Justin Read

Professor Justin Read


Head of the Department of Physics
+44 (0)1483 686814
07 BB 03
Head of Department Enquiries - physicshod@surrey.ac.uk
PA: Mrs Joanna Moore
+44 (0)1483 689421

Academic and research departments

Astrophysics Research Group, Department of Physics.

Biography

Areas of specialism

Astrophysics; Computational Science; Dark Matter; Gravitational Dynamics; Fluid Dynamics; Cosmology; Galaxy Formation

University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of the Department of Physics

    Research

    Research interests

    My teaching

    My publications

    Publications

    (2021)Breaking beta: a comparison of mass modelling methods for spherical systems, In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society501(1)pp. 978-993 Oxford University Press

    ABSTRACT We apply four different mass modelling methods to a suite of publicly available mock data for spherical stellar systems. We focus on the recovery of the density and velocity anisotropy as a function of radius, either using line-of-sight velocity data only or adding proper motion data. All methods perform well on isotropic and tangentially anisotropic mock data, recovering the density and velocity anisotropy within their 95 per cent confidence intervals over the radial range 0.25 < R/R1/2 < 4, where R1/2 is the half-light radius. However, radially anisotropic mocks are more challenging. For line-of-sight data alone, only methods that use information about the shape of the velocity distribution function are able to break the degeneracy between the density profile and the velocity anisotropy, β, to obtain an unbiased estimate of both. This shape information can be obtained through directly fitting a global phase-space distribution function, by using higher order ‘virial shape parameters’ or by assuming a Gaussian velocity distribution function locally, but projecting it self-consistently along the line of sight. Including proper motion data yields further improvements, and in this case, all methods give a good recovery of both the radial density and velocity anisotropy profiles.

    Michelle L M Collins, Justin I Read, Rodrigo A Ibata, R Michael Rich, Nicolas F Martin, Jorge Peñarrubia, Scott C Chapman, Erik J Tollerud, Daniel R Weisz (2021)Andromeda XXI – a dwarf galaxy in a low-density dark matter halo, In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society505(4)pp. 5686-5701 Oxford University Press

    Andromeda XXI (And XXI) has been proposed as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy with a central dark matter density that is lower than expected in the standard $\Lambda$ cold dark matter ($\Lambda$CDM) cosmology. In this work, we present dynamical observations for 77 member stars in this system, more than doubling previous studies to determine whether this galaxy is truly a low-density outlier. We measure a systemic velocity of $v_r=-363.4\pm 1.0{\rm \, km\, s^{-1}}$ and a velocity dispersion of $\sigma _v=6.1^{+1.0}_{-0.9}{\rm \, km\, s^{-1}}$, consistent with previous work and within $1\sigma$ of predictions made using the modified Newtonian dynamics framework. We also measure the metallicity of our member stars from their spectra, finding a mean value of ${\rm [Fe/H]}=-1.7\pm 0.1$ dex. We model the dark matter density profile of And XXI using an improved version of gravsphere, finding a central density of $\rho _{\rm DM}({\rm 150 pc})=2.6_{-1.5}^{+2.4} \times 10^7 \, {\rm M_\odot \, kpc^{-3}}$ at 68 per cent confidence, and a density at two half-light radii of $\rho _{\rm DM}({\rm 1.75 kpc})=0.9_{-0.2}^{+0.3} \times 10^6 \, {\rm M_\odot \, kpc^{-3}}$ at 68 per cent confidence. These are both a factor of${\sim }3\!-\!5$ lower than the densities expected from abundance matching in $\Lambda$CDM. We show that this cannot be explained by ‘dark matter heating’ since And XXI had too little star formation to significantly lower its inner dark matter density, while dark matter heating only acts on the profile inside the half-light radius. However, And XXI’s low density can be accommodated within $\Lambda$CDM if it experienced extreme tidal stripping (losing ${\gt}95{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of its mass), or if it inhabits a low-concentration halo on a plunging orbit that experienced repeated tidal shocks.

    T Goerdt, B Moore, JI Read, J Stadel (2010)Core Creation in Galaxies and Halos Via Sinking Massive Objects, In: _apj725pp. 1707-1716
    A Charbonnier, C Combet, M Daniel, S Funk, JA Hinton, D Maurin, C Power, JI Read, S Sarkar, MG Walker, MI Wilkinson (2011)Dark matter profiles and annihilation in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: prospectives for present and future γ-ray observatories - I. The classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies, In: _mnras418pp. 1526-1556
    S Garbari, JI Read, G Lake (2011)Limits on the local dark matter density, In: _mnras416pp. 2318-2340
    W Dehnen, JI Read (2011)N-body simulations of gravitational dynamics, In: European Physical Journal Plus126pp. 55-55
    A Pontzen, JI Read, R Teyssier, F Governato, A Gualandris, N Roth, J Devriendt (2015)Milking the spherical cow - on aspherical dynamics in spherical coordinates, In: MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY451(2)pp. 1366-1379 OXFORD UNIV PRESS
    Filippo Contenta, Eduardo Balbinot, James Petts, Justin Read, Mark Gieles, Michelle Collins, Jorge Peñarrubia, Maxime Delorme, Alessia Gualandris (2018)Probing dark matter with star clusters: a dark matter core in the ultra-faint dwarf Eridanus II, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We present a new technique to probe the central dark matter (DM) density profile of galaxies that harnesses both the survival and observed properties of star clusters. As a first application, we apply our method to the `ultra-faint' dwarf Eridanus II (Eri II) that has a lone star cluster ~45 pc from its centre. Using a grid of collisional N-body simulations, incorporating the effects of stellar evolution, external tides and dynamical friction, we show that a DM core for Eri II naturally reproduces the size and the projected position of its star cluster. By contrast, a dense cusped galaxy requires the cluster to lie implausibly far from the centre of Eri II (>1 kpc), with a high inclination orbit that must be observed at a particular orbital phase. Our results imply that either a cold DM cusp was `heated up' at the centre of Eri II by bursty star formation, or we are seeing an evidence for physics beyond cold DM.

    A Knebe, SR Knollmann, SI Muldrew, FR Pearce, MA Aragon-Calvo, Y Ascasibar, PS Behroozi, D Ceverino, S Colombi, J Diemand, K Dolag, BL Falck, P Fasel, J Gardner, S Gottlöber, C-H Hsu, F Iannuzzi, A Klypin, Z Lukić, M Maciejewski, C McBride, MC Neyrinck, S Planelles, D Potter, V Quilis, Y Rasera, JI Read, PM Ricker, F Roy, V Springel, J Stadel, G Stinson, PM Sutter, V Turchaninov, D Tweed, G Yepes, M Zemp (2011)Haloes gone MAD: The Halo-Finder Comparison Project, In: _mnras415pp. 2293-2318
    S Garbari, JI Read, G Lake (2011)Limits on the local density of dark matter, In: ArXiv e-prints
    T Bruch, AHG Peter, J Read, L Baudis, G Lake (2009)Dark matter disc enhanced neutrino fluxes from the Sun and Earth, In: Physics Letters B674pp. 250-256
    S Garbari, JI Read, G Lake (2012)Limits on the local dark matter density, In: European Physical Journal Web of Conferences19pp. 1008-1008
    Ioana Ciucă, Daisuke Kawata, Shin’ichiro Ando, Francesca Calore, Justin I Read, Cecilia Mateu (2018)A Gaia DR2 search for dwarf galaxies towards Fermi-LAT sources: implications for annihilating dark matter, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society480(2)pp. 2284-2291 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We make the first attempt to find dwarf galaxies in eight Fermi-LAT extended, unassociated, source fields using Gaia DR2. After probing previously unexplored heliocentric distances of d ˂ 20 kpc with an extreme-deconvolution (XD) technique, we find no sign of a dwarf galaxy in any of these fields despite Gaia's excellent astrometric accuracy. Our detection limits are estimated by applying the XD method to mock data, obtaining a conservative limit on the stellar mass of M* ˂ 104 M☉ for d ˂ 20 kpc. Such a low stellar mass implies either a low-mass subhalo or a massive stripped-down subhalo. We use an analytic model for stripped subhaloes to argue that, given the sizes and fluxes of the Fermi-LAT sources, we can reject the hypothesis that they owe to dark matter annihilation.

    JI Read, O Agertz, MLM Collins (2016)Dark matter cores all the way down, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society459pp. 2573-2590 Oxford University Press

    We use high resolution simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to study the physics of dark matter cusp-core transformations at the edge of galaxy formation: M200 = 107 109M .We work at a resolution ( 4 pc minimum cell size; 250M per particle) at which the impact from individual supernovae explosions can be resolved, becoming insensitive to even large changes in our numerical `sub-grid' parameters. We nd that our dwarf galaxies give a remarkable match to the stellar light pro le; star formation history; metallicity distribution function; and star/gas kinematics of isolated dwarf irregular galaxies. Our key result is that dark matter cores of size comparable to the stellar half mass radius r1=2 always form if star formation proceeds for long enough. Cores fully form in less than 4 Gyrs for the M200 = 108M and 14 Gyrs for the 109M dwarf. We provide a convenient two parameter `coreNFW' tting function that captures this dark matter core growth as a function of star formation time and the projected stellar half mass radius. Our results have several implications: (i) we make a strong prediction that if CDM is correct, then `pristine' dark matter cusps will be found either in systems that have truncated star formation and/or at radii r > r1=2; (ii) complete core formation lowers the projected velocity dispersion at r1=2 by a factor 2, which is su cient to fully explain the `too big to fail problem'; and (iii) cored dwarfs will be much more susceptible to tides, leading to a dramatic scouring of the subhalo mass function inside galaxies and groups.

    Alexandra L Gregory, Michelle L M Collins, Justin Read, Michael J Irwin, Rodrigo A Ibata, Nicolas F Martin, Alan W McConnachie, Daniel R Weisz (2019)Kinematics of the Tucana Dwarf Galaxy: an unusually dense dwarf in the Local Group, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society485(2)pp. 2010-2025 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We present new FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectroscopy of 36 member stars in the isolated Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy Tucana. We measure a systemic velocity for the system of vTuc=216.7+2.9−2.8vTuc=216.7−2.8+2.9 km s−1, and a velocity dispersion of σv,Tuc=14.4+2.8−2.3σv,Tuc=14.4−2.3+2.8 km s−1. We also detect a rotation gradient of dvrdχ=7.6+4.2−4.3dvrdχ=7.6−4.3+4.2 km s−1 kpc−1, which reduces the systemic velocity to vTuc=215.2+2.8−2.7vTuc=215.2−2.7+2.8 km s−1 and the velocity dispersion to σv,Tuc=13.3+2.7−2.3σv,Tuc=13.3−2.3+2.7 km s−1. We perform Jeans modelling of the density profile of Tucana, using the line-of-sight velocities of the member stars. We find that it favours a high central density consistent with ‘pristine’ subhaloes in Λ cold dark matter, and a massive dark matter halo (∼1010 M⊙) consistent with expectations from abundance matching. Tucana appears to be significantly more centrally dense than other isolated Local Group dwarfs, making it an ideal laboratory for testing dark matter models.

    T Bruch, J Read, L Baudis, G Lake (2009)Detecting the Milky Way’s Dark Disk, In: _apj696pp. 920-923
    V Henault-Brunet, M Gieles, O Agertz, JI Read (2015)Multiple populations in globular clusters: the distinct kinematic imprints of different formation scenarios, In: MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY450(2)pp. 1164-1198 OXFORD UNIV PRESS
    S Garbari, G Lake, J Read (2010)Measuring the Local Dark Matter Density, In: American Institute of Physics Conference Series1240pp. 411-412
    U Ural, MI Wilkinson, JI Read, MG Walker (2015)A low pre-infall mass for the Carina dwarf galaxy from disequilibrium modelling., In: Nat Commun6pp. 7599-7599 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

    Dark matter-only simulations of galaxy formation predict many more subhalos around a Milky Way-like galaxy than the number of observed satellites. Proposed solutions require the satellites to inhabit dark matter halos with masses 10(9)-10(10 )Msun at the time they fell into the Milky Way. Here we use a modelling approach, independent of cosmological simulations, to obtain a pre-infall mass of 3.6(-2.3)(+3.8) × 10(8) Msun for one of the Milky Way's satellites: Carina. This determination of a low halo mass for Carina can be accommodated within the standard model only if galaxy formation becomes stochastic in halos below ∼10(10 )Msun. Otherwise Carina, the eighth most luminous Milky Way dwarf, would be expected to inhabit a significantly more massive halo. The implication of this is that a population of 'dark dwarfs' should orbit the Milky Way: halos devoid of stars and yet more massive than many of their visible counterparts.

    H Lux, JI Read, G Lake (2010)Determining Orbits for the Milky Way’s Dwarfs, In: American Institute of Physics Conference Series1240pp. 415-416
    H Lux, JI Read, G Lake (2010)Determining orbits for the Milky Way’s dwarfs, In: _mnras406pp. 2312-2324
    VP Debattista, B Moore, T Quinn, S Kazantzidis, R Maas, L Mayer, J Read, J Stadel (2008)The Causes of Halo Shape Changes Induced by Cooling Baryons: Disks versus Substructures, In: _apj681pp. 1076-1088
    JI Read, L Mayer, AM Brooks, F Governato, G Lake (2009)A dark matter disc in three cosmological simulations of Milky Way mass galaxies, In: _mnras397pp. 44-51
    D Adén, MI Wilkinson, JI Read, S Feltzing, A Koch, GF Gilmore, EK Grebel, I Lundström (2009)A New Low Mass for the Hercules dSph: The End of a Common Mass Scale for the Dwarfs?, In: _apjl706pp. L150-L154
    AC Boley, G Lake, J Read, R Teyssier (2009)Globular Cluster Formation Within a Cosmological Context, In: _apjl706pp. L192-L196
    R Teyssier, A Pontzen, Y Dubois, JI Read (2013)Cusp-core transformations in dwarf galaxies: observational predictions, In: _mnras429pp. 3068-3078
    Justin Read, P. Steger (2017)How to break the density-anisotropy degeneracy in spherical stellar systems, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society471(4)pp. 4541-4558 Oxford University Press

    We present a new non-parametric Jeans code, GravSphere, that recovers the density ρ(r) and velocity anisotropy β(r) of spherical stellar systems, assuming only that they are in a steady-state. Using a large suite of mock data, we confirm that with only line-of-sight velocity data, GravSphere provides a good estimate of the density at the projected stellar half mass radius, ρ(R1/2), but is not able to measure ρ(r) or β(r), even with 10,000 tracer stars. We then test three popular methods for breaking this ρ − β degeneracy: using multiple populations with different R1/2; using higher order ‘Virial Shape Parameters’ (VSPs); and including proper motion data. We find that two populations provide an excellent recovery of ρ(r) in-between their respective R1/2. However, even with a total of ∼7, 000 tracers, we are not able to well-constrain β(r) for either population. By contrast, using 1000 tracers with higher order VSPs we are able to measure ρ(r) over the range 0.5 < r/R1/2 < 2 and broadly constrain β(r). Including proper motion data for all stars gives an even better performance, with ρ and β well-measured over the range 0.25 < r/R1/2 < 4. Finally, we test GravSphere on a triaxial mock galaxy that has axis ratios typical of a merger remnant, [1: 0.8: 0.6]. In this case, GravSphere can become slightly biased. However, we find that when this occurs the data are poorly fit, allowing us to detect when such departures from spherical symmetry become problematic.

    H Lux, JI Read, G Lake, KV Johnston (2012)NGC 5466: a unique probe of the Galactic halo shape, In: _mnras424pp. L16-L20
    A Charbonnier, C Combet, M Daniel, S Funk, JA Hinton, D Maurin, C Power, JI Read, S Sarkar, MG Walker, MI Wilkinson (2012)Dark matter in dSph galaxies (Charbonnier+, 2011), In: VizieR Online Data Catalog741pp. 81526-81526
    Imran Nasim, Alessia Gualandris, Justin Read, Walter Dehnen, Maxime Delorme, Fabio Antonini (2020)Defeating stochasticity: coalescence timescales of massive black holes in galaxy mergers, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press

    The coalescence of massive black hole binaries (BHBs) in galactic mergers is the primary source of gravitational waves (GWs) at low frequencies. Current estimates of GW detection rates for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and the Pulsar Timing Array vary by three orders of magnitude. To understand this variation, we simulate the merger of equal-mass, eccentric, galaxy pairs with central massive black holes and shallow inner density cusps. We model the formation and hardening of a central BHB using the Fast Multiple Method as a force solver, which features a O¹Nº scaling with the number N of particles and obtains results equivalent to direct-summation simulations. At N 5105, typical for contemporary studies, the eccentricity of the BHBs can vary significantly for different random realisations of the same initial condition, resulting in a substantial variation of the merger timescale. This scatter owes to the stochasticity of stellar encounters with the BHB and decreases with increasing N. We estimate that N 107 within the stellar half-light radius suffices to reduce the scatter in the merger timescale to 10%. Our results suggest that at least some of the uncertainty in low-frequency GW rates owes to insufficient numerical resolution.

    NED Noel, BC Conn, JI Read, R Carrera, A Dolphin, H-W Rix (2015)The MAGellanic Inter-Cloud (MAGIC) project - II. Slicing up the Bridge, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society452(4)pp. 4222-4235 Oxford University Press

    The origin of the gas in between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), known as the Magellanic Bridge, has always been the subject of controversy. To shed light into this, we present the results from the MAGellanic Inter-Cloud II (MAGIC II) project aimed at probing the stellar populations in 10 large fields located perpendicular to the main ridge-line of H i in the Inter-Cloud region. We secured these observations of the stellar populations in between the MCs using the WFI (Wide Field Imager) camera on the 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. Using colour–magnitude diagrams, we trace stellar populations across the Inter-Cloud region. In good agreement with MAGIC I, we find significant intermediate-age stars in the Inter-Cloud region as well as young stars of a similar age to the last pericentre passage in between the MCs (∼200 Myr ago). We show here that the young, intermediate-age and old stars have distinct spatial distributions. The young stars correlate well with the H i gas suggesting that they were either recently stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) or formed in situ. The bulk of intermediate-age stars are located mainly in the Bridge region where the H i column density is higher, but they are more spread out than the young stars. They have very similar properties to stars located ∼2 kpc from the SMC centre, suggesting that they were tidally stripped from this region. Finally, the old stars extend to some 8 kpc from the SMC supporting the idea that all galaxies have a large extended metal-poor stellar halo.

    Elisa Bortolas, Alessia Gualandris, Massimo Dotti, Justin I. Read (2018)The influence of Massive Black Hole Binaries on the Morphology of Merger Remnants, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society477(2)pp. 2310-2325 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Massive black hole (MBH) binaries, formed as a result of galaxy mergers, are expected to harden by dynamical friction and three-body stellar scatterings, until emission of gravitational waves (GWs) leads to their final coalescence. According to recent simulations, MBH binaries can efficiently harden via stellar encounters only when the host geometry is triaxial, even if only modestly, as angular momentum diffusion allows an efficient repopulation of the binary loss cone. In this paper, we carry out a suite of N-body simulations of equal-mass galaxy collisions, varying the initial orbits and density profiles for the merging galaxies and running simulations both with and without central MBHs. We find that the presence of an MBH binary in the remnant makes the system nearly oblate, aligned with the galaxy merger plane, within a radius enclosing 100 MBH masses. We never find binary hosts to be prolate on any scale. The decaying MBHs slightly enhance the tangential anisotropy in the centre of the remnant due to angular momentum injection and the slingshot ejection of stars on nearly radial orbits. This latter effect results in about 1% of the remnant stars being expelled from the galactic nucleus. Finally, we do not find any strong connection between the remnant morphology and the binary hardening rate, which depends only on the inner density slope of the remnant galaxy. Our results suggest that MBH binaries are able to coalesce within a few Gyr, even if the binary is found to partially erase the merger-induced triaxiality from the remnant.

    H Silverwood, S Sivertsson, P Steger, Justin Read, G Bertone (2016)A non-parametric method for measuring the local dark matter density, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Main Journal.459(4)pp. 4191-4208 Oxford University Press

    We present a new method for determining the local dark matter density using kinematic data for a population of tracer stars. The Jeans equation in the z-direction is integrated to yield an equation that gives the velocity dispersion as a function of the total mass density, tracer density, and the ‘tilt’ term that describes the coupling of vertical and radial motions. We then fit a dark matter mass profile to tracer density and velocity dispersion data to derive credible regions on the vertical dark matter density profile. Our method avoids numerical differentiation, leading to lower numerical noise, and is able to deal with the tilt term while remaining one dimensional. In this study we present the method and perform initial tests on idealised mock data. We also demonstrate the importance of dealing with the tilt term for tracers that sample > ∼ 1 kpc above the disc plane. If ignored, this results in a systematic underestimation of the dark matter density.

    Michele De Leo, Ricardo Carrera, Noelia E.D Noel, Justin I. Read, Denis Erkal, Carme Gallart (2020)Revealing the tidal scars of the Small Magellanic Cloud, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society495(1)pp. 98-113 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Due to their close proximity, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC) provide natural laboratories for understanding how galaxies form and evolve. With the goal of determining the structure and dynamical state of the SMC, we present new spectroscopic data for ∼3000 SMC red giant branch stars observed using the AAOmega spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We complement our data with further spectroscopic measurements from previous studies that used the same instrumental configuration as well as proper motions from the Gaia Data Release 2 catalogue. Analysing the photometric and stellar kinematic data, we find that the SMC centre of mass presents a conspicuous offset from the velocity centre of its associated H i gas, suggesting that the SMC gas is likely to be far from dynamical equilibrium. Furthermore, we find evidence that the SMC is currently undergoing tidal disruption by the LMC within 2 kpc of the centre of the SMC, and possibly all the way into the very core. This is revealed by a net outward motion of stars from the SMC centre along the direction towards the LMC and an apparent tangential anisotropy at all radii. The latter is expected if the SMC is undergoing significant tidal stripping, as we demonstrate using a suite of N-body simulations of the SMC/LMC system disrupting around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that dynamical models for the SMC that assume a steady state will need to be revisited.

    MI Wilkinson, JT Kleyna, N Wyn Evans, GF Gilmore, JI Read, A Koch, EK Grebel, MJ Irwin (2006)The internal kinematics of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, In: EAS Publications Series20pp. 105-112
    JI Read, MI Wilkinson, NW Evans, G Gilmore, JT Kleyna (2006)The importance of tides for the Local Group dwarf spheroidals, In: _mnras367pp. 387-399
    T Goerdt, B Moore, JI Read, J Stadel, M Zemp (2006)Does the Fornax dwarf spheroidal have a central cusp or core?, In: _mnras368pp. 1073-1077
    T Bruch, J Read, L Baudis, G Lake (2008)Signatures of the Milky Way’s dark disk in current and future experiments, In: Identification of Dark Matter 2008
    JI Read, MI Wilkinson, NW Evans, G Gilmore, JT Kleyna (2006)The tidal stripping of satellites, In: _mnras366pp. 429-437
    P Saha, JI Read, LLR Williams (2006)Two Strong-Lensing Clusters Confront Universal Dark Matter Profiles, In: _apjl652pp. L5-L8
    JI Read, P Saha, AV Macciò (2007)Radial Density Profiles of Time-Delay Lensing Galaxies, In: _apj667pp. 645-654
    J Read (2007)Parameterized equations of state for neutron stars, In: APS Meeting Abstractspp. 11005-11005
    JI Read, T Goerdt, B Moore, AP Pontzen, J Stadel, G Lake (2006)Dynamical friction in constant density cores: a failure of the Chandrasekhar formula, In: _mnras373pp. 1451-1460
    Ramon Rey-Raposo, Justin I Read (2018)The alignment is in their stars: on the spin-alignment of stars in star clusters, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters481(1)pp. L16-L20 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We simulate star formation in two molecular clouds extracted from a larger disc-galaxy simulation with a spatial resolution of ∼0.1 pc, one exiting a spiral arm dominated by compression, and another in an inter-arm region more strongly affected by galactic shear. Treating the stars as ‘sink particles’, we track their birth angular momentum, and the later evolution of their angular momentum due to gas accretion. We find that in both clouds, the sinks have spin vectors that are aligned with one another, and with the global angular momentum vector of the star cluster. This alignment is present at birth, but enhanced by later gas accretion. In the compressive cloud, the sink-spins remain aligned with the gas for at least a free-fall time. By contrast, in the shear cloud, the increased turbulent mixing causes the sinks to rapidly misalign with their birth cloud on approximately a gas free-fall time. In spite of this, both clouds show a strong alignment of sink-spins at the end of our simulations, independently of environment.

    JI Read, AP Pontzen, M Viel (2006)On the formation of dwarf galaxies and stellar haloes, In: _mnras371pp. 885-897
    Justin Read, G Iorio, Oscar Agertz, F Fraternali (2017)The stellar mass–halo mass relation of isolated field dwarfs: a critical test of ΛCDM at the edge of galaxy formation, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society467(2)pp. 2019-2038 Oxford University Press

    We fit the rotation curves of isolated dwarf galaxies to directly measure the stellar mass-halo mass relation (M∗ − M200) over the mass range 5 × 105

    Imran Tariq Nasim, Alessia Gualandris, Justin I Read, Fabio Antonini, Walter Dehnen, Maxime Delorme (2021)Formation of the largest galactic cores through binary scouring and gravitational wave recoil, In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society502(4)pp. 4794-4814

    Massive elliptical galaxies are typically observed to have central cores in their projected radial light profiles. Such cores have long been thought to form through ‘binary scouring’ as supermassive black holes (SMBHs), brought in through mergers, form a hard binary and eject stars from the galactic centre. However, the most massive cores, like the $\sim 3{\, \mathrm{kpc}}$ core in A2261-BCG, remain challenging to explain in this way. In this paper, we run a suite of dry galaxy merger simulations to explore three different scenarios for central core formation in massive elliptical galaxies: ‘binary scouring’, ‘tidal deposition’, and ‘gravitational wave (GW) induced recoil’. Using the griffin code, we self-consistently model the stars, dark matter, and SMBHs in our merging galaxies, following the SMBH dynamics through to the formation of a hard binary. We find that we can only explain the large surface brightness core of A2261-BCG with a combination of a major merger that produces a small $\sim 1{\, \mathrm{kpc}}$ core through binary scouring, followed by the subsequent GW recoil of its SMBH that acts to grow the core size. Key predictions of this scenario are an offset SMBH surrounded by a compact cluster of bound stars and a non-divergent central density profile. We show that the bright ‘knots’ observed in the core region of A2261-BCG are best explained as stalled perturbers resulting from minor mergers, though the brightest may also represent ejected SMBHs surrounded by a stellar cloak of bound stars.

    Cecilia Mateu, Justin I Read, Daisuke Kawata (2017)Fourteen candidate RR Lyrae star streams in the inner Galaxy, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society474(3)pp. 4112-4129 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We apply the GC3 stream-finding method to RR Lyrae stars (RRLSs) in the Catalina survey. We find 2 RRLS stream candidates at >4σ confidence and another 12 at >3.5σ confidence over the Galactocentric distance range 4 < D/kpc < 26. Of these, only two are associated with known globular clusters (NGC 1261 and Arp2). The remainder are candidate `orphan' streams, consistent with the idea that globular cluster streams are most visible close to dissolution. Our detections are likely a lower bound on the total number of dissolving globulars in the inner galaxy, since many globulars have few RRLSs, while only the brightest streams are visible over the Galactic RRLS background, particularly given the current lack of kinematical information. We make all of our candidate streams publicly available and provide a new galstreamsPYTHON library for the footprints of all known streams and overdensities in the Milky Way.

    Kearn Grisdale, Oscar Agertz, AB Romeo, Florent Renaud, Justin Read (2016)The impact of stellar feedback on the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society466(1)pp. 1093-1110 Oxford University Press

    We study the impact of stellar feedback in shaping the density and velocity structure of neutral hydrogen (H I) in disc galaxies. For our analysis, we carry out ∼4.6 pc resolution N-body+adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies, set up to mimic a Milky Way and a Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. We quantify the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium using power spectra and compare the simulated galaxies to observed H I in local spiral galaxies from THINGS (The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey). Our models with stellar feedback give an excellent match to the observed THINGS H I density power spectra. We find that kinetic energy power spectra in feedback-regulated galaxies, regardless of galaxy mass and size, show scalings in excellent agreement with supersonic turbulence (E(k) ∝ k-2) on scales below the thickness of the H I layer. We show that feedback influences the gas density field, and drives gas turbulence, up to large (kpc) scales. This is in stark contrast to density fields generated by large-scale gravity-only driven turbulence. We conclude that the neutral gas content of galaxies carries signatures of stellar feedback on all scales.

    J I Read, M G Walker, P Steger (2018)The case for a cold dark matter cusp in Draco, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society481(1)pp. 860-877 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We use a new mass modelling method, GRAVSPHERE, to measure the central dark matter density profile of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco's star formation shut down long ago, making it a prime candidate for hosting a `pristine' dark matter cusp, unaffected by stellar feedback during galaxy formation. We first test GRAVSPHERE on a suite of tidally stripped mock `Draco'-like dwarfs. We show that we are able to correctly infer the dark matter density profile of both cusped and cored mocks within our 95 per cent confidence intervals. While we obtain only a weak inference on the logarithmic slope of these density profiles, we are able to obtain a robust inference of the amplitude of the inner dark matter density at 150 pc, ρ _DM(150 pc). We show that, combined with constraints on the density profile at larger radii, this is sufficient to distinguish a Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cusp - that has ρ _DM(150 pc) ≳ 1.8 × 10^8 M_☉ kpc^{-3} - from alternative dark matter models that have lower inner densities. We then apply GRAVSPHERE to the real Draco data. We find that Draco has an inner dark matter density of ρ _DM(150 pc) = 2.4_{-0.6}^{+0.5} × 10^8 M_☉ kpc^{-3}, consistent with a ΛCDM cusp. Using a velocity-independent SIDM model, calibrated on ΛSIDM cosmological simulations, we show that Draco's high central density gives an upper bound on the SIDM cross-section of σ/m < 0.57 cm2 g-1 at 99 per cent confidence. We conclude that the inner density of nearby dwarf galaxies like Draco provides a new and competitive probe of dark matter models.

    S Sivertsson, H Silverwood, J I Read, G Bertone, P Steger (2018)The localdark matter density from SDSS-SEGUE G-dwarfs, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society478(2)pp. 1677-1693 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We derive the local dark matter density by applying the integrated Jeans equation method from Silverwood et al. to SDSS-SEGUE G-dwarf data processed and presented by Büdenbender et al. We use the MULTINEST Bayesian nested sampling software to fit a model for the baryon distribution, dark matter, and tracer stars, including a model for the `tilt term' that couples the vertical and radial motions, to the data. The α-young population from Büdenbender et al. yields the most reliable result of ρ_dm= 0.46^{+0.07}_{-0.08} {GeV cm}^{-3}= 0.012^{+0.002}_{-0.002} M_{☉} pc^{-3}. Our analyses yield inconsistent results for the α-young and α-old data, pointing to problems in the tilt term and its modelling, the data itself, the assumption of a flat rotation curve, or the effects of disequilibria.

    A Gualandris, JI Read, W Dehnen, E Bortolas (2017)Collisionless loss-cone refilling: there is no final parsec problem, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society464(2)pp. 2301-2310

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries, formed during galaxy mergers, are expected to be a primary source of low-frequency gravitational waves. Yet in isolated gas-free spherical stellar systems, the hardening of the binary stalls at parsec-scale separations owing to the inefficiency of relaxation-driven loss-cone refilling. Repopulation via collisionless orbit diffusion in triaxial systems is more efficient, but published simulation results are contradictory. While sustained hardening has been reported in simulations of galaxy mergers with N ∼ 106 stars and in early simulations of rotating models, in isolated non-rotating triaxial models the hardening rate continues to fall with increasing N, a signature of spurious two-body relaxation. We present a novel approach for studying loss-cone repopulation in galactic nuclei. Since loss-cone repopulation in triaxial systems owes to orbit diffusion, it is a purely collisionless phenomenon and can be studied with an approximated force calculation technique, provided the force errors are well behaved and sufficiently small. We achieve this using an accurate fast multipole method and define a proxy for the hardening rate that depends only on stellar angular momenta. We find that the loss cone is efficiently replenished even in very mildly triaxial models (with axis ratios 1:0.9:0.8). Such triaxiality is unavoidable following galactic mergers and can drive binaries into the gravitational wave regime. We conclude that there is no ‘final parsec problem’.

    José R Bermejo-Climent, Giuseppina Battaglia, Carme Gallart, Arianna Di Cintio, Chris B Brook, Luis Cicuéndez, Matteo Monelli, Ryan Leaman, Lucio Mayer, Jorge Peñarrubia, Justin I Read (2018)On the early evolution of Local Group dwarf galaxy types: star formation and supernova feedback, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society479(2)pp. 1514-1527 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    According to star formation histories (SFHs), Local Group dwarf galaxies can be broadly classified in two types: those forming most of their stars before z = 2 (fast) and those with more extended SFHs (slow). The most precise SFHs are usually derived from deep but not very spatially extended photometric data; this might alter the ratio of old to young stars when age gradients are present. Here, we correct for this effect and derive the mass formed in stars by z = 2 for a sample of 16 Local Group dwarf galaxies. We explore early differences between fast and slow dwarfs, and evaluate the impact of internal feedback by supernovae (SNe) on the baryonic and dark matter (DM) component of the dwarfs. Fast dwarfs assembled more stellar mass at early times and have larger amounts of DM within the half-light radius than slow dwarfs. By imposing that slow dwarfs cannot have lost their gas by z = 2, we constrain the maximum coupling efficiency of SN feedback to the gas and to the DM to be ̃10 per cent. We find that internal feedback alone appears insufficient to quench the SFH of fast dwarfs by gas deprivation, in particular for the fainter systems. Nonetheless, SN feedback can core the DM halo density profiles relatively easily, producing cores of the sizes of the half-light radius in fast dwarfs by z = 2 with very low efficiencies. Amongst the `classical' Milky Way satellites, we predict that the smallest cores should be found in Draco and Ursa Minor, while Sculptor and Fornax should host the largest ones.

    Justin Read, G Iorio, Oscar Agertz, F Fraternali (2016)Understanding the shape and diversity of dwarf galaxy rotation curves in LCDM, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society462(4)pp. 3628-3645 Oxford University Press

    The shape and wide diversity of dwarf galaxy rotation curves is at apparent odds with dark matter halos in LCDM. We generate mock rotation curve data from dwarf galaxy simulations to show that this owes to bursty star formation driven by stellar feedback. There are three main effects. Firstly, stellar feedback transforms dark matter cusps into cores. Ignoring such transformations leads to a poor fit of the rotation curve shape and a large systematic bias on the halo concentration parameter c. Secondly, if close to a recent starburst, large HI bubbles push the rotation curve out of equilibrium. This makes the gas rotational velocity a poor probe of the underlying potential, leading to a systematic error on the halo virial mass M200 of up to half a dex. Thirdly, when galaxies are viewed near face-on (i

    A Rojas-Nino, Justin Read, A Aguilar, Maxime Delorme (2016)An efficient positive potential-density pair expansion for modelling galaxies, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society459(3)pp. 3349-3355 Oxford University Press

    We present a novel positive potential-density pair expansion for modelling galaxies, based on the Miyamoto–Nagai disc. By using three sets of such discs, each one of them aligned along each symmetry axis, we are able to reconstruct a broad range of potentials that correspond to density profiles from exponential discs to 3D power-law models with varying triaxiality (henceforth simply ‘twisted’ models). We increase the efficiency of our expansion by allowing the scalelength parameter of each disc to be negative. We show that, for suitable priors on the scalelength and scaleheight parameters, these ‘MNn discs’ (Miyamoto–Nagai negative) have just one negative density minimum. This allows us to ensure global positivity by demanding that the total density at the global minimum is positive. We find that at better than 10 per cent accuracy in our density reconstruction, we can represent a radial and vertical exponential disc over 0.1–10 scalelengths/scaleheights with four MNn discs; a Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) profile over 0.1–10 scalelengths with four MNn discs; and a twisted triaxial NFW profile with three MNn discs per symmetry axis. Our expansion is efficient, fully analytic, and well suited to reproducing the density distribution and gravitational potential of galaxies from discs to ellipsoids.

    JA Petts, A Gualandris, JI Read (2015)A semi-analytic dynamical friction model that reproduces core stalling, In: MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY454(4)pp. 3778-3791 OXFORD UNIV PRESS
    J. I. Read, D. Erkal (2019)Abundance matching with the mean star formation rate: there is no missing satellites problem in the Milky Way above M200∼109M, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP)

    We introduce a novel abundance matching technique that produces a more accurate estimate of the pre-infall halo mass, M200, for satellite galaxies. To achieve this, we abundance match with the mean star formation rate, averaged over the time when a galaxy was forming stars, ⟨SFR⟩, instead of the stellar mass, M∗. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the GAMA survey and the Bolshoi simulation, we obtain a statistical ⟨SFR⟩−M200 relation in ΛCDM. We then compare the pre-infall halo mass, Mabund200, derived from this relation with the pre-infall dynamical mass, Mdyn200, for 21 nearby dSph and dIrr galaxies, finding a good agreement between the two. As a first application, we use our new ⟨SFR⟩−M200 relation to empirically measure the cumulative mass function of a volume-complete sample of bright Milky Way satellites within 280 kpc of the Galactic centre. Comparing this with a suite of cosmological 'zoom' simulations of Milky Way-mass halos that account for subhalo depletion by the Milky Way disc, we find no missing satellites problem above M200∼09M⊙ in the Milky Way. We discuss how this empirical method can be applied to a larger sample of nearby spiral galaxies.

    Oscar Agertz, Andrew Pontzen, Justin Read, Martin P Rey, Matthew Orkney, Joakim Rosdahl, Romain Teyssier, Robbert Verbeke, Michael Kretschmer, Sarah Nickerson (2020)EDGE: the mass–metallicity relation as a critical test of galaxy formation physics, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society491(2)pp. 1656-1672 Oxford University Press

    We introduce the 'Engineering Dwarfs at Galaxy Formation's Edge' (EDGE) project to study the cosmological formation and evolution of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. In this first paper, we explore the effects of resolution and sub-grid physics on a single low-mass halo (M_halo=109{ M}_☉), simulated to redshift z = 0 at a mass and spatial resolution of ̃ 20{ M}_☉ and ∼3 pc. We consider different star formation prescriptions, supernova feedback strengths, and on-the-fly radiative transfer (RT). We show that RT changes the mode of galactic self-regulation at this halo mass, suppressing star formation by causing the interstellar and circumgalactic gas to remain predominantly warm (∼104 K) even before cosmic reionization. By contrast, without RT, star formation regulation occurs only through starbursts and their associated vigorous galactic outflows. In spite of this difference, the entire simulation suite (with the exception of models without any feedback) matches observed dwarf galaxy sizes, velocity dispersions, V-band magnitudes, and dynamical mass-to-light-ratios. This is because such structural scaling relations are predominantly set by the host dark matter halo, with the remaining model-to-model variation being smaller than the observational scatter. We find that only the stellar mass-metallicity relation differentiates the galaxy formation models. Explosive feedback ejects more metals from the dwarf, leading to a lower metallicity at a fixed stellar mass. We conclude that the stellar mass-metallicity relation of the very smallest galaxies provides a unique constraint on galaxy formation physics.

    J I Read, M G Walker, P Steger (2019)Dark matter heats up in dwarf galaxies, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society484(1)pp. 1401-1420

    Gravitational potential fluctuations driven by bursty star formation can kinematically ‘heat up’ dark matter at the centres of dwarf galaxies. A key prediction of such models is that, at a fixed dark matter halo mass, dwarfs with a higher stellar mass will have a lower central dark matter density. We use stellar kinematics and HI gas rotation curves to infer the inner dark matter densities of eight dwarf spheroidal and eight dwarf irregular galaxies with a wide range of star formation histories. For all galaxies, we estimate the dark matter density at a common radius of 150 pc, ρDM(150pc)⁠. We find that our sample of dwarfs falls into two distinct classes. Those that stopped forming stars over 6 Gyr ago favour central densities ρDM(150pc)>108 M⊙ kpc−3, consistent with cold dark matter cusps, while those with more extended star formation favour ρDM(150pc)

    James Petts, Justin Read, Alessia Gualandris (2016)A semi-analytic dynamical friction model for cored galaxies, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society463(1)pp. 858-869 Oxford University Press

    We present a dynamical friction model based on Chandrasekhar’s formula that reproduces the fast inspiral and stalling experienced by satellites orbiting galaxies with a large constant density core. We show that the fast inspiral phase does not owe to resonance. Rather, it owes to the background velocity distribution function for the constant density core being dissimilar from the usually-assumed Maxwellian distribution. Using the correct background velocity distribution function and the semi-analytic model from Petts, Gualandris & Read (2015), we are able to correctly reproduce the infall rate in both cored and cusped potentials. However, in the case of large cores, our model is no longer able to correctly capture core-stalling. We show that this stalling owes to the tidal radius of the satellite approaching the size of the core. By switching off dynamical friction when rt(r) = r (where rt is the tidal radius at the satellite’s position) we arrive at a model which reproduces the N-body results remarkably well. Since the tidal radius can be very large for constant density background distributions, our model recovers the result that stalling can occur for Ms/Menc 1, where Ms and Menc are the mass of the satellite and the enclosed galaxy mass, respectively. Finally, we include the contribution to dynamical friction that comes from stars moving faster than the satellite. This next-to-leading order effect becomes the dominant driver of inspiral near the core region, prior to stalling.

    Martin P. Rey, Andrew Pontzen, Oscar Agertz, Matthew Orkney, Justin Read, Amélie Saintonge, Christian Pedersen (2019)EDGE: The Origin of Scatter in Ultra-faint Dwarf Stellar Masses and Surface Brightnesses, In: Astrophysical Journal Letters886(1) The American Astronomical Society

    We demonstrate how the least luminous galaxies in the universe, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, are sensitive to their dynamical mass at the time of cosmic reionization. We select a low-mass (~ ´ 1.5 10 M☉ 9 ) dark matter halo from a cosmological volume, and perform zoom hydrodynamical simulations with multiple alternative histories using “genetically modified” initial conditions. Earlier-forming ultra-faints have higher stellar mass today, due to a longer period of star formation before their quenching by reionization. Our histories all converge to the same final dynamical mass, demonstrating the existence of extended scatter (1 dex) in stellar masses at fixed halo mass due to the diversity of possible histories. One of our variants builds less than 2% of its final dynamical mass before reionization, rapidly quenching in situ star formation. The bulk of its final stellar mass is later grown by dry mergers, depositing stars in the galaxy’s outskirts and hence expanding its effective radius. This mechanism constitutes a new formation scenario for highly diffuse (r1 2 ~ 820 pc, ~ - 32 mag arcsec 2 ), metal-poor ([Fe H 2.9 ] = - ), ultra-faint (V = -5.7) dwarf galaxies within the reach of next-generation low surface brightness surveys.

    Sukanya Chakrabarti, Philip Chang, Adrian M. Price-Whelan, Justin Read, Leo Blitz, Lars Hernquist (2019)Antlia 2’s Role in Driving the Ripples in the Outer Gas Disk of the Galaxy, In: The Astrophysical Journal886(1)pp. 67-73

    We employ the earlier published proper motions of the newly discovered Antlia 2 dwarf galaxy derived from Gaia data to calculate its orbital distribution in the cosmologically recent past. Using these observationally motivated orbits, we calculate the effect of the Antlia 2 dwarf galaxy on the outer H I disk of the Milky Way, using both test particle and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. We find that orbits with low pericenters, ∼10 kpc, produce disturbances that match the observed outer H I disk perturbations. We have independently recalculated the proper motion of the Antlia 2 dwarf from Gaia data and found a proper motion of (μ α cosδ, μ δ ) = (−0.068, 0.032) ± (0.023, −0.031) mas yr−1, which agrees with results from Torrealba et al. within the errors, but gives lower mean pericenters, e.g., ∼15 kpc for our fiducial model of the Milky Way. We also show that the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy interaction does not match the observed perturbations in the outer gas disk. Thus, Antlia 2 may be the driver of the observed large perturbations in the outer gas disk of the Galaxy. The current location of the Antlia 2 dwarf galaxy closely matches that predicted by an earlier dynamical analysis of the dwarf galaxy that drove ripples in the outer Galaxy, and, in particular, its orbit is nearly coplanar to the Galactic disk. If the Antlia 2 dwarf galaxy is responsible for the perturbations in the outer Galactic disk, it would have a specific range of proper motions that we predict here; this can be tested soon with Gaia DR-3 and Gaia DR-4 data.

    Ricardo Carrera, Blair C. Conn, Noelia Noel, Justin Read, Ángel R López Sánchez (2017)The Magellanic Inter-Cloud Project (MAGIC) III: First spectroscopic evidence of a dwarf stripping a dwarf, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society471(4)pp. 4571-4578 Oxford University Press

    The Magellanic Bridge (MB) is a gaseous stream that links the Large (LMC) and Small (SMC) Magellanic Clouds. Current simulations suggest that the MB forms from a recent interaction between the Clouds. In this scenario, the MB should also have an associated stellar bridge formed by stars tidally stripped from the SMC by the LMC. There are several observational evidences for these stripped stars, from the presence of intermediate age populations in the MB and carbon stars, to the recent observation of an over-density of RR Lyrae stars offset from the MB. However, spectroscopic confirmation of stripped stars in the MB remains lacking. In this paper, we use medium resolution spectra to derive the radial velocities and metallicities of stars in two fields along the MB. We show from both their chemistry and kinematics that the bulk of these stars must have been tidally stripped from the SMC. This is the first spectroscopic evidence for a dwarf galaxy being tidally stripped by a larger dwarf.

    Zhen Wan, William H Oliver, Geraint F Lewis, Justin Read, Michelle Collins (2019)On the origin of the asymmetric dwarf galaxy distribution around andromeda, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society492(1)pp. 456-467 Oxford University Press

    The dwarf galaxy distribution surrounding M31 is significantly anisotropic in nature. Of the 30 dwarf galaxies in this distribution, 15 form a disc-like structure and 23 are contained within the hemisphere facing the Milky Way. Using a realistic local potential, we analyse the conditions required to produce and maintain these asymmetries. We find that some dwarf galaxies are required to have highly eccentric orbits in order to preserve the presence of the hemispherical asymmetry with an appropriately large radial dispersion. Under the assumption that the dwarf galaxies originate from a single association or accretion event, we find that the initial size and specific energy of that association must both be relatively large in order to produce the observed hemispherical asymmetry. However if the association was large in physical size, the very high-energy required would enable several dwarf galaxies to escape from the M31 and be captured by the Milky Way. Furthermore, we find that associations that result in this structure have total specific energies concentrated around E = V_esc2 - V_init2 ̃ 200^2 - 300^2 {km^2 s^{-2}}, implying that the initial velocity and initial position needed to produce the structure are strongly correlated. The overlap of initial conditions required to produce the radial dispersion, angular dispersion, and the planar structure is small and suggests that either they did not originate from a single accretion event, or that these asymmetric structures are short-lived.

    G. Iorio, F. Fraternali, C. Nipoti, E. Di Teodoro, Justin Read, G. Battaglia (2016)LITTLE THINGS in 3D: robust determination of the circular velocity of dwarf irregular galaxies., In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society466(4)pp. 4159-4192

    Dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) are the smallest stellar systems with extended H I discs. The study of the kinematics of such discs is a powerful tool to estimate the total matter distribution at these very small scales. In this work, we study the H I kinematics of 17 galaxies extracted from the ‘Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey’ (LITTLE THINGS). Our approach differs significantly from previous studies in that we directly fit 3D models (two spatial dimensions plus one spectral dimension) using the software 3DBAROLO, fully exploiting the information in the H I data cubes. For each galaxy, we derive the geometric parameters of the H I disc (inclination and position angle), the radial distribution of the surface density, the velocity-dispersion (σv) profile and the rotation curve. The circular velocity (Vc), which traces directly the galactic potential, is then obtained by correcting the rotation curve for the asymmetric drift. As an initial application, we show that these dIrrs lie on a baryonic Tully–Fisher relation in excellent agreement with that seen on larger scales. The final products of this work are high-quality, ready-to-use kinematic data (Vc and σv) that we make publicly available. These can be used to perform dynamical studies and improve our understanding of these low-mass galaxies.

    L Amendola, S Appleby, D Bacon, T Baker, M Baldi, N Bartolo, A Blanchard, C Bonvin, S Borgani, E Branchini, C Burrage, S Camera, C Carbone, L Casarini, M Cropper, C deRham, C di Porto, A Ealet, PG Ferreira, F Finelli, J Garcia-Bellido, T Giannantonio, L Guzzo, A Heavens, L Heisenberg, C Heymans, H Hoekstra, L Hollenstein, R Holmes, O Horst, K Jahnke, TD Kitching, T Koivisto, M Kunz, G La Vacca, M March, E Majerotto, K Markovic, D Marsh, F Marulli, R Massey, Y Mellier, DF Mota, N Nunes, W Percival, V Pettorino, C Porciani, C Quercellini, J Read, M Rinaldi, D Sapone, R Scaramella, C Skordis, F Simpson, A Taylor, S Thomas, R Trotta, L Verde, F Vernizzi, A Vollmer, Y Wang, J Weller, T Zlosnik (2012)Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite, In: ArXiv e-prints
    M D A Orkney, J I Read, J A Petts, M Gieles (2019)Globular clusters as probes of dark matter cusp-core transformations, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society488(3)pp. 2977-2988 Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Bursty star formation in dwarf galaxies can slowly transform a steep dark matter cusp into a constant density core. We explore the possibility that globular clusters (GCs) retain a dynamical memory of this transformation. To test this, we use the NBODY6DF code to simulate the dynamical evolution of GCs, including stellar evolution, orbiting in static and time-varying potentials for a Hubble time. We find that GCs orbiting within a cored dark matter halo, or within a halo that has undergone a cusp-core transformation, grow to a size that is substantially larger (Reff ˃ 10 pc) than those in a static cusped dark matter halo. They also produce much less tidal debris. We find that the cleanest signal of an historic cusp-core transformation is the presence of large GCs with tidal debris. However, the effect is small and will be challenging to observe in real galaxies. Finally, we qualitatively compare our simulated GCs with the observed GC populations in the Fornax, NGC 6822, IKN, and Sagittarius dwarf galaxies. We find that the GCs in these dwarf galaxies are systematically larger (〈Reff〉 ≃ 7.8 pc), and have substantially more scatter in their sizes than in situ metal-rich GCs in the Milky Way and young massive star clusters forming in M83 (〈Reff〉 ≃ 2.5 pc). We show that the size, scatter, and survival of GCs in dwarf galaxies are all consistent with them having evolved in a constant density core, or a potential that has undergone a cusp-core transformation, but not in a dark matter cusp.

    NR Tanvir, AD Mackey, AMN Ferguson, A Huxor, JI Read, GF Lewis, MJ Irwin, S Chapman, R Ibata, MI Wilkinson, AW McConnachie, NF Martin, MB Davies, TJ Bridges (2012)The structure of star clusters in the outer halo of M31, In: _mnras422pp. 162-184
    J-H Kim, T Abel, O Agertz, GL Bryan, D Ceverino, C Christensen, C Conroy, A Dekel, NY Gnedin, NJ Goldbaum, J Guedes, O Hahn, A Hobbs, PF Hopkins, CB Hummels, F Iannuzzi, D Keres, A Klypin, AV Kravtsov, MR Krumholz, M Kuhlen, SN Leitner, P Madau, L Mayer, CE Moody, K Nagamine, ML Norman, J Onorbe, BW O'Shea, A Pillepich, JR Primack, T Quinn, JI Read, BE Robertson, M Rocha, DH Rudd, S Shen, BD Smith, AS Szalay, R Teyssier, R Thompson, K Todoroki, MJ Turk, JW Wadsley, JH Wise, A Zolotov (2014)THE AGORA HIGH-RESOLUTION GALAXY SIMULATIONS COMPARISON PROJECT, In: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES210(1)ARTN 14 IOP PUBLISHING LTD
    NW Evans, MI Wilkinson, JT Kleyna, JI Read, G Gilmore (2005)Kinematics and M/L ratios of dwarf spheroidals, In: IAU Colloq. 198: Near-fields cosmology with dwarf elliptical galaxiespp. 60-67
    MI Wilkinson, JT Kleyna, NW Evans, GF Gilmore, EK Grebel, A Koch, J Read, R Young (2005)Substructure in dwarf spheroidals - a star cluster connection?, In: IAU Colloq. 198: Near-fields cosmology with dwarf elliptical galaxiespp. 240-243
    JI Read, MI Wilkinson, NW Evans, G Gilmore, JT Kleyna (2005)The mass of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the missing satellite problem, In: IAU Colloq. 198: Near-fields cosmology with dwarf elliptical galaxiespp. 235-239
    NA Bharmal, DF Buscher, CA Haniff, JI Read (2003)A novel wavefront sensor for interferometry, In: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series4838pp. 721-728
    Duncan A Forbes, Justin I Read, Mark Gieles, Michelle L M Collins (2018)Extending the globular cluster system–halo mass relation to the lowest galaxy masses, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society481(4)pp. 5592-5605

    High-mass galaxies, with halo masses M200 ≥ 1010M⊙ , reveal a remarkable near-linear relation between their globular cluster (GC) system mass and their host galaxy halo mass. Extending this relation to the mass range of dwarf galaxies has been problematic due to the difficulty in measuring independent halo masses. Here we derive new halo masses based on stellar and H i gas kinematics for a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies with GC systems. We find that the GC system mass–halo mass relation for galaxies populated by GCs holds from halo masses of M200 ∼ 1014 M ⊙ ⊙ down to below M200 ∼109 M ⊙ ⊙ , although there is a substantial increase in scatter towards low masses. In particular, three well-studied ultradiffuse galaxies, with dwarf-like stellar masses, reveal a wide range in their GC-to-halo mass ratios. We compare our GC system–halo mass relation to the recent model of El Badry et al., finding that their fiducial model does not reproduce our data in the low-mass regime. This may suggest that GC formation needs to be more efficient than assumed in their model, or it may be due to the onset of stochastic GC occupation in low-mass haloes. Finally, we briefly discuss the stellar mass–halo mass relation for our low-mass galaxies with GCs, and we suggest some nearby dwarf galaxies for which searches for GCs may be fruitful.

    A Gatto, F Fraternali, JI Read, F Marinacci, H Lux, S Walch (2013)Unveiling the corona of the Milky Way via ram-pressure stripping of dwarf satellites, In: ArXiv e-prints
    JI Read, N Trentham (2005)The baryonic mass function of galaxies, In: Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions Series A363pp. 2693-2693

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