My publications

Publications

Liu Y, Wang W, Chambers J, Kilic V, Hilton ADM (2017) Particle ow SMC-PHD lter for audio-visual multi-speaker tracking,Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation pp. 344-353
Sequential Monte Carlo probability hypothesis density (SMC- PHD) ltering has been recently exploited for audio-visual (AV) based tracking of multiple speakers, where audio data are used to inform the particle distribution and propagation in the visual SMC-PHD lter. How- ever, the performance of the AV-SMC-PHD lter can be a ected by the mismatch between the proposal and the posterior distribution. In this pa- per, we present a new method to improve the particle distribution where audio information (i.e. DOA angles derived from microphone array mea- surements) is used to detect new born particles and visual information (i.e. histograms) is used to modify the particles with particle ow (PF). Using particle ow has the bene t of migrating particles smoothly from the prior to the posterior distribution. We compare the proposed algo- rithm with the baseline AV-SMC-PHD algorithm using experiments on the AV16.3 dataset with multi-speaker sequences.
Liu Y, Wang W, Zhao Y (2017) Particle flow for sequential Monte Carlo implementation of probability hypothesis density,Proceedings of ICASSP 2017 pp. 4371-4375 IEEE
Target tracking is a challenging task and generally no analytical solution is available, especially for the multi-target tracking systems. To address this problem, probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter is used by propagating the PHD instead of the full multi-target posterior. Recently, the particle flow filter based on the log homotopy provides a new way for state estimation. In this paper, we propose a novel sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) implementation for the PHD filter assisted by the particle flow (PF), which is called PF-SMCPHD filter. Experimental results show that our proposed filter has higher accuracy than the SMC-PHD filter and is computationally cheaper than the Gaussian mixture PHD (GM-PHD) filter.
Martín-Fabiani Ignacio, Lesage de la Haye Jennifer, Schulz Malin, Liu Yang, Lee Michelle, Duffy Brendan, D?Agosto Franck, Lansalot Muriel, Keddie Joseph (2018) Enhanced Water Barrier Properties of Surfactant-Free Polymer Films Obtained by MacroRAFT-Mediated Emulsion Polymerization,ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 10 (13) pp. 11221-11232 American Chemical Society
The presence of low molar mass surfactants in latex films results in detrimental effects on their water permeability, gloss and adhesion. For applications as coatings, there is a need to develop formulations that do not contain surfactants and that have better water barrier properties. Having previously reported the synthesis of surfactant-free latex particles in water using low amounts (
Liu Y, Hilton A, Chambers J, Zhao Y, Wang W (2018) Non-zero diffusion particle flow SMC-PHD filter for audio-visual multi-speaker tracking,Proceedings of ICASSP 2018 IEEE
The sequential Monte Carlo probability hypothesis density
(SMC-PHD) filter has been shown to be promising for
audio-visual multi-speaker tracking. Recently, the zero diffusion
particle flow (ZPF) has been used to mitigate the weight
degeneracy problem in the SMC-PHD filter. However, this
leads to a substantial increase in the computational cost due to
the migration of particles from prior to posterior distribution
with a partial differential equation. This paper proposes an alternative
method based on the non-zero diffusion particle flow
(NPF) to adjust the particle states by fitting the particle distribution
with the posterior probability density using the nonzero
diffusion. This property allows efficient computation of
the migration of particles. Results from the AV16.3 dataset
demonstrate that we can significantly mitigate the weight degeneracy
problem with a smaller computational cost as compared
with the ZPF based SMC-PHD filter.
Liu Yang, Wang Wenwu, Chambers Jonathon, Kilic Volkan, Hilton Adrian (2017) Particle flow SMC-PHD filter for audio-visual
multi-speaker tracking. Proc. 13th International Conference on Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation(LVA/ICA 2017), Grenoble, France, February 21-23, 2017.
,
In: Tichavský P, Babaie-Zadeh M, Michel O, Thirion-Moreau N (eds.), Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation. LVA/ICA 2017 Proceedings 13th International Conference on Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation(LVA/ICA 2017) 10169 pp. 344-353 Springer
Sequential Monte Carlo probability hypothesis density (SMC-
PHD) filtering has been recently exploited for audio-visual (AV) based
tracking of multiple speakers, where audio data are used to inform the
particle distribution and propagation in the visual SMC-PHD filter. However, the performance of the AV-SMC-PHD filter can be affected by the
mismatch between the proposal and the posterior distribution. In this paper, we present a new method to improve the particle distribution where
audio information (i.e. DOA angles derived from microphone array measurements) is used to detect new born particles and visual information
(i.e. histograms) is used to modify the particles with particle
flow (PF).
Using particle
flow has the benefit of migrating particles smoothly from
the prior to the posterior distribution. We compare the proposed algorithm with the baseline AV-SMC-PHD algorithm using experiments on
the AV16.3 dataset with multi-speaker sequences.
Liu Yang, Hu Qinghua, Zou Yuexian, Wang Wenwu (2019) Labelled non-zero particle flow for SMC-PHD filtering,Proceedings - ICASSP 2019 Technical Committee
The sequential Monte Carlo probability hypothesis density
(SMC-PHD) filter assisted by particle flows (PF) has been
shown to be promising for audio-visual multi-speaker tracking. A clustering step is often employed for calculating the particle flow, which leads to a substantial increase in the computational cost. To address this issue, we propose an alternative method based on the labelled non-zero particle flow (LNPF) to adjust the particle states. Results obtained from
the AV16.3 dataset show improved performance by the proposed method in terms of computational efficiency and tracking accuracy as compared with baseline AV-NPF-SMC-PHD methods.
Liu Yang, Kiliç Volkan, Guan Jian, Wang Wenwu (2019) Audio-Visual Particle Flow SMC-PHD Filtering for Multi-Speaker Tracking,IEEE Transactions on Multimedia IEEE
Sequential Monte Carlo probability hypothesis density (SMC-PHD) filtering is a popular method used recently for audio-visual (AV) multi-speaker tracking. However, due to the weight degeneracy problem, the posterior distribution can be represented poorly by the estimated probability, when only a few particles are present around the peak of the likelihood density function. To address this issue, we propose a new framework where particle flow (PF) is used to migrate particles smoothly from the prior to the posterior probability density. We consider
both zero and non-zero diffusion particle flows (ZPF/NPF), and developed two new algorithms, AV-ZPF-SMC-PHD and AV-NPFSMC-
PHD, where the speaker states from the previous frames are also considered for particle relocation. The proposed algorithms are compared systematically with several baseline tracking methods using the AV16.3, AVDIAR and CLEAR datasets, and are shown to offer improved tracking accuracy and average effective sample size (ESS).
Tracking an unknown and time-varying number of targets (e.g., speakers) in indoor environments using audio-visual (AV) modalities has received increasing interest in numerous ?elds including video conferencing, individual speaker discrimination, and human-computer interaction.

The audio-visual sequential Monte Carlo probability hypothesis density (AV-SMCPHD) ?lter is a popular baseline for multi-target tracking, offering an elegant framework for fusing audio-visual information and dealing with a varying number of speakers. However, the performance of this ?lter can be adversely affected by the weight degeneracy problem, where the weights of most of the particles may become very small, while only few remain signi?cant, during the iteration of the algorithm.

To address this issue, this thesis proposes the AV-SMC-PHD ?lter by incorporating particle ?ows de?ned in terms of the ordinary differential equation and the Fokker-Planck equation. This thesis considers both zero and non-zero diffusion particle ?ows (ZPF/NPF), and developed two new algorithms, AV-ZPF-SMC-PHD and AV-NPFSMC-PHD, where the speaker states from the previous frames are also considered for particle relocation. The particle ?ow migrates particles from the prior distribution to the posterior distribution, using a homotopy function which de?nes the ?ow in synthetic time. The proposed methods can mitigate the particle degeneracy of the AV-SMC-PHD ?lter and improve tracking accuracy.
Another issue is that the performance of the multi-speaker tracking algorithms is often degraded by mis-detection and clutter in the measurements. To address this issue, this thesis proposes an intensity particle ?ow (IPF) SMC-PHD ?lter based on the intensity function derived from the measurements, informed by the clutter density and the detection probability. The IPF-SMC-PHD ?lter improves tracking accuracy, but induces a high computational overhead, due to the requirement for computing the sum of the likelihood intensity functions and the third-order differentiation of the likelihood density. As a result, the computational complexity of IPF is proportional to the cube of the number of measurements.

To address this problem, this thesis proposes a labelled particle ?ow (LPF) algorithm where particle labels are estimated from the measurements from multiple sensors and then used to update particles and estimate speaker states. Since the LPF only uses the ?rst differentiation of the likelihood density and replaces the clustering step by the sum of particle states, LPF offers a higher computational e?ciency as compared with other particle ?ow methods where a clustering method is often used to estimate the target states. All the proposed methods are extensively evaluated using different datasets, such as AV16.3, AVDIAR and CLEAR. The results show that the weight degeneracy problem has been mitigated by our proposed methods which offer higher tracking accuracy than the baseline methods in a variety of scenarios such as occlusion and rapid movements of the speakers.