Hatak I, Floh A, Zauner A (2015) Working on a dream: sustainable organisational change in SMEs using the example of the Austrian wine industry, Review of Managerial Science Springer
Driving sustainable development through new products or services is
especially important for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as they have a
vital role to play in managing limited environmental and social resources. Unfortunately,
there remains considerable uncertainty as to how SMEs will discover,
develop and realise sustainability-related opportunities in their organisations. Thus,
the purpose of this article is to address this gap by analysing how this qualitative
change process associated with a shift to sustainable development actually unfolds
in SMEs. To do so it examines small and medium-sized wineries in Austria. Based
on the results of a Delphi study, a multi-layer process model that differentiates
between unfreezing, changing and refreezing processes is developed. The framework
shows that the unfreezing of the status quo is mainly accomplished by the
business owner?s attitude towards sustainability. In the course of the changing
process, change related to the adoption of greener business practices follows a
hierarchical order, starting with business activity (the first layer). Then, four
dimensions of capital resources (the second layer) must be revised in order to
implement the change successfully. After that, relevant stakeholders (the third layer)
must be integrated into this iterative learning process. Finally, in the course of
refreezing, change is embedded in the organisation by the ongoing commitment of
the business owner and future sustainable expansion strategies. The developed
framework may serve as a guideline for small and medium-sized wineries, but also
for a broader set of SMEs implementing sustainable organisational change in the
Koller M, Floh A, Zauner A (2011) Further insights into perceived value and consumer loyalty: A "Green" perspective, Psychology and Marketing 28 (12) pp. 1154-1176
Zauner A, Floh A, Koller M (2011) Perceived Value in Consumption-Systems Applied to the Automotive Industry,
Zauner A, Koller M, Floh A (2011) Being Connected,
Koller M, Zauner A, Floh A (2011) Investigating the Halo of Perceived Value in Consumption-Systems: Negative Experiences Loom Larger,
Through the customer?s eyes, wireless telecommunications are a typical example of a so-called consumption system, comprising a product and a service domain. People consume an entity in which multiple value perceptions from both subsystems (wireless service and cell phone) are gained and affect attitudes, intentions and future behaviour within and across the subsystems. Value perceptions are gained along the dimensions of functionality, economic aspects, emotions and social facets, regarding both service and product. Some of those value perceptions spill over, from product to service and vice versa, while others do not. Those that spill over affect value perceptions and loyalty intentions in the other subsystem. These results provide the basis for deriving practical implications for the marketing management of firms operating in such a consumption system. Given the presence of spill-over effects, both parties involved are advised to revise their marketing activities accordingly
Floh A, Madlberger M (2007) Measuring the antecedents of impulsive buying behavior on the WWW, Advances in Consumer Research 34 pp. 403-404
Multiple facets of perceived value perceptions drive loyalty intentions. However, this
value-loyalty link is not uniform for all customers. In fact, the present study identifies three
different segments that are internally consistent and stable across different service industries,
using two data sets: the wireless telecommunication industry (sample size 1,122) and the
financial services industry (sample size 982). Comparing the results of a single-class solution
with finite mixture results confirms the existence of unobserved customer segments. The three
segments found are characterized as ?rationalists?, ?functionalists? and ?value maximizers?.
These results point the way for value-based segmentation in loyalty initiatives and reflect the
importance of a multidimensional conceptualization of perceived value, comprising cognitive
and affective components. The present results substantiate the fact that assuming a
homogeneous value-loyalty link provides a misleading view of the market. The paper derives
implications for marketing research and practice in terms of segmentation, positioning, loyalty
programs and strategic alliances.
Koller, Monika, Floh A, Alexander Zauner, Thomas Rusch (2013) Persuasibility and the self ? investigating heterogeneity among consumers, Australasian Marketing Journal 21 (2) pp. 94-104
This article investigates unobserved heterogeneity in the relation between self-related variables and susceptibility to interpersonal influence. We test a structural model explaining susceptibility to interpersonal influence through self-concept clarity and self-esteem. As the degree of interpersonal persuasibility can vary significantly across individuals, we apply finite mixture modeling to identify unobserved heterogeneity and, hence, different customer segments, based on a database of n=1,013.We find two different groups for which the path coefficients in the structural model partly differ. These groups can be described in terms of personality-related characteristics like materialism, the need for uniqueness and persuasion knowledge, as well as by demographics. It is crucial for both retailers and e-tailers to understand which consumer segments are more prone than others to interpersonal influence. The findings of the present study contribute to the understanding of fundamental phenomena in consumption choice behavior and provide guidance for psychographic segmentation.
Treiblmaier H, Pinterits A, Floh A (2006) The adoption of public e-payment services, Journal of E-Government 3 (2) pp. 33-51
Electronic government initiatives in the majority of cases pass a number of different stages, starting with a static Web site and ending with fully interactive sites that are capable of handling a multitude of transactions. The possibility of transferring money online plays an important role for those e-government initiatives that include financial transactions, such as paying taxes, fees, or fines. This paper combines the issues of e-payment and e-government, and proposes a model that depicts important factors influencing users' online payment behavior. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach has been used to assess the strength of the relationships among different constructs, including users' previous experience, their trust in e-payment security, and the perceived convenience of the payment process. Our results indicate that trust (both in a frictionless use of the system and in e-payment security) can be seen as an important antecedent for the adoption of online payments on the part of the users. From the government's point of view, the potentials of exerting influence seem to be somewhat limited: while national institutions in developed countries are usually perceived as trustworthy, users' attitudes toward the Internet may be more skeptical, depending on their previous experiences. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Teller C, Alexander A, Floh A (2015) Performance Spill-Over Effects between Retail Agglomerations and their Stores ? the Case of the High Street, Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Association for Education and Research in Commercial Distribution (EAERCD)
Floh A, Madlberger, M (2013) The Role of Atmospheric Cues in Online Impulse-Buying Behavior, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications
This study extends a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) model to include impulse-buying behavior, which plays a vital role in electronic shopping but has not gained much attention in e-commerce research. Grounding our research in environmental psychology, we test the effects of virtual atmospheric cues on online impulse-buying behavior and spending, via a consumer survey. The study applies elaborated mediating variables (shopping enjoyment and impulsiveness) to develop a structural model linking three categories of atmospheric cues of an electronic store (content, design, and navigation) to approach behavior variables (impulse-buying behavior and expenditure). The results support the validity of the S-O-R model in the context of online impulse-buying behavior and show a significant positive effect of two dimensions of virtual atmospheric cues (design and navigation)
This paper investigates the competitive relationship between dominant urban agglomeration formats (traditional ?evolved? town centres and ?created? shopping malls) and the drivers of competiveness in the form of key agglomeration resources (accessibility, parking condition, tenant mix, atmosphere). Based on a consumer survey (n, 2,161) across three distinctive European capital cities, co-variance based structural equation modelling reveals remarkably limited differences between formats in terms of the investigated drivers of competitiveness. Positive relationships of patronage towards both formats in all cities and the significant difference in why respondents patronise them suggest a partly complementary existence of the two types of agglomeration. We explain this apparent complementarity through the theory of adaptive resilience that has seen evolved agglomeration formats develop to provide a differentiated offer and consumer attraction compared to enclosed malls.
Teller C, Floh A (2015) Research into retail patronage and its key antecedents ? retrospective and future views, Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Association for Education and Research in Commercial Distribution (EAERCD)
Teller C, Alexander A, Floh A (2015) Network and Node Spill-over Effects in Retail Agglomerations,
Floh A (2012) Social Media Marketing bei KMUs, In: Rössl D (eds.), Small Business Management aus austauschorientierter Perspektive Auflage Wien
Pinterits A, Treiblmaier H, Floh A (2008) Success Factors of Internet Payment Systems, International Journal on Electronic Business 7 (2) pp. 1-14
Zauner A, Floh A, Koller M (2011) The Consumption-System Wireless Telecommunications and the Perceived Value - Loyalty Intentions Link,
Zauner A, Floh A, Koller M (2011) Perceived Value in Consumption-Systems Applied to the Automotive Industry,
Floh A, Zauner A, Koller M (2010) Behavioral Post-consumption Intentions from a Higher-order Multidimensional Value Perspective,
Floh A, Zauner A, Koller M (2010) A Multidimensional Conceptualization of the Customer Value-Loyalty Chain from a Consumption-System Perspective,
Zauner A, Koller M, Floh A (2011) Value and loyalty in wireless telecommunications ? an experimental investigation of the halo between product and service,
Floh A, Sheth J (2006) Examining the Role of Meta-Analysis in Marketing Science,
Floh A (2010) Linking Customer Attitudinal and Behavioral Metrics to Financial Outcomes: A Latent Growth Mixture Model Approach,
Zauner A, Koller M, Floh A (2012) Customer Value in Produkt und Dienstleistungsbündeln: Eine qualitative Betrachtung, Dermarkt ? International Journal of Marketing 51 (2-3) pp. 75-84 Springer
At first sight the Internet is the ideal medium for carrying out banking activities due to its cost savings potential and speed of information transmission. From a technological and cost-driven standpoint it may seem quite logical for banks to shift as many banking activities online as possible. At the same time, the question of how to foster customer loyalty arises when the relationship between the bank and the user becomes a virtual one.
This paper investigates the importance of antecedents of online loyalty such as trust, quality of the Web site, quality of the service and overall satisfaction. Rather than investigating which factors drive customers to use online banking instead of offline banking, this paper addresses the problem of how to keep customers online and loyal to a specific supplier.
A survey among more than 2,000 customers of an Austrian online bank was conducted and a structural equation modeling approach was used to gain important insights into how customer retention in the online banking business can be ensured. Satisfaction and trust were identified as important antecedents of loyalty. Additionally, the moderating role of consumer characteristics (gender, age, involvement, perceived risk and technophobia) was supported by the data.
Floh A (2008) A Framework for Measuring the Quality of Long-Term Relationships, Dermarkt ? International Journal of Marketing 47 (4) pp. 169-171 Springer
Most of the empirical studies in relationship
marketing are based on the assumption that the
quality of relationships has a positive effect on their duration and profitability. Unfortunately, none of the papers found in the literature discuss or define what a relationship is or should be. This research note examines conceptually the nature of relationships and their quality. A theoretical framework for
measuring the quality of relationships called Business Relationship Closeness (BRCI) is provided.
Bharadwaj S, Floh A (2008) Linking Brand and Customer Attitudinal and Behavioral Metrics to Financial Outcomes: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach,
Floh A, Koller M, Zauner A (2013) Taking a deeper look at online reviews: The asymmetric effect of valence intensity on shopping behaviour, Journal of Marketing Management 29 (5-6) pp. 646-670
This study tests the asymmetric effect of user-generated, open-ended online reviews on online shopping behaviour (intention-to-buy, intention-to-recommend, and willingness-to-pay). Three online experiments involving manipulating the valence intensity of online reviews for hotels, books, and running shoes (overall customer sample of n = 818) provide empirical support for the proposed relationship. The valence intensity of online reviews moderates the effect of online reviews on purchase intentions. In other words, a significant change in online shopping behaviour was found for positive medium and strong reviews but not for negative ones. Based on these findings, managers should encourage customers to share their positive consumption-related experiences by offering strong arguments that will convince other customers. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Westburn Publishers Ltd.
This study tests the asymmetric effect of user-generated, open-ended online reviews on online shopping behaviour (intention-to-buy, intention-to-recommend, and willingness-to-pay). Three online experiments involving manipulating the valence intensity of online reviews for hotels, books, and running shoes (overall customer sample of n=818) provide empirical support for the proposed relationship. The valence intensity of online reviews moderates the effect of online reviews on purchase intentions. In other words, a significant change in online shopping behaviour was found for positive medium and strong reviews, but not for negative ones. Based on these findings, managers should encourage customers to share their positive consumption-related experiences by offering strong arguments that will convince other customers.
Stores in retail and other service agglomerations, such as high streets and shopping malls, compete with each other for customers yet they may also cooperate with each other in relation to operational and marketing matters within the agglomeration in which they are located. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of both competition and cooperation, i.e. coopetition, on agglomeration and store performance. Drawing on the network debate, this paper develops a conceptual model and tests it in three distinctive agglomerations, each in an urban setting, namely first- and second-order high streets as well as an inner-city retail and service cluster. A total of 277 store managers served as key informants in our survey. Variance-based structural equation modelling reveals that both competition and cooperation improve agglomeration performance directly. Despite competition having a negative direct effect on stores? performance, the overall effect is insignificant. Cooperation affects store performance positively but only indirectly. The contribution of this paper is to reveal and substantiate the complex nature and benefits of the effects of the coopetition of stores located within agglomerations. More widely it underlines the importance of managers of agglomerations understanding the differing effects of competition and cooperation and using this understanding in their management decision making.
Retailers have always worked to establish close relationships with customers through the retail marketing mix. Thus, the literature has a long tradition of testing the effects of various instruments on retail patronage. This meta-study synthesizes prior research into one comprehensive framework. We use 14,895 effect sizes reported by more than 239,000 shoppers from 41 countries extracted from 350 independent samples, to test the impact of 24 marketing-mix instruments on retail patronage. Specifically, we investigate the direct and indirect effects of these instruments on store satisfaction, word of mouth, patronage intention, and behavior. Product and brand management related instruments display the strongest effects on most outcome variables, whereas price, communication, service and incentive management instruments display effects on selected outcomes. Distribution management turns out to be of secondary importance. However, the effectiveness of these instruments depends on the specific shopping context (food/non-food, shopping frequency, single store/agglomeration, hedonic/utilitarian), the retail environment (gross domestic product, country innovativeness, retail sales share, retail employment, Internet era), and the employed method (participant type, study design, data source). Specifically, we reveal most differences for hedonic shopping environments and developed countries. Also, the store?s advertising and atmosphere have gained importance in the Internet era, while purchase incentives, in-store orientation, and store location have lost relevance. This study contributes to a synoptic understanding of the comparable effectiveness of retail marketing instruments on retail patronage. It offers insights into the effectiveness of marketing-mix instruments and provides guidance on whether and when to invest in them. It also presents an agenda for future research on marketing-mix instruments.
The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual model that includes suitable theories and predictors for understanding and circumscribing governance choice and its drivers for marketing-process sourcing in multinational enterprises, and to test this model and make assumptions about how such processes are possibly governed by taking fundamental economic decision making theories into account The literature review has shown that there is currently very minimal understanding of how activities and processes in marketing can be sourced and geographically relocated. This study thus contributes to the body of knowledge that deals with the sourcing and allocation of marketing processes by developing a clear picture of what marketing processes are and how they can be identified and contextualised in multinational enterprises.
Based on the literature review, the conceptual model suggests how new institutional economics interplays with marketing-process sourcing. The model applies the transaction-cost theory as well as the resource-based theory in order to synthesise practice-oriented process characteristics, process-specific factors and non-transactional aspects with regard to strategic partnership and contracting.
The study is designed as a sequential-explanatory research project using mixed methods in accordance with Ulrich. Furthermore, a cluster sampling among NAICS industry categories was also carried out. Consequently, this study performs practical research in business economics in two steps: the acquisition and the interpretation of problem-relevant empirical-scientific theories and scientific knowledge using an online questionnaire and, in addition, the use and testing of the explanations and statements in managerial and practical contexts through expert interviews.
The regression analyses of the quantitatively collected data has shown that the process governance of pricing, branding, communication, supply chain management, customer management, marketing controlling and marketing management cannot be explained through transaction-cost economics, whereas significant results for market research, product development and direct marketing are exhibited by the theory. Furthermore, this research has shown highly significant correlations between contractual and market governance of marketing processes and strategic-specific variables derived from resource-based theory.
The research has three primary limitations. Firstly, the qualitative research part of the mixed-method research could not be performed comprehensively. The discussions of the experts were limited to five interviews carried out in order to confirm the research findings. However, from a qualitative exploratory perspective the interviews enrich the results of the quantitative data-collection phase. Secondly, design limitation may arise from the sampling strategy, since key informant conflicts occur. Thirdly, technological uncertainty of product development, branding and customer management only possess moderate reliability coefficients and have to be treated with caution.