and maintain orthogonality in real field among sub-carriers without the use of CP. We evaluate the spectral
efficiency of OFDM/OQAM systems with IOTA pulse shaping in comparison with conventional OFDM/QAM systems, and our analytical model is further extended in order to gain insights into the effect of utilizing the intrinsic interference on the performance of our system. Furthermore, the spectral efficiency of OFDM/OQAM systems is analyzed when the effect of inter-symbol and inter-carrier interference is considered.
This paper presents an analysis on performance of an ultra dense network (UDN) with and without cell cooperation from the perspective of network information theory. We propose a UDN performance metric called Total Average Geometry Throughput which is independent from the user distribution or scheduler etc. This performance metric is analyzed in detail for UDN with and without cooperation. The numerical results from the analysis show that under the studied system model, the total average geometry throughput reaches its maximum when the inter-cell distance is around 6 ~ 8 meters, both without and with cell cooperation. Cell cooperation can significantly reduce inter-cell interference but not remove it completely. With cell cooperation and an optimum number of the cooperating cells the maximum performance gain can be achieved. Furthermore, the results also imply that there is an optimum aggregate transmission power if considering the energy cost per bit.
This paper presents a novel method to estimate the frequency offset between a mobile phone and the infrastructure when the mobile phone initially attaches to the LTE network. The proposed scheme is based on PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel) preambles and can significantly reduce the complexity of preamble detection at the eNodeB side.
This paper proposes a novel approach for enhancing the video popularity prediction models. Using the
proposed approach, we enhance three popularity prediction techniques that outperform the accuracy of the
prior state-of-the-art solutions. The major components of the proposed approach are two novel mechanisms for
"user grouping" and "content classification". The user grouping method is an unsupervised clustering approach
that divides the users into an adequate number of user groups with similar interests. The content classification
approach identifies the classes of videos with similar popularity growth trends. To predict the popularity of
the newly-released videos, our proposed popularity prediction model trains its parameters in each user group
and its associated video popularity classes. Evaluations are performed through a 5-fold cross validation and
on a dataset containing one month video request records of 26,706 number of BBC iPlayer users. Using the
proposed grouping technique, user groups of similar interest and up to 2 video popularity classes for each
user group were detected. Our analysis shows that the accuracy of the proposed solution outperforms the
state-of-the-art including SH, ML, MRBF models on average by 45%, 33% and 24%, respectively. Finally, we
discuss how various systems in the network and service management domain such as cache deployment,
advertising and video broadcasting technologies benefit from our findings to illustrate the implications.
The concept of Ultra Dense Networks (UDNs) is often seen as a key enabler of the next generation mobile networks. In contrast to the traditional cellular networks, it is foreseen that the UDNs will be in many cases installed without traditional RF planning and proper site selection. One of the main characteristics (and at the same time challenge) of the UDNs is therefore excessive inter-cell interference. Additionally, small cells as one of the main components on UDNs are foreseen to operate in licensed as well as license-exempt frequency bands, and therefore inter-system and inter-tier interference become major concerns.
Widely used and well established systems such as LTE, or WiFi are often proposed by the industry and academia to be reused in the context of UDNs. However, as these systems were not designed to deal with problems caused by the UDN deployment, a significant effort is currently being undertaken to adapt them and enable their operation in dense and ultra-dense environments. Despite this tremendous effort, due to the need for backward compatibility, the proposed updates and patches usually provide sub-optimal gains and often lead to significant signaling overheads.
In this thesis we highlight some of the main challenges and requirements related to UDNs and then provide an extensive review of state-of-art UDN performance analysis and approaches to medium access control (MAC) design for UDNs. Then we investigate performance limits of regular and irregural UDNs. More specifically, we examine the impact of the relative antenna height between BS and UE antennas on the performance of UDNs. Based on our study, we found that regular networks share many of the same performance behaviour as irregular network. In partivular, we showed that by decreasing the relative antenna heights across the network we can counter the decay of per cell average achievable rate. We explicitly derived the relationship between BS density and relative antenna height and confirmed that both regular and irregular networks share this property. Despite the pessimistic conclusion related to the per cell performance found in the literature, in this work we also show that area spectral efficiency does not necessarily decay to zero as BS density approaches infinity. In terms of the benefit of proper BS site selection, we compare the average per cell rate of regular networks and that of the irregular networks, and we find that proper BS deployment may improve network performance to some extent. Finally, based on the lessons learned, we present and discuss a novel MAC protocol designed for 5G UDN deployments. In contrast to other candidates considered by the industry for UDN deployment, the proposed MAC provides a number of built-in features which improve its efficiency in dense and ultra dense deployments. The multi-channel operation along with the dynamic channel selection constitutes the core of the proposed MAC, limiting performance degradation resulting from high level of inter-cell interference and simplifying network planning. The proposed MAC design is further evaluated through simulations for outdoor deployments in non-coexistence and coexistence scenarios. Our results reveal that the proposed MAC is capable of operating effectively in highly dense deployment scenarios when tuned appropriately. In case of the coexistence capabilities of the investigated design, we show that coexistence with LBT-based systems such as WiFi is also possible, but requires additional tuning to maintain fair channel access for all systems. Lastly,we show that the proposed MAC design outperforms WiFi and LTE (which are commonly considered for UDN deployment) in all considered scenarios. More specifically, our results indicate that area spectral efficiency for the proposed MAC is approximately 500% higher compared to WiFi (IEEE 802.11ac), and 40% higher compared to LTE (excl. CA and MIMO), with improved performance for cell-edge users.
This paper proposes a novel unipolar transceiver for visible light communication (VLC) by using
orthogonal waveforms. The main advantage of our proposed scheme over most of the existing unipolar
schemes in the literature is that the polarity of the real-valued orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) sample determines the pulse shape of the continuous-time signal and thus, the unipolar
conversion is performed directly in the analog instead of the digital domain. Therefore, our proposed
scheme does not require any direct current (DC) biasing or clipping as it is the case with existing schemes
in the literature. The bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed scheme is analytically derived
and its accuracy is verified by using Matlab simulations. Simulation results also substantiate the potential
performance gains of our proposed scheme against the state-of-the-art OFDM-based systems in VLC; it
indicates that the absence of DC shift and clipping in our scheme supports more reliable communication
and outperforms the asymmetrically clipped optical-OFDM (ACO-OFDM), DC optical-OFDM (DCOOFDM)
and unipolar-OFDM (U-OFDM) schemes. For instance, our scheme outperforms ACO-OFDM
by at least 3 dB (in terms of signal to noise ratio) at a target BER of 10
This paper presents a novel design of trapped microstrip-ridge gap waveguide by using partially filled air gaps in a conventional microstrip-ridge gap waveguide. The proposed method offers an applicable solution to obviate frustrating assembly processes for standalone high-frequency circuits employing the low temperature co-fired ceramics technology which supports buried cavities. To show the practicality of the proposed approach, propagation characteristics of both trapped microstrip and microstrip-ridge gap waveguide are compared first. Then, a right-angle bend is introduced, followed by designing a power divider. These components are used to feed a linear 4-element array antenna. The bandwidth of the proposed array is 13 GHz from 64~76 GHz and provides the realized gain of over 10 dBi and the total efficiency of about 80% throughout the operational band. The antenna is an appropriate candidate for upper bands of WiGig (63.72~70.2) and FCC-approved 70 GHz band (71~76 GHz) applications.
The effect of vehicle?s proximity on the radiation
pattern when the RADAR?s antenna is mounted on the body of autonomous cars is analysed. Two directional radiation patterns with different specifications are placed at different locations of a realistic car body model. The simulation is performed based on
ray-tracing method at 77 GHz, the standard frequency for self-driving applications. It is shown that to obtain a robust RADAR sensor, the antenna radiation pattern is better to have relatively higher gain and lower side-lobe-level (SLL), than narrower halfpower-
beamwidth (HPBW) and higher front-to-back (F/B) ratio.
Both academia and industry can benefit from this study.
Utilizing the holography theory, a bidirectional
wideband leaky wave antenna in the millimetre wave (mmW)
band is presented. The antenna includes a printed pattern of continuous metallic strips on an Alumina 99:5% sheet, and a surface wave launcher (SWL) to produce the initial reference waves on the substrate. To achieve a bidirectional radiation pattern, the fundamental TE mode is excited by applying a Vivaldi antenna (as the SWL). The proposed holographic-based leaky wave antenna (HLWA) is fabricated and tested and the measured results are aligned with the simulated ones. The antenna has 22:6% fractional bandwidth with respect to the central frequency of 30 GHz. The interference pattern is designed to generate a 15 deg backward tilted bidirectional radiation
pattern with respect to the normal of the hologram sheet. The frequency scanning property of the designed HLWA is also investigated.
This paper presents the measurement results and
analysis for outdoor wireless propagation channels at 26 GHz
over 2 GHz bandwidth for two receiver antenna polarization
modes. The angular and wideband properties of directional
and virtually omni-directional channels, such as angular spread,
root-mean-square delay spread and coherence bandwidth, are
analyzed. The results indicate that the reflections can have a significant
contribution in some realistic scenarios and increase the
angular and delay spreads, and reduce the coherence bandwidth
of the channel. The analysis in this paper also show that using
a directional transmission can result in an almost frequencyflat
fading channel over the measured 2 GHz bandwidth; which
consequently has a major impact on the choice of system design
choices such as beamforming and transmission numerology.
Conventional mobility management schemes tend to hit the core network with increased signaling
load when the cell size is shrinking and the user mobility speed increases. To mitigate this problem
research community has proposed various intelligent mobility management schemes that take advantage
of the predictability of the users mobility pattern. However, most of the proposed solutions are only
focused on signaling of the active-state (i.e., handover signaling) and proposals on improvement of
the idle-state signaling has been limited and were not well received from the industrial practitioners.
This paper first surveys the major shortcomings of the existing proposals for the idle mode mobility
management and then proposes a new architecture, namely predictive mobility management (PrMM) to
mitigate the identified challenges. An analytical framework is developed and a closed form solution for
the expected signaling overhead of the PrMM is presented. The results of numerical evaluations confirm
that, depending on user mobility and network configuration, the PrMM efficiency can surpass the long
term evolution (LTE) 4G signaling scheme by over 90%. Analysis of the results shows that the best
performance is achieved at highly dense paging areas and lower cell crossing rates.
Deep learning is driving a radical paradigm shift in wireless communications, all the way from the application layer down to the physical layer. Despite this, there is an ongoing debate as to what additional values artificial intelligence (or machine learning) could bring to us,
particularly on the physical layer design; and what penalties there may have? These questions motivate a fundamental rethinking of the wireless modem design in the artificial intelligence era. Through several physical-layer case studies, we argue for a significant role that machine learning could play, for instance in parallel error-control coding and decoding, channel equalization, interference cancellation,
as well as multiuser and multiantenna detection. In addition, we will also discuss the fundamental bottlenecks of machine learning as
well as their potential solutions in this paper.
The vision, as we move to future wireless communication systems, embraces diverse qualities
targeting significant enhancements from the spectrum, to user experience. Newly-defined air-interface
features, such as large number of base station antennas and computationally complex physical layer
approaches come with a non-trivial development effort, especially when scalability and flexibility need to
be factored in. In addition, testing those features without commercial, off-the-shelf equipment has a high
deployment, operational and maintenance cost. On one hand, industry-hardened solutions are inaccessible
to the research community due to restrictive legal and financial licensing. On the other hand, researchgrade
real-time solutions are either lacking versatility, modularity and a complete protocol stack, or, for
those that are full-stack and modular, only the most elementary transmission modes are on offer (e.g., very
low number of base station antennas). Aiming to address these shortcomings towards an ideal research
platform, this paper presents SWORD, a SoftWare Open Radio Design that is flexible, open for research,
low-cost, scalable and software-driven, able to support advanced large and massive Multiple-Input Multiple-
Output (MIMO) approaches. Starting with just a single-input single-output air-interface and commercial
off-the-shelf equipment, we create a software-intensive baseband platform that, together with an acceleration/
profiling framework, can serve as a research-grade base station for exploring advancements towards
future wireless systems and beyond.
The fifth-generation (5G) new radio (NR) cellular
system promises a significant increase in capacity with reduced latency. However, the 5G NR system will be deployed along with legacy cellular systems such as the long-term evolution (LTE). Scarcity of spectrum resources in low frequency bands motivates adjacent-/co-carrier deployments. This approach comes with a
wide range of practical benefits and it improves spectrum utilization by re-using the LTE bands. However, such deployments restrict the 5G NR flexibility in terms of frame allocations to avoid the most critical mutual adjacent-channel interference. This
in turns prevents achieving the promised 5G NR latency figures. In this we paper, we tackle this issue by proposing to use the minislot uplink feature of 5G NR to perform uplink acknowledgement and feedback to reduce the frame latency with selective blind
retransmission to overcome the effect of interference. Extensive
system-level simulations under realistic scenarios show that the
proposed solution can reduce the peak frame latency for feedback
and acknowledgment up to 33% and for retransmission by up to
25% at a marginal cost of an up to 3% reduction in throughput.
In this paper, single-input multiple-output (SIMO)
system when employing massive binary array-receiver has been investigated while constructive noise has been observed in the single user system to detect the higher-order QAM modulated signals. To fully understand the interesting phenomenon, mathematical
model has been established and analyzed in this paper.
Theorems of the signal detectability are studied to understand the best operating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) range based on the error behaviours of the single user SIMO system. Within the observation and analysis, a novel new multiuser SIMO with binary array-receiver structure has been proposed and can be considered as a solution to deal with the high complexity problem
that the traditional model has when using maximum likelihood (ML) detection. The key idea of this approach is to set up the multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) model into a frequency division multiple access (FDMA) scenario and regard each user as single user SIMO to achieve the goal of decreasing
the exponentially increased complexity of ML detection method to the number of users. It is shown by numerical results that each user in this system can achieve a promising error behaviour in
the specific best operating SNR range.
In this paper, an orthogonal stochastic gradient
descent (O-SGD) based learning approach is proposed to
tackle the wireless channel over-training problem inherent in artificial neural network (ANN)-assisted MIMO signal detection. Our basic idea lies in the discovery and exploitation of the training-sample orthogonality between the current training epoch and past training epochs. Unlike the conventional SGD that updates the neural network simply based upon current training samples, O-SGD discovers the correlation
between current training samples and historical training
data, and then updates the neural network with those
uncorrelated components. The network updating occurs
only in those identified null subspaces. By such means, the neural network can understand and memorize uncorrelated components between different wireless channels, and thus is more robust to wireless channel variations. This hypothesis is confirmed through our extensive computer simulations as well as performance comparison with the conventional SGD
Multi-access edge computing for mobile computingtask
offloading is driving the extreme utilization of available degrees of freedom (DoF) for ultra-reliable low-latency downlink communications. The fundamental aim of this work is to find latency-constrained transmission protocols that can achieve a very-low outage probability (e.g. 0:001%). Our investigation is mainly based upon the Polyanskiy-Poor-Verd´u formula on the finite-length coded channel capacity, which is extended from the
quasi-static fading channel to the frequency selective channel. Moreover, the use of a suitable duplexing mode is also critical to the downlink reliability. Specifically, time-division duplexing
(TDD) outperforms frequency-division duplexing (FDD) in terms of the frequency diversity-gain. On the other hand, FDD takes the advantage of having more temporal DoF in the downlink, which can be exchanged into the spatial diversity-gain through the use of space-time coding. Numerical study is carried out to compare the reliability between FDD and TDD under various latency constraints.
Recently, the fifth-generation (5G) cellular system
has been standardised. As opposed to legacy cellular systems geared towards broadband services, the 5G system identifies key use cases for ultra-reliable and low latency communications
(URLLC) and massive machine-type communications (mMTC).
These intrinsic 5G capabilities enable promising sensor-based vertical applications and services such as industrial process automation. The latter includes autonomous fault detection and prediction, optimised operations and proactive control.
Such applications enable equipping industrial plants with a sixth sense (6S) for optimised operations and fault avoidance. In this direction, we introduce an inter-disciplinary approach integrating wireless sensor networks with machine learningenabled
industrial plants to build a step towards developing
this 6S technology. We develop a modular-based system that can be adapted to the vertical-specific elements. Without loss of generalisation, exemplary use cases are developed and presented including a fault detection/prediction scheme, and a sensor
density-based boundary between orthogonal and non-orthogonal transmissions. The proposed schemes and modelling approach are implemented in a real chemical plant for testing purposes, and a high fault detection and prediction accuracy is achieved
coupled with optimised sensor density analysis.
This paper exploits a generic downlink symbiotic radio (SR) system, where a Base Station (BS) establishes a direct (primary) link with a receiver having an integrated backscatter device (BD). In order to accurately measure the backscatter link, the backscattered signal packets are designed to have ?nite block length. As such, the backscatter link in this SR system employs the ?nite block-length channel codes. According to different types of the backscatter symbol period and transmission rate, we investigate the non-cooperative and cooperative SR (i.e., NSR and CSR) systems, and derive their average achievable rate of the direct and backscatter links, respectively. We formulate two optimization problems, i.e., transmit power minimization and energy ef?ciency maximization. Due to the non-convex property of these formulated optimization problems, the semide?nite programming (SDP) relaxation and the successive convex approximation (SCA) are considered to design the transmit beamforming vector. Moreover, a low-complexity transmit beamforming structure is constructed to reduce the computational complexity of the SDP relaxed solution. Finally, the simulation results are demonstrated to validate the proposed schemes.
As an alternative to classic point-to-point (PTP) unicast transmission, point-to-multipoint (PTM) broadcast/multicast transmission offers simultaneous transmission of the same content to multiple receivers, using just a fixed amount of radio resources for a given coverage area. Such transmission capability has been kept enhancing in the legacy 4th Generation long-term evolution (4G-LTE), namely evolved multimedia broadcast multicast service (eMBMS). As the current multicast systems in the eMBMS use time division multiplexing (TDM) to separate different transmissions, which, however, can cause inefficient utilization of scarce radio resources, and even becomes an impediment in developing such systems to meet new use cases in the 5th generation (5G). To tackle this problem, we proposed a Rate-Splitting (RS) based precoding design to improve the multicast system performances.
However, as an emerging precoding technology, various theoretical questions, and practical issues remain to be abundantly investigated. To this end, the overall objective of the proposed research is to first investigate the eMBMS system with both LTE and new radio (NR) specifications and then propose effective approaches i.e., Rate-Splitting to improve the PTM system performance.
Firstly, we conduct a study of the eMBMS technique from the physical layer perspective, comparing between the two major techniques of the eMBMS i.e. multicast broadcast single frequency network (MBSFN) and single cell point to multipoint (SC-PTM), via link-level simulations. A selection of key performance indicators (KPIs) defined by the ITU-R for the IMT-2020 evaluation has been evaluated on data channel, e.g., physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH). This performance evaluation serves as a benchmark for comparison with a potential 5G broadcast solution. Furthermore, we investigate the error performance, mobility tolerance, and coverage of the control channel, e.g., physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) based on both LTE and NR specifications.
Secondly, we target at an overloaded downlink multicarrier multigroup multicast system with RS under the assumption of Gaussian input, looking into both the achievable rate and error performance. Two optimization methods are provided, i.e., weight minimum mean square error (WMMSE) and successive convex approximation (SCA), to jointly optimize the precoding matrix and subcarrier allocation. Simulation results reveal that RS provides a substantial user experience improvement compared to the state-of-the-art multicast transmission schemes.
Thirdly, we investigate the RS under the constraint of finite-alphabet constellations. We formulate an optimization problem that maximizes the weighted sum rate of the RS system and solve the problem with an iterative gradient descent algorithm to find the optimal precoder. The simulation results show that compared to the traditional linear precoding scheme, RS can reach the maximum achievable sum-rate with a less transmit power. Then, based on the obtained RS precoder with corresponding constellation inputs, we look into the error performance, e.g., bit error rate (BER) and symbol error rate (SER) of the proposed RS scheme, with channel coding and iterative soft detection and decoding. On top of the performance improvement in terms of achievable rate, the proposed RS scheme also has a better error performance compared to other considered linear precoding schemes in overloaded scenarios.
A novel reconfigurable dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) employed a T-Shaped microstrip-fed structure in order to excite the dielectric resonator is presented. By carefully adjusting the location of the inverted U-shaped slot, switches, and length of arms, the proposed antenna can support WLAN wireless system. In addition, the presented DRA can be proper for cognitive radio because of availability switching between wideband and narrowband operation. The proposed reconfigurable DRA consisting of a Roger substrate with relative permittivity 3 and a size of 20 mm × 30 mm × 0.75 mm and a dielectric resonator (DR) with a thickness of 9 mm and the overall size of 18 mm × 18 mm. Moreover, the antenna has been fabricated and tested, which test results have enjoyed a good agreement with the simulated results. As well as this, the measured and simulated results show the reconfigurability that the proposed DRA provides a dual-mode operation and also three different resonance frequencies as a result of switching the place of arms.
A machine learning (ML) technique has been used
to synthesis a linear millimetre wave (mmWave) phased array
antenna by considering the phase-only synthesis approach. For
the first time, gradient boosting tree (GBT) is applied to estimate
the phase values of a 16-element array antenna to generate
different far-field radiation patterns. GBT predicts phases while
the amplitude values have been equally set to generate different
beam patterns for various 5G mmWave transmission scenarios
such as multicast, unicast, broadcast and unmanned aerial vehicle
With the advent of Network Function Virtualization (NFV) techniques, a subset of the Internet traffic will be treated by a chain of virtual network functions (VNFs) during their journeys while the rest of the background traffic will still be carried based on traditional routing protocols. Under such a multi-service network environment, we consider the co-existence of heterogeneous traffic control mechanisms, including flexible, dynamic service function chaining (SFC) traffic control and static, dummy IP routing for the aforementioned two types of traffic that share common network resources. Depending on the traffic patterns of the background traffic which is statically routed through the traditional IP routing platform, we aim to perform dynamic service function chaining for the foreground traffic requiring VNF treatments, so that both the end-to-end SFC performance and the overall network resource utilization can be optimized. Towards this end, we propose a deep reinforcement learning based scheme to enable intelligent SFC routing decision-making in dynamic network conditions. The proposed scheme is ready to be deployed on both hybrid SDN/IP platforms and future advanced IP environments. Based on the real GEANT network topology and its one-week traffic traces, our experiments show that the proposed scheme is able to significantly improve from the traditional routing paradigm and achieve close-to-optimal performances very fast while satisfying the end-to-end SFC requirements.
A clear understanding of mixed-numerology signals multiplexing and isolation in the physical layer is of importance to enable spectrum efficient radio access network (RAN) slicing, where the available access resource is divided into slices to cater to services/users with optimal individual design. In this paper, a RAN slicing framework is proposed and systematically analyzed from a physical layer perspective. According to the baseband and radio frequency (RF) configurations imparities among slices, we categorize four scenarios and elaborate on the numerology relationships of slices configurations. By considering the most generic scenario, system models are established for both uplink and downlink transmissions. Besides, a low out of band emission (OoBE) waveform is implemented in the system for the sake of signal isolation and inter-service/slice-band-interference (ISBI) mitigation. We propose two theorems as the basis of algorithms design in the established system, which generalize the original circular convolution property of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Moreover, ISBI cancellation algorithms are proposed based on a collaboration detection scheme, where joint slices signal models are implemented. The framework proposed in the paper establishes a foundation to underpin extremely diverse user cases in 5G that implement on a common infrastructure.
Holographic-type Communication (HTC) has been
widely deemed as an emerging type of augmented reality (AR)
media which offers Internet users deeply immersive experiences.
In contrast to the traditional video content transmissions, the
characteristics and network requirements of HTC have been
much less studied in the literature. Due to the high bandwidth
requirements and various limitations of today?s HTC platforms,
large-scale HTC streaming has never been systematically attempted
and comprehensively evaluated till now. In this paper, we
introduce a novel HTC based teleportation platform leveraging
cloud-based remote production functions, also supported with
newly proposed adaptive frame buffering and end-to-end signalling
techniques against network uncertainties, which for the
first time is able to provide assured user experiences at the public
Internet scale. According to our real-life experiments based on
strategically deployed cloud sites for remote production functions,
we have demonstrated the feasibility of supporting user assured
performances for such applications at the global Internet scale.
Decentralized joint transmit power and beam-
forming selection for multiple antenna wireless ad hoc net-
works operating in a multi-user interference environment is
considered. An important feature of the considered environ-
ment is that altering the transmit beamforming pattern at
some node generally creates more signiýcant changes to in-
terference scenarios for neighboring nodes than variation of
the transmit power. Based on this premise, a good neighbor
algorithm is formulated in the way that at the sensing node,
a new beamformer is selected only if it needs less than the
given portion of the transmit power required for the current
beamformer. Otherwise, it keeps the current beamformer
and achieves the performance target only by means of power
adaptation. Equilibrium performance and convergence be-
havior of the proposed algorithm compared to the best re-
sponse and regret matching solutions is demonstrated by
means of semi-analytic Markov chain performance analysis
for small scale and simulations for large scale networks.
One of the ways to provide greater coverage and capacity for future wireless networks is through network densification. This is also one of the drivers for future IEEE 802.11 deployments, aiming not only to improve throughput per link, but the overall network performance in dense deployments. That said, the IEEE 802.11ax amendment is currently focusing on addressing the challenges and improving the spectrum efficiency in dense deployments with hundreds of Access Points (APs) and Stations (STAs). This
work strives to shed some light in the area of spectrum efficiency by trying to understand (i) the operation and the impact of the newly introduced Spatial Reuse feature of
the IEEE 802.11ax amendment and (ii) if it is possible to realise multicast/broadcast transmissions over Wi-Fi while preserving reliability.
Although the IEEE 802.11ax Spatial Reuse feature, namely BSS Color, offers several advantages and good potential for improving spectrum efficiency, it also imposes several
challenges. Towards filling the aforementioned gaps and address challenges, particular contributions were made in this thesis. First, this work presents a performance evaluation of the BSS Color scheme in various scenarios, where its shortcomings are identified. Second, this work proposes a generic framework to obtain throughput for dense cellular-like (small-cell) deployments, based on a mathematical model. Third, this work introduces COST, a novel Spatial Reuse technique for improving BSS Color performance by exploiting the information provided by this scheme and providing throughput gain of up to 57% while preserving fairness between BSSs. Fourth, this thesis proposes the design of a rate control algorithm that leverages the BSS Color and COST, providing up to 113% throughput gain in dense deployments when compared to the traditional off-the-shelf MinstrelHT. Finally, this thesis elaborates a network coding approach to enable multicast/broadcast transmissions over Wi-Fi, that could enhance throughput performance by 20% when compared with the legacy MAC feedback mechanism. The main goal for this contribution is to provide a means for realising reliable multicast/broadcast communications by reducing the use of the Wi-Fi feedback mechanism.
The above contributions were evaluated through system-level simulations, emulating real-world deployments. This work showed that advanced techniques, that exploit all available information by monitoring the inter-BSS and intra-BSS frames, are required to support the IEEE 802.11ax Spatial Reuse feature operation and provide throughput gain while preserve fairness among users. Furthermore, it was shown that the network coding should carefully be designed and enabled only when it is required, otherwise throughput loss could be observed due to the transmitted overhead. The scenario and application?s requirements should also be taken into account (e.g. latency).
In this work, we provide the first attempt to evaluate
error performance of Rate-Splitting (RS) based transmission
strategies with constellation-constrained coding/modulation. The consider scenario is an overloaded multigroup multicast, where RS can mitigate the inter-group interference thus achieve a better max-min fair group rate over conventional transmission strategies.
We bridge the RS-based rate optimization with modulationcoding scheme selection, and implement them in a developed transceiver framework with either linear or non-linear receiver, where the latter equips with a generalized sphere decoder. Simulation results of a coded bit error rate demonstrate that, while the conventional strategies suffer from the error floor in the considered scenario, the RS-based strategy delivers a superior
performance even with low complexity receiver techniques.
The proposed analysis, transceiver framework and evaluation
methodology provide a generic baseline solution to validate the effectiveness of the RS-based system design in practice.
Index Terms?Rate-splitting, overloaded system, multigroup
multicast, rank-deficient, generalized sphere decoder, coded bit error rate.
In this letter, a dual-band 8x8 MIMO antenna that
operates in the sub-6 GHz spectrum for future 5G multiple-input
multiple-output (MIMO) smartphone applications is presented.
The design consists of a fully grounded plane with closely spaced
orthogonal pairs of antennas placed symmetrically along the long
edges and on the corners of the smartphone. The orthogonal
pairs are connected by a 7.8 mm short neutral line for mutual
coupling reduction at both bands. Each antenna element consists
of a folded monopole with dimensions 17.85 x 5mm2 and can
operate in 3100-3850 MHz for the low band and 4800-6000 MHz
for the high band ([S11] Â -10dB). The fabricated antenna
prototype is tested and offers good performance in terms of
Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC), Mean Effective Gain
(MEG), total efficiency and channel capacity. Finally, the user
effects on the antenna and the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
are also presented.
In this paper, metamaterial loading on loop and
open loop microstrip filters is investigated where both
rectangular loop and open loop structures are considered. Spiral resonators are loaded on the four sides of the square loop and result in higher size reduction compared to the conventional split ring resonators with identical structural parameters. It is shown that, for both proposed filters, metamaterial loading provides size reduction, due to possessing lower resonant
frequency of spiral resonators. The structures are analytically investigated through the transmission matrix method. In the designed rectangular loop filters, there are two nulls on both sides of the pass-band, which provide high out-of-band rejection and is preserved in the corresponding miniaturized metamaterial loaded structures. However open loop resonators provide lower resonant frequencies or more compact size filters. The proposed filter is fabricated and tested and measured results are in good agreement with simulation ones.
Millimeter wave (mmWave) systems with effective beamforming capability play a key role
in fulfilling the high data-rate demands of current and future wireless technologies. Hybrid analog-todigital
beamformers have been identified as a cost-effective and energy-efficient solution towards deploying
such systems. Most of the existing hybrid beamforming architectures rely on a subconnected phase shifter
network with a large number of antennas. Such approaches, however, cannot fully exploit the advantages of
large arrays. On the other hand, the current fully-connected beamformers accommodate only a small number
of antennas, which substantially limits their beamforming capabilities. In this paper, we present a mmWave
hybrid beamformer testbed with a fully-connected network of phase shifters and adjustable attenuators and
a large number of antenna elements. To our knowledge, this is the first platform that connects two RF inputs
from the baseband to a 16ý 8 antenna array, and it operates at 26 GHz with a 2 GHz bandwidth. It provides
a wide scanning range of 60ý, and the flexibility to control both the phase and the amplitude of the signals
between each of the RF chains and antennas. This beamforming platform can be used in both short and
long-range communications with linear equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) variation between
10 dBm and 60 dBm. In this paper, we present the design, calibration procedures and evaluations of such a
complex system as well as discussions on the critical factors to consider for their practical implementation.
In this paper, an 8×8 Multiple Input Multiple
Output (MIMO) antenna design for Fifth Generation (5G) sub-
6GHz smartphone applications is presented. The antenna
elements are based off a folded quarter wavelength monopole
that operate at 3.4-3.8GHz. Isolation between antenna elements is provided through physical distancing. The fabricated antenna prototype outer casing is made from Rogers R04003C with dimensions based on future 5G enabled phones. Measured results show an operating bandwidth of 3.32 to 3.925GHz (S11
Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) model has been constructed and presented showing the user?s effects on the antenna?s Sparameter results. Measurements of the amount of power
absorbed by the head and hand during operation have also been simulated.
This paper presents a fully-transparent and novel
frequency selective surface (FSS) that can be deployed instead of conventional glass to reduce the penetration loss encountered by millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies in typical outdoorindoor (O2I) communication scenarios. The presented design uses a 0:035 mm thick layer of indium tin oxide (ITO), which is a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited on the surface of the glass, thereby ensuring the transparency of the structure. The paper also presents a novel unit cell that has been used to design the hexagonal lattice of the FSS structure. The dispersion and transmission characteristics of the proposed design are presented and compared with conventional glass. The presented FSS can be used for both 26 GHz and 28 GHz bands of the mmWave spectrum and offers a lower transmission loss as compared to conventional glass without any considerable impact on the aesthetics of the building infrastructure.
This paper presents empirically based ultrawideband
and directional channel measurements, performed in
the Terahertz (THz) frequency range over 250 GHz bandwidth
from 500 GHz to 750 GHz. Measurement setup calibration
technique is presented for free-space measurements taken at
Line-of-Sight (LoS) between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver(Rx) in an indoor environment. The atmospheric effects on signal propagation in terms of molecular absorption by oxygen and
water molecules are calculated and normalized. Channel impulse responses (CIRs) are acquired for the LoS scenario for different antenna separation distances. From the CIRs the Power Delay Profile (PDP) is presented where multiple delay taps can be observed caused due to group delay products and reflections from the measurement bench.
In this paper, a high-gain phased array antenna with wide-angle beam-scanning capability is proposed for fifth- generation (5G) millimeter-wave applications. First, a novel, end-fire, dual-port antenna element with dual functionalities of radiator and power splitter is designed. The element is composed a substrate integrated cavity (SIC) and a dipole based on it. The resonant frequencies of the SIC and dipole can be independently tuned to broaden the impedance bandwidth. Based on this dual-port element, a 4-element subarray can be easily constructed without resorting to a complicated feeding network. The end-fire subarray features broad beam-width of over 180 degrees, high isolation, and low profile, rendering it suitable for wide-angle beam-scanning applications in the H-plane. In addition, the methods of steering the radiation pattern downwards or upwards in the E-plane are investigated. As a proof-of-concept, two phased array antennas each consisting of eight subarrays are designed and fabricated to achieve the broadside and wide-angle beam-scanning radiation. Thanks to the elimination of surface wave, the mutual coupling between the subarrays can be reduced for improving the scanning angle while suppressing the side-lobe level. The experimental predictions are validated by measurement results, showing that the beam of the antenna can be scanned up to 65 degrees with a scanning loss only 3.7 dB and grating lobe less than -15 dB.