Dr Manuel Alector Ribeiro

Associate Professor in Tourism Management, Director of Tourism Programmes
BA (Hons), MSc, PhD, PGCLT
+44 (0)1483 686377
52 AP 02
Tuesday 12pm–1pm; Wednesdays 10am-12pm.


Areas of specialism

Social Impacts Assessment; Sustainable Tourism Development; Consumer Acceptance of Artificial Intelligence ; Emotional Aspects of Consumption; Autonomous Vehicles; Pro-Environmental Behaviour; Well-Being and Quality-of-Life; Political Economy of Tourism; Applied Quantitative Methods and Modelling

University roles and responsibilities

  • Director of Tourism Programme: UG ITM, UG ITMwT and MSc ITM
  • Pathway Lead for ESRC DTP Development Studies Pathway

    My qualifications

    Postgraduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education
    University of Surrey
    Ph.D in Tourism Studies
    University of Algarve, Portugal
    Msc in Tourism Management and Development
    University of Algarve, Portugal
    BA (Hons) in Translation Studies
    Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal

    Previous roles

    November 2016 - August 2017
    Associate Lecturer in Tourism
    Middlesex University, London, UK

    Affiliations and memberships

    Higher Education Academy (UK)
    Senior Research Fellow
    School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
    Editorial Board Member
    Journal of Travel Research
    Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management
    African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure
    Journal of Hospitality
    Tourism Quarterly
    Event Management
    Visiting Professor
    University of Algarve, Portugal (Ongoing)
    ALBA Business School, American College of Greece (2019)


    In the media

    Analysis of the role of COVID-19 Vaccination on Tourism Recovery in Cape Verde islands 
    TV News, Cape Verde National Television "Jornal do Domingo"
    Vacinação vai condicionar recuperação do turismo cabo-verdiano
    Newspaper "Jornal Económico", Portugal
    March 2021
    Vacinas e retoma
    Newspaper "Expresso das Ilhas", Cape Verde
    Interview about "The Handbook about Tourism In Africa" recently published. 
    Radio "Morabeza" and the newspaper "Expresso das Ilhas", Cape Verde
    Cabo Verde, como se reinventa um país de turismo em tempo de pandemia?
    Newspaper "Público", Portugal
    Alector Ribeiro, especialista em turismo : “O mais importante é a segurança sanitária”
    Newspaper "Expresso das Ilhas", Cape Verde


    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    Indicators of esteem

    • Expert member in the field of tourism and leisure for the Portuguese Agency for Evaluation

      and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES)
      . This agency is responsible for the assessment and accreditation of higher education institutions and their study programmes in Portugal. 

      Full details of the agency are available here: https://www.a3es.pt/en


      Postgraduate research supervision

      Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised



      Emrullah Erul, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, John Salazar (2020)Complementing theories to explain emotional solidarity, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism31(2)pp. 229-244 Routledge

      The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of residents’ attitudes concerning tourism development on support for future tourism development, and ultimately whether such a relationship explains a sense of solidarity with tourists. To do this, a theoretical model was developed and tested based on the social exchange theory and affect theory of exchange. Residents of Antalya, Turkey (N = 660) comprised the sample from which data were collected. Structural equation modelling results demonstrated that residents' attitudes explained 69% of the variance in support for future tourism development, and in turn, this support explained between 25% and 80% of the variance in factors comprising residents’ emotional solidarity with tourists. Findings provide support for the complementary use of the two theories. To round out the paper, implications, limitations and future research are offered.

      Naho Ueda Maruyama, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)The effect of minority residents’ attitudes and emotional solidarity on ethnic neighborhood tourism: a multigroup invariance analysis, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism31(2)pp. 383-405 Routledge

      In urban areas where ethnic composition is not homogeneous, interethnic relations play a critical role in attitudes tourism representing a particular ethnic culture, or ethnic neighborhood tourism. However, few studies have explored minority residents' perceptions of interethnic relations, solidarity, and attitudes towards tourism. Given members of the dominant and minority ethnic groups differ in social status and power, they may have different orientations towards interethnic relationships and cultural representation. Furthermore, no study has compared multiple diasporic groups whose social relationships with the dominant ethnic group might differ within a country. By applying the common in-group identity model and the interactive acculturation model, this study aims to explore whether and how interethnic relations with members of a dominant ethnic group influence attitudes about ethnic neighborhood tourism among members of ethnic minority groups whose culture is represented for tourism. This research focuses on Korean and Brazilian immigrants and their descendants. Analysis of 343 completed questionnaires revealed that interethnic relationships within the local communities influence minority residents' attitudes tourism development. However, the comparison of the two diasporic groups revealed have different orientations towards interethnic relations and tourism. This may be because of various acculturation experiences and socioeconomic conditions.

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2024)1Introduction: advancing theory within social impacts of tourism research, In: Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (eds.), Theoretical Advancement in Social Impacts Assessment of Tourism Researchpp. 1-14 Routledge

      The mark of most evolving fields growing out of parent disciplines is a continued advancement in theoretical application. Such advancements serve as the "lifeblood" of efforts that continue to "push the envelope" and ensure we contribute the most substantive research possible. Moving into the fifth decade of research concerning the social impacts of tourism, we find ourselves at a pivotal juncture. Arguably, the question to ponder is not, "do we need to advance theoretically our field forward" but rather, "how do we do it?" An introspective examination of our past and present will help us to chart a path forward.

      Emrullah Erul, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, John Salazar (2024)Complementing theories to explain emotional solidarity, In: Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (eds.), Theoretical Advancement in Social Impacts Assessment of Tourism Researchpp. 40-55 Routledge

      The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of residents' attitudes concerning tourism development on support for future tourism development, and ultimately whether such a relationship explains a sense of solidarity with tourists. To do this, a theoretical model was developed and tested based on the social exchange theory and affect theory of exchange. Residents of Antalya, Turkey (N = 660) comprised the sample from which data were collected. Structural equation modelling results demonstrated that residents' attitudes explained 69% of the variance in support for future tourism development, and in turn, this support explained between 25% and 80% of the variance in factors comprising residents' emotional solidarity with tourists. Findings provide support for the complementary use of the two theories. To round out the paper, implications, limitations and future research are offered.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2024)1Introduction: methodological advancements in social impacts of tourism research, In: Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (eds.), Methodological Advancements in Social Impacts of Tourism Researchpp. 1-14 Routledge

      As the field of social impacts of tourism research evolves, there is a growing need for methodological advancements to better comprehend and address the complex and diverse issues related to tourism development. It is crucial to highlight the innovative approaches and techniques employed to analyze and understand these intricate phenomena when examining methodological advancements in this realm.

      Kayode D. Aleshinloye, Xiaoxiao Fu, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Asli D.A. Tasci (2020)The Influence of Place Attachment on Social Distance: Examining Mediating Effects of Emotional Solidarity and the Moderating Role of Interaction, In: Journal of Travel Research59(5)pp. 828-849 SAGE Publications

      Building on common identity theory and intergroup contact theory, this study sought to further understanding of people–place relationships by developing a holistic theoretical model to scrutinize place attachment as an antecedent of social distance, mediated by emotional solidarity and moderated by frequency of contact between tourists and residents. Visitor data analyzed with SEM revealed that place dependence is a significant predictor of social distance given it affects affinity positively and avoidance negatively, both of which are mediated by the three dimensions of emotional solidarity. Furthermore, the mediated relationships (via emotional solidarity) between place attachment and social distance vary by level of visitors’ frequency of interaction with residents. This study expands current theorization by examining the merits of emotional solidarity as an affective link in a tourist cognitive-behavioral model. From a practical standpoint, DMOs need to understand these construct linkages and include residents in their marketing strategies to increase repeat visitation.

      Sayed Elhoushy, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2023)Socially responsible consumers and stockpiling during crises: the intersection of personal norms and fear, In: Social responsibility journal Emerald Group Publishing

      PurposeUrging people to avoid stockpiling was a common declaration made by governments during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, yet empty supermarket shelves and supply shortages of basic products were observed worldwide. This study aims to (a) identify the factors that activate consumer personal norms towards socially responsible behaviours, specifically resisting stockpiling, and (b) examine how fear moderates the link between personal norms and consumer engagement in stockpiling during public crises. Design/methodology/approachThe study recruited a sample of US consumers who were responsible for household grocery shopping during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 593 individuals participated in the study, and the collected data were analysed using structural equation modelling. FindingsThe results show that awareness of the negative consequences of stockpiling and a sense of personal responsibility for those consequences activate personal norms towards responsible shopping during public crises. However, perceived fear has the opposite effect, encouraging stockpiling. In addition, fear weakens the negative relationship between personal norms and stockpiling. Originality/valueThis study extends the norm activation model and indicates that personal norms may not always promote responsible behaviours when fear is high. It is unique in that it sheds light on non-mainstream responsible consumption behaviours (e.g. resisting stockpiling), and the interaction between consumption and social responsibility.

      Albert Nsom Kimbu, Anna de Jong, Issahaku Adam, Manuel A Ribeiro, Ewoenam Afenyo-Agbe, Ogechi Adeola, Cristina Figueroa-Domecq (2021)Recontextualising gender in entrepreneurial leadership, In: Annals of tourism research88103176 Elsevier Ltd

      Drawing on the literature examining the nexus between gender, entrepreneurial leadership and entrepreneurial performance, this article critically explores a framework for analysing the role of gender in shaping entrepreneurial performance and leadership in tourism firms in a non-western context. Utilising a poststructural feminist lens that challenges normative accounts of entrepreneurial leadership practices, a qualitative analysis of interview data from tourism entrepreneurs in Ghana and Nigeria provides evidence of how entrepreneurial performances and leadership are gendered, fluid and constantly being negotiated. The article extends current discussions within tourism entrepreneurship to engage more meaningfully with gender, thereby assisting in deconstructing homogenous, fixed conceptualisation of entrepreneurial leadership - often evident within the broader leadership and entrepreneurship literature dominated by Anglo-Western approaches. •We examine the role of gender in entrepreneurial leadership in tourism.•Anglo-Western approaches dominate entrepreneurial leadership literature.•Context determines identity construction and leadership performances in tourism.•Entrepreneurial leadership journey is best unpacked through poststructural feminism.•Leadership performances are not fixed but gendered, fluid and constantly negotiated.

      Mohamed Nageh Ibrahim, Albert Nsom Kimbu, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2023)Recontextualising the determinants of external CSR in the services industry: A cross-cultural study, In: Tourism Management95104690 Elsevier

      Although the relationship between institutional pressures and corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been well studied, its underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions are not well understood. To remedy these gaps, we draw on institutional theory and the literature on organisational sensemaking, stakeholder salience and the resource-based view of the firm. We test our conceptual model using survey data from 442 managers of hospitality and tourism enterprises based in Egypt and the United Kingdom. SEM-based results show that both stakeholder issue salience and discretionary slack mediate the link between institutional pressures and external CSR. National culture moderates the effects of institutional pressures on both stakeholder issue salience and external CSR. Multi-group analyses reveal noticeable differences between Egyptian and British managers regarding their interpretations of CSR issues and the institutional environment. This study contributes to the emerging micro-institutional stream and cross-cultural CSR research, providing important insights for managers, policymakers and researchers.

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Zachary Russell, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Tara J. Denley, Camila Rojas, Erin Hadjidakis, Joseph Barr, Jackson Mower (2021)Residents’ pro-tourism behaviour in a time of COVID-19, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Routledge

      Given the expediency with which some U.S. governors have reopened their states to tourists, this research focuses on residents' responses to pro-tourism behaviour within the State of Georgia—one such state where contentious perspectives have been voiced. This work tests a social exchange model which includes four potential predictors of residents' pro-tourism behaviour. Eight of the 11 proposed model hypotheses were supported. Though perceived risk of COVID-19 was not a significant predictor, perceived positive and negative tourism impacts were the strongest. Local and state destination marketing organizations will be best served in applying our findings in efforts to continually monitor residents' perspectives as more individuals receive the COVID-19 vaccination.

      Dora Agapito, Manuel Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2022)Handbook on the tourist experience Edward Elgar Publishing Limited

      Offering an overview of current issues around design, marketing and management of experiences from the tourist perspective, this comprehensive Handbook critically reviews the key debates and developments within the field. Empirical chapters by international contributors explore a range of perspectives, challenges, opportunities for future research and best managerial practices.

      Katja Anna Stadlthanner, Luisa Andreu, Xavier Font, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Rafael Curras-Perez (2022)How environmental gain messages affect cause involvement, attitude and behavioural intentions: the moderating effects of CSR scepticism and biospheric values, In: Corporate communications27(4)pp. 781-799 Emerald Group Publishing

      Purpose This study examines the direct effect of outcome message frames (gain vs loss) on cause involvement and the moderating roles of consumers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) scepticism and biospheric values. Furthermore, the authors analyse (1) the effects of gain-framed messages on consumer attitudes towards an environmental cause (i.e. the use of reusable coffee cups) and towards the company promoting the cause (a coffee shop chain); (2) how consumer attitudes towards the cause affect their attitudes towards the company; and (3) how consumer attitudes towards both the cause and the company affect their behavioural intentions towards both the cause and the company. Design/methodology/approach Using a 2 x 1 scenario-based, experimental design with a gain vs loss stimuli, Study 1 (n = 466) examines the moderating effects of CSR scepticism and biospheric values on the relationship between message framing and consumer cause involvement. Using gain-framed stimuli, Study 2 (n = 958) analyses the effects of cause involvement variations on attitudes and behaviours, through structural equation modelling. Findings Gain-framed messages are more effective than loss-framed messages at increasing cause involvement in consumers. Both CSR scepticism and biospheric values moderate the relationship between gain-framed messages and cause involvement. Cause involvement enhances consumer attitudes towards both the cause and the company promoting it, while company attitudes towards a cause positively influence consumers' behavioural intentions. Originality/value This study recommends that environmental CSR advertising managers should use gain-framed messages to positively influence consumer cause involvement.

      Luigina Jessica Montano, Xavier Font, Corinna Elsenbroich, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2023)Co-learning through participatory evaluation: an example using Theory of Change in a large-scale EU-funded tourism intervention, In: Journal of sustainable tourismahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)pp. 1-20 Routledge

      Tourism interventions, as tools for social change and preservation of natural and cultural assets are inherently complex. This study presents an improved method for the evaluation of complex tourism interventions. We argue that participatory methods can promote a culture of evaluation that supports partners throughout evidencing project impacts, eliminating negative attitudes to evaluation resulting from fear of being judged on performance. We demonstrate that Theory of Change (ToC) is an effective tool that allows organisations to actively co-create and own an evaluation strategy to ensure the delivery of project outcomes. We show how ToC can be applied as a useful process and impact evaluation tool. This paper represents a novel methodological application of ToC based on participatory approaches to evaluation to disseminate knowledge and to improve decision-making in the field of tourism interventions and tourism policy making.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Siamak Seyfi, Sayed Elhoushy, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Vidya Patwardhan (2023)Determinants of generation Z pro-environmental travel behaviour: the moderating role of green consumption values, In: Journal of sustainable tourismahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)pp. 1-21 Routledge

      Generation Z (Gen Z) is widely considered the most eco-conscious generation. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of empirical research on this generation's pro-environmental travel behaviour. To address this gap, the present research aims to investigate the interplay of values (egoistic, biospheric, altruistic) and ascribed responsibility in driving the pro-environmental travel behaviour of Gen Z through the moderating role of green consumption values. Data were collected from 362 British Gen Z tourists using a structured questionnaire and analysed using SmartPLS. Results revealed that values and ascribed responsibility significantly influence environmental concern, which, in turn, affects attitudes, willingness to sacrifice, and pro-environmental travel behaviour. Furthermore, positive attitudes and willingness to sacrifice significantly affect pro-environmental travel behaviour. In addition, green consumption values moderate the relationship between attitude and willingness to sacrifice concerning pro-environmental travel behaviour. Applying a generational approach, this study enriches the theoretical understanding of tourists' pro-environmental behaviour and highlights effective ways to promote sustainable behaviour among younger travellers.

      Huda A. Megeirhi, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Alector Ribeiro, Haywantee Ramkissoon, Tara J. Denley (2020)Employing a value-belief-norm framework to gauge Carthage residents’ intentions to support sustainable cultural heritage tourism, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism28(9)pp. 1351-1370 Taylor and Francis

      In light of the recent conflicts in Carthage over land use, culturalheritage preservation, and sustainable tourism, this work utilized avalue-belief-norm (VBN) theoretical framework to consider psychologicalantecedents of residents’behavioral intentions to support cultural heri-tage tourism. As such, personal values, cultural worldview, awareness ofconsequences, ascription of responsibility, and subjective norms wereconsidered antecedents of intentions to support cultural heritagetourism. Data were collected from 475 Carthage residents in nine neigh-borhoods adjacent to UNESCO World Heritage Sites using an on-siteself-administered questionnaire. The proposed model was assessedthrough confirmatory factor analysis (to demonstrate sound psychomet-ric properties across all 11 factors within the model), followed by struc-tural equation modelling. Overall, 15 of the 19 proposed hypotheseswere supported, ultimately contributing to 28% of the varianceexplained in residents’behavioral intentions to support cultural heritagetourism. This work not only provides support for the utilization of theVBN model within the context of cultural heritage tourism, it also deep-ens our understanding of the theoretical framework through the inclu-sion of the multi-dimensional construct cultural worldview

      MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, Chen Cui, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)Residents' subjective well- being and support for tourism development: The case of Alxa, China, In: Handbook of Research on Resident and Tourist Perspectives on Travel Destinationspp. 66-87 IGI Global

      This study aims to identify the factors that influence subjective well-being and their support for tourism development. The questionnaire was first designed and distributed online to residents in Alxa. Data were analysed, and the results indicated that positive economic impacts, positive socio-cultural impacts, and positive environmental impacts influence subjective well-being. Residents' perceived negative economic impacts and negative environmental impacts influence negatively their subjective well-being. Also, positive environmental impacts of the tourism development are the most significant factor that affects residents' subjective well-being. Furthermore, subjective well-being was also found to positively influence residents' support for the tourism development in Alxa. Ultimately, based on the findings, this study proposed and discuss both theoretical and managerial implications, as well as the limitations and directions of further studies.

      Katja Anna Stadlthanner, Luisa Andreu, MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, XAVIER FONT, A Mattila (2022)The effects of message framing in CSR advertising on consumers’ emotions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions, In: Journal of hospitality marketing & management Routledge

      While recent research on sustainability communication demonstrates the relevance of message framing, research on the effects of message framing on consumers' emotions is scant. Using the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework, this paper examines the impact of environmental advertisements (stimuli) on two discrete emotions - hope and guilt - (organism) and how these emotions influence consumers' behavioral intentions (responses). Relying on the prospect theory, this study focuses on positive (gain) and negative (loss) frames. Study 1 shows that, in the context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a gain message elicits hope while a loss-message triggers guilt. Study 2 shows that both emotions positively influence consumers' attitudes toward the cause; however, only hope affects attitude toward the company. Attitudes toward the cause and the company, in turn, influence consumers' behavioral intentions.虽然最近关于可持续性传播的研究证明了信息框架的相关性,但关于信息框架对消费者情绪的影响的研究却很少. 利用刺激-有机体反应 (S-O-R) 框架, 本文考察了环境广告 (刺激) 对两种离散情绪--希望和内疚 (有机体) 的影响, 以及这些情绪如何影响消费者的行为意图 (反应). 基于前景理论, 本研究主要关注正 (增益) 和负 (损耗) 帧. 研究1表明, 在企业社会责任 (CSR) 的背景下, 收益信息引发希望, 而损失信息引发内疚. 研究2表明, 两种情绪都会积极影响消费者对原因的态度; 然而, 只有希望会影响人们对公司的态度. 对事业和公司的态度反过来会影响消费者的行为意图.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Issahaku Adam, Albert Nsom Kimbu, Ewoenam Afenyo-Agbe, Ogechi Adeola, Cristina Figueroa-Domecq, Anna de Jong (2021)Women entrepreneurship orientation, networks and firm performance in the tourism industry in resource-scarce contexts, In: Tourism management (1982)86104343 Elsevier

      Drawing on network theory, this study examines how the entrepreneurship orientation (EO)-performance nexus is intermediated by networks firms establish with government agencies, suppliers, and resource acquisition. Structural equation modelling is used to test the model on a sample of 556 women tourism entrepreneurs in Ghana and Nigeria. Findings indicate that EO positively influences firms’ social ties, resource acquisition, and performance. The results also indicate that establishing strong ties with government agencies leads to more resource acquisition among women owned tourism businesses than strong business ties with suppliers. Furthermore, business ties are more beneficial when they mediate the effect of EO on performance and become weak and negative when the effect is sequentially mediated by business ties and network resource acquisition. Political ties negatively influenced performance. This study provides novel insights into the EO, networks and performance nexus in resource-scarce contexts. The managerial implications for supporting women entrepreneurs are critically examined.

      MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, Yo Han Kim, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)Residents' perception and their support for tourism development: The case of South Korea, In: Handbook of Research on Resident and Tourist Perspectives on Travel Destinationspp. 140-165 IGI Global

      The purpose of this study is to examine residents' support for tourism development in South Korea by the lens of social exchange theory and theory of reasoned. Random sampling strategy was used to collect South Koreans residents' opinions about the perceived impacts of tourism and their level of support for tourism development. Data were collected online using a questionnaire a link was sent to residents in South Korean through several social media platforms, and 693 respondents answered the questionnaire. By using regression analysis, the findings showed that residents who perceive positive impacts of tourism more than negative impacts are more likely to support tourism, while those who perceive more negative impacts of tourism are less likely to support tourism. Both personal economic benefits and community attachment were found to be important determinants of residents' perception and support toward tourism. Both theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, as well as the limitations and recommendations for future studies.

      Huda A. Megeirhi, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)Job search behavior explained through perceived tolerance for workplace incivility, cynicism and income level: A moderated mediation model, In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management44pp. 88-97 Elsevier

      This study aims to propose and examine a research model that explores how income level can moderate the mediating relationship between organizational tolerance workplace incivility and job search behavior through employee cynicism within the hotel industry. As such, the theoretical framework and non-western study context are each a novel consideration. Data were collected from 331 employees of 5-star hotels within Jordan, whereby structural equation modeling was adopted to test the relationships between constructs. The analysis revealed that when employees perceive a high level of organizational tolerance for workplace incivility, they reinforce cynical beliefs and increase their job search behavior. Results provide empirical support for income moderating the indirect relationships (via employee cynicism) between organization workplace incivility and job search behavior. This relationship is stronger among employees with lower levels of income. Practical implications concerning ways to improve managers' knowledge of workplace incivility and more operational ways of handling conflict are discussed.

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2022)Methodological and theoretical advancements in social impacts of tourism research, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Routledge

      This lead article introduces the double special issue dedicated to methodological and theoretical advancements in social impacts of tourism research. We begin by providing an overview of five key developmental stages of research within this area: Definitions, typologies, and conceptual model development; the advent of case study-based, atheoretical empirical inquiry; scale design, development, and testing; further scale development/refinement and theoretical application; and theoretical model development and testing. Brief evolutionary histories of the methodological and theoretical advancements of research dedicated to social impacts of tourism are then discussed. This includes a review of the most pertinent predictor variables (along with a visual display of each and key studies) in explaining residents' perceptions of social impacts of tourism and a thorough review of most frequently used theoretical frameworks. Following this, brief synopses of the articles are provided along with key themes (e.g. resident-tourist relationships, social impacts and residents' attitudes, residents' empowerment, overtourism, and methodologies) and salient points of each work. In closing, we suggest numerous lines of inquiry that will continue to advance research into social impacts of tourism. Though these studies were undertaken prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, we emphasize that future work should be designed with the pandemic in mind. Supplemental data for this article is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2022.2046011

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, Tara J. Denley, CHRISTY HEHIR, B. Bynum Boley (2021)Psychological Antecedents of Intentions to Participate in Last Chance Tourism: Considering Complementary Theories, In: Journal of Travel Researchpp. 1-16 SAGE Publications

      Last chance tourism (LCT) has received significant attention within the academic literature and popular press due to its controversial nature of bringing travelers to threatened places. However, little theory has been applied to understand why travelers gravitate towards this controversial type of tourism. Hence, this work combines the value-belief-norm (VBN) model and theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework to explain intentions to participate in LCT. Survey data were collected from a national panel (n = 436) of U.S. travelers in 2019. A two-step modeling approach (CFA-SEM) was followed to examine psychometrics and hypothesized relationships between VBN constructs, TPB constructs and intentions to participate in LCT. Of the 11 hypotheses examined, 10 were supported, with both theories combining to explain 61% of the variance in travelers' intentions. The TPB construct of 'social norms' was the best predictor of LCT intentions, emphasizing the conspicuous nature of LCT's influence on demand.

      Maree Thyne, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Leah Watkins, MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO (2020)Social Distance between Residents and Tourists Explained by Residents’ Attitudes Concerning Tourism, In: Journal of Travel Research

      Drawing on the theory of social distance, this study examined the extent to which residents’ attitudes concerning tourism can predict a sympathetic understanding of tourists. Results from residents within the rapidly emerging inbound tourism market, Japan (n=1569), were analyzed. EFA was undertaken on both residents’ attitudes and social distance data. CFA was then undertaken to establish a measurement model, followed by SEM to examine model relationships. The SEM revealed that more negative attitudes concerning tourism were found to have the strongest impact on less sympathetic understanding of tourists and vice versa, revealing that residents’ attitudes toward tourists depend in part upon whether attitudes about tourism are positive or negative. This study expands residents’ attitude theory by exploring the outcomes of such attitudes, rather than focusing on antecedents. Practical implications are advanced concerning internal marketing strategies, such as disseminating the positive impacts of tourism development to residents.

      MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, Mayu Moritomo , Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)Residents' support for sustainable tourism development in rural areas: The case of Karuizawa, Japan, In: Handbook of Research on Resident and Tourist Perspectives on Travel Destinationspp. 88-114 IGI Global

      The present study aims to examine residents' support for sustainable tourism. Karuizawa town was selected due to the increasing number in both domestic and foreign visitors, as well as the existence of seasonal residents. Residents' participation in tourism and their support are vital for sustainable tourism. In doing so, this study primarily used the theory of reasoned action, social exchange theory, and emotional solidarity to examine residents' support for sustainable tourism. Data were collected using qualitative approach, and semi-structured interviews were adopted to explore the relationship between theoretical frameworks. Twenty participants were selected by non-probability sampling to examine differences among residents in tourism-related businesses and those who are not, and among permanent and seasonal residents. Deductive thematic analysis was chosen because of the ability to produce themes from theoretical frameworks. Lastly, an in-depth discussion, as well as theoretical and managerial implications are offered along with the limitations and avenues for future studies.

      Silvia Platania, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO (2021)Factors predicting individuals’ behavioural intentions for choosing cultural tourism: A structural model, In: Sustainability13(18)10347 MDPI

      Drawing from the theory of self-regulation and a model of goal-directed behaviour, this study examines the determinants (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, desire, negative WOM coping strategies, and avoidance coping strategies) of visitors’ intentions to engage in cultural tourism within Sicily. Based on a sample of 469 visitors, the results revealed that 12 of the 14 proposed hypothesised direct effects were significant in explaining behavioural intentions to choose a cultural holiday. As for indirect effects, negative WOM coping strategies served as a more salient mediator in the model, as opposed to avoidance coping strategies.

      YOUNGSOO KIM, MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, Gang Li (2022)Tourism memory, mood repair and behavioral intention, In: Annals of tourism research93103369 Elsevier Ltd

      Recall of tourism experiences evokes pleasant affect tied to the trip, which leads to mood and behavioral intentions. Based on experimental design with two studies, this research investigates the mood-repairing role of tourism memory, memory characteristics, and affective and behavioral consequences of tourism memory. Study 1 confirmed that both positive and negative mood groups recall positive tourism memories, and the effect of mood repair motivation on tourism memory valence is moderated by mood state. Study 2 identified tourism memory characteristics and the effect of tourism memory valence on mood and behavioral intentions. Findings contribute to the literature on relationships between tourism memories, mood and behavioral intentions, and inform tourism organizations on how to use tourism memories for experience management.

      B. Bynum Boley, Marianna Strzelecka, Emily Pauline Yeager, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kayode D Aleshinloye, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Benjamin Prangle Mimbs (2021)Measuring place attachment with the Abbreviated Place Attachment Scale (APAS), In: Journal of Environmental Psychology74101577 Elsevier Ltd

      Despite place attachment's prominence within the environmental psychology literature, the scales and items used to measure place attachment vary significantly, hindering the ability of researchers to rally behind a standard measure. These types of discrepancies hamper the ability of researchers to directly compare findings across communities and conduct metanalyses on the antecedents and outcomes of place attachment. Furthermore, scales consisting of more than three items may unnecessarily burden respondents, thus impeding opportunities to add new constructs to surveys so that the precursors and outcomes of place attachment can be better understood. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to present and test the cross-cultural reliability and validity of an Abbreviated Place Attachment Scale (APAS) (i.e., three items for place identity and three items for place dependence) across seven samples spanning five data collections and four countries (United States, Cape Verde, Nigeria and Poland) involving residents and visitors. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the abbreviated scales perform just as well as their extended parents, and the multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals full measurement invariance demonstrating that the APAS is equivalent across cultures. Based on these results, the APAS should be given full attention by place attachment researchers seeking to expand the literature on the understanding of how people connect to places and the implications that these connections have on other important constructs such as quality of life, support for tourism, and place-based conservation efforts or individual environmental behaviors. •Measures of place attachment vary significantly hindering comparing results.•Abbreviated 6-item measure of place attachment compared to previous 12-item measure.•APAS′ psychometric properties found to be as good or better than extended scale's.•Cross-cultural reliability and validity of APAS found across multiple countries.•APAS provides researchers with more room to include other constructs in survey.

      Tara J. Denley, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, B. Bynum Boley, Christy Hehir, Jesse Abrams (2020)Individuals’ intentions to engage in last chance tourism: applying the value-belief-norm model, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism28(11)pp. 1860-1881

      For tourism to be entirely sustainable, one cannot travel. This is impossible. This paradox is particularly evident within last chance tourism (LCT), where tourists, seeking experiences with vanishing animals and land/seascapes, can accelerate the decline of those very attractions. Though recent studies hint that those with the highest intentions to visit LCT destinations are also some of the most concerned with climate change, no study has assessed the psychological drivers that may help explain why individuals are increasingly engaging in this paradox. Drawing on the VBN model, this research examines a theoretical framework to assess the psychological drivers behind individuals’ intention to engage in environmentally responsible behavior while traveling and, ultimately, their desire to participate in LCT. Results reveal that a set of environmentally referent cognitions (i.e., values, environmental worldview, awareness of consequences, and ascription of responsibility) lead to personal norms activation, which then influence tourists’ intent to behave in pro-sustainable ways and, ultimately, individuals’ intentions to engage in LCT. Findings are important as they further confirm the benefits of using VBN theory within an LCT context. For practitioners, this research strengthens the appeal of sustainable tourism operations to secure business and receive positive word-of-mouth from potential LCT tourists.

      C Hehir, Emma Stewart, Pat T Maher, M. A Ribeiro (2020)Evaluating the impact of a youth polar expedition alumni programme on post-trip pro-environmental behaviour: a community-engaged research approach, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor & Francis

      Youth-based programmes providing education-based expeditions to the Polar Regions have been offered for more than two decades, and whilst studies hint that participants return as inspired and empowered ambassadors, research to date has been inconclusive as to what impact such expeditions have had on their participants’ subsequent lifestyle decisions and pro-environmental behaviours. To address this research gap, Social Identity Theory (SIT) was used to evaluate the impact of youth polar expeditions on participants’ pro-environmental behaviour, up to 18 years after their polar voyage. In collaboration with Students on Ice (SOI), this study tested the direct and indirect relationships between previous SOI students’ (n = 217) social identity towards the alumni programme and their subsequent connections with nature and pro-environmental behaviours. Findings suggest that social identity might be one way to explain the long-term impact of educational expeditions in terms of desired future pro-environmental behaviours, underscoring the critical importance of an alumni programme. Furthermore, a Community-Engaged Research (CER) approach was adopted to evidence the impact of this research beyond the realm of academia. We reflect on the CER approach with the intention of assisting others to produce impactful and socially robust knowledge, maximising the real-world impact of the findings.

      Nikoleta Maria Papadopoulou, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Girish Prayag (2022)Psychological Determinants of Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty: The Influence of Perceived Overcrowding and Overtourism, In: Journal of Travel Researchpp. 1-19 SAGE Publications

      This study develops and tests an integrative model of destination loyalty to tourist hotspot destinations. The study highlights the role of perceived destination adaptation and psychological reactive behaviors in determining tourist satisfaction and loyalty. The model was tested using data collected from 582 respondents who had recently visited one of the “overcrowded” Mediterranean coastal tourism destinations. Findings suggest that perceived destination adaptation negatively influences tourist satisfaction and positively influences reactive behaviors of approach, avoidance, and tolerance. Approach and avoidance behaviors predict assessed crowding levels and tourist satisfaction. Tourists’ tolerance levels on assessed crowding was insignificant. Assessed crowding levels negatively affect tourist satisfaction and intentions to revisit and recommend the destination while positively influencing objections to revisit and recommend the destination. Concomitantly, overtourism awareness moderated the effect of assessed crowding levels on tourist satisfaction and intentions to revisit and recommend the destination. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

      Marina Novelli, E.A Adu-Ampong, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2022)Tourism in Africa, In: Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketingpp. 394-397 Edward Elgar Publishing
      Valsaraj Payini, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Vasanth Kamath, Jyothi Mallya, Joseph Barr (2022)Explaining festival loyalty through motivations, perceived value, and satisfaction: the moderating role of gender, In: Handbook on the Tourist Experiencepp. 369-385 Edward Elgar Publishing

      This work examines the role that motivations, perceived value, and satisfaction serve in explaining festival loyalty. As such, mediation effects of perceived value and satisfaction are considered, along with the moderating role of gender on all model relationships. Based on a sample of 400 festival attendees, structural equation modelling was undertaken to examine seven hypotheses (six examining direct effects; one examining indirect effects). PROCESS was utilized to consider the moderating role of gender. Each of the seven hypotheses was significant, with the three model antecedents (i.e., motivation, perceived value, and satisfaction) explaining 65% of the variance in festival loyalty and perceived value and satisfaction serving as significant mediators. Gender was found to only moderate the relationship between satisfaction and festival loyalty, as the effect was higher for women. Theoretical and practical implications along with limitations and future research are provided at the close of the paper.

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Tara Joyce Denley, Evan J. Jordan (2022)Last-chance tourism intentions explained through an amended theory of planned behaviour model, In: Handbook on the Tourist Experiencepp. 278-293 Edward Elgar Publishing

      This work examines a modified theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model that includes sense of urgency along with the initial TPB antecedents as potential predictors of individuals' intentions to engage in last chance tourism (LCT). Based on a sample of 551 potential LCT travellers, structural equation modelling was undertaken to examine five hypotheses (each focusing on direct effects). All hypotheses were supported, with subjective norms, positive and negative attitudes about LCT, perceived behavioural control, and sense of urgency explaining 70% of the variance in individuals' intentions to engage in LCT. Sense of urgency was found to be the strongest predictor in the model, explaining the dependent variable. Theoretical and practical implications along with limitations and future research are provided at the close of the paper.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Vidya Patwardhan, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, K. Thirugnanasambantham (2022)Antecedents to religious festival visitors loyalty: the role of memorable experiences, religious faith, emotion and satisfaction, In: Handbook on the Tourist Experiencepp. 350-368 Edward Elgar Publishing

      This work provides a perspective into how visitors on-site memorable religious experience and their religious faith influence positive emotional and overall satisfaction with events and their behavioral loyalty. To test the model, a survey was used to collect data from visitors who attended this event during the 2018 Paryaya festival in Udupi Sri Krishna Temple held in Udupi, India. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model based on a sample of 744 festival attendees. Results indicated that religious faith predicts overall satisfaction, positive emotion, and loyalty. Positive emotion positively influences overall satisfaction but failed to predict loyalty behavior. The effect of overall satisfaction on loyalty was significant. This study sheds light on the process whereby the visitor's loyalty to religious events places is shaped by overall satisfaction and positive emotions experienced on-site, as well as memorable religious experience and religious faith. Implications for both theory and practice exist.

      Luigina Jessica Montano, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2022)Tourism and enogastronomy experiences: a phenomenological study, In: Handbook on the Tourist Experiencepp. 294-314 Edward Elgar Publishing

      More than ever before, travellers seek experiences which are memorable and will bring them closer to the essence of the territory they are visiting. Existing literature has explored the concepts of co-creation, emotional solidarity, subjective well-being and the impacts of travel on peoples' quality of life, this study however intertwines these concepts into one conceptual framework and integrates them with the niche market of enogastronomy experiences. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) this study represents a novel approach to gain insight into the lifeworld of individual tourists. The study takes place in the South of Italy where enogastronomy lies at the heart of culture and local traditions. The findings of this phenomenological study showed that the element of conviviality enhanced by sharing food and wine preparation activities in proximity with the locals had a positive effect on the subjective well-being of both residents and tourists, who described the experience as 'personal and authentic'.

      David Cloarec, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Xavier Font (2024)Determinants of readiness for strategic value co-creation in hospitality and tourism organisations, In: International journal of hospitality management116103627
      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2024)Methodological Advancements in Social Impacts of Tourism Research

      This book offers a fresh perspective of on some of the cutting-edge methodological approaches being used among scholars conducting work on social impacts of tourism. These works are international in focus, spanning across Europe (e.g., Austria, Croatia, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey) and Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Turkey). The authors employ qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods designs and some of the notable focus areas include comparative studies of residents’ perspectives of tourism (i.e., involving impacts of various forms of tourism and community children’s perceptions of tourism); statistical techniques such as multigroup invariance analysis and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis; and the employment of novel measurement tools such as the implicit association test involving residents’ implicit stereotypes of visitors from multiple countries and the utilization of the human-scale development to identify residents’ needs and satisfiers. This edited volume will most assuredly advance the methodological focus of research on social impacts of tourism moving forward.This book will be of great interest to all upper-level students and researchers in tourism, planning and related fields. The chapters in this volume were originally published as a special issue of Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2024)Theoretical Advancement in Social Impacts Assessment of Tourism Research Routledge

      This book provides the reader with a fresh perspective on the use of theory in the body of research centred on social impacts of tourism. Theory is advanced in three primary forms within this volume. Some apply novel frameworks (e.g., theory of interaction ritual; degrowth paradigm; and mere exposure theory) to contexts involving destination residents. Others consider various uniquely complemented theoretical frameworks (e.g., social exchange theory and affect theory of exchange; Weber’s theory of rationality and Foucauldian constructs; and emotional solidarity and cognitive appraisal theory). Still others develop theoretical frameworks (e.g., influence of presumed influence model, elaboration likelihood model, and social exchange theory; tourist-resident social contact; quality of life; and socio-ecological systems theory and chaos theory) for others to potentially consider and test. The chapters in this edited volume contribute to the evolving advancement of theoretical applications within the research area of social impacts of tourism.This book will be of great interest to all upper-level students and researchers in tourism, planning and related fields. The chapters in this volume were originally published as a special issue of Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

      Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Dongoh Joo, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Cassandra Johnson Gaither, José J. Sánchez, Robert Brooks (2023)Rural residents' social distance with tourists: an affective interpretation, In: Current issues in tourismahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)pp. 1-15 Routledge

      This study examined the role of basic (i.e. positive and negative) and complex (i.e. emotional solidarity) emotions in explaining residents' preference for both intimate and casual social encounters (i.e. social distance) with tourists. Considering a burgeoning rural destination in the U.S., known for its natural and cultural amenities, data were collected on-site and online from 511 residents. A two-step sequence of analysis (i.e. confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modelling) was undertaken to test 12 hypotheses within a proposed conceptual model. Eight hypotheses were supported; three of those not supported involved negative emotions as antecedents to emotional solidarity. A high degree of variance was explained in emotional solidarity and social distance. Implications and recommendations are also discussed.

      Dora Agapito, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2022)Introduction to the Handbook on the Tourist Experience: Design, Marketing and Management, In: Handbook on the Tourist Experience Design, Marketing and Managementpp. 1-149 Edward Elgar Publishing Limited

      The concept of experience has received widespread attention from the perspective of diverse academic fields, given the multidisciplinary nature of the construct (Godovykh & Tasci, 2020). The experiential approach to tourism stems from the experience economy perspective (Oh, Fiore, & Jeoung, 2007; Pine & Gilmore, 1999), emphasising the value of the customer experience as a higher level of offerings (Morgan, Lugosi, & Ritchie, 2010; Scott, Laws, & Boksberger, 2009). In his seminal work on experiential marketing, Schmitt (1999) anticipated experiences becoming a dominant area in marketing. Since then, experience design following a managerial perspective has increasingly become a salient topic for academics and professionals.

      Marina Novelli, Emmanuel Akwasi Adu-Ampong, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2020)Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africa Routledge

      This book provides a comprehensive and readable overview of the critical debates and controversies around tourism in Africa, and the major factors that are affecting tourism development now and in the future. Drawing upon research emerging from collaborations between a growing number of African academics and practitioners based in the continent and in the African diaspora as well as international colleagues, the Handbook offers key critical insights into the issues, challenges and trends that Africa and African tourism is facing. Part I covers continent-wide issues such as climate change, ICT, heritage and development. The remaining parts are organised along geographic lines, with each chapter covering the development of tourism, current trends and discussion of critical issues such as community participation, gender, backpacking, urban tourism, wildlife tourism and conservation.Combining an overview of key theories, concepts, contemporary issues and debates, this book will be a valuable resource for students, academics and practitioners investigating the role of tourism in Africa.

      Glauber Eduardo de Oliveira Santos, Dogan Gursoy, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Alexandre Panosso Netto (2019)Impact of Transparency and Corruption on Mega-Event Support, In: Event Management23(1)pp. 27-40 Cognizant Communication Corporation

      Mega-events and corruption are two major issues in modern society. Unfortunately, both sometimes go hand in hand. This study examined the effects of corruption perceptions on residents' impact perceptions and their support for hosting a mega-event in their community. Furthermore, this study investigated the influence of transparency on corruption, residents' impact perceptions, and their support for a mega-event by focusing on the 2014 FIFA World Cup held in Brazil. Findings indicated that corruption perceptions are critical determinants of residents' impact perceptions and their support for hosting a mega-event. Findings further suggested that transparency is an important determinant of residents' corruption perceptions, impact perceptions, and support for hosting a mega-event.

      Tomás López-Guzmán, Francisco Orgaz-Agüera, Juan Antonio Marmolejo Martín, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2016)The all-inclusive tourism system in Cape Verde islands: The tourists' perspective, In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management29pp. 9-16 Elsevier

      The advent of tourism in certain resort areas has led to sharply rising socio-economic development, sometimes contributing to a change in the local economic structure. Thus, in certain States, as a result of the tourism boom the model of economic production has undergone a radical change. An example of this can be seen in Cape Verde, a country whose economy was characterised, until 15 or 20 years ago, by a predominance of the primary sector and an economy based on cooperation aid from developed countries and by remittances from emigrants. However, in 2007 the World Bank declared Cape Verde a middle-income country. This change was due to the impact of diverse variables, some of a political nature, such as a well-consolidated democratic political system, based on the rule of law, together with excellent legal security and also the country's international outlook, based on very close trade relations with the European Union; other variables were of a commercial nature, and reflected a change in the business model, with a greater focus on the tourism sector and, therefore, on construction.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Patricia Pinto, João Albino Silva, Kyle M. Woosnam (2017)Residents’ attitudes and the adoption of pro-tourism behaviours: The case of developing island countries, In: Tourism Management61pp. 523-537 Elsevier

      This study considers both economic and non-economic factors to examine how residents perceive tourism and ultimately develop pro-tourism behaviour. The concepts used in model creation are Social Exchange Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Based on data derived from 418 residents of the Cape Verde Islands (off the coast of western Africa) a structural equation model is used to test how perceived personal benefits and general economic conditions shape perceptions of tourism, and in turn how these perceptions determine pro-tourism behaviour. Additionally, the concept of welcoming behaviour is included in the model. It is found the perceived tourism impacts mediate between welcoming and pro-tourism behaviours.

      Dogan Gursoy, Medet Yolal, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Alexandre Panosso Netto (2017)Impact of Trust on Local Residents’ Mega-Event Perceptions and Their Support, In: Journal of Travel Research56(3)pp. 393-406 SAGE Publications

      This study examines the influence of residents’ trust in government and organizing committee on their impact perceptions and support for a mega-event, namely, 2014 FIFA World Cup. Findings suggest significant relationships between impact perceptions and support. While trust in government is found to be a significant determinant of impact perceptions, findings indicate no significant relationship between trust in government and support, which suggest that the relationship is mediated by impact perceptions. While a positive relationship between trust in the organizing committee and positive impact perceptions is found, findings suggest no significant relationship between trust in the organizing committee and negative impact perceptions. Trust in the organizing committee is also found to have significant positive impact on support.

      Kyle M. Woosnam, Kayode D. Aleshinloye, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Dimitrios Stylidis, Jingxian Jiang, Emrullah Erul (2018)Social determinants of place attachment at a World Heritage Site, In: Tourism Management67pp. 139-146 Elsevier

      While the work on place attachment is extensive, it neglects to focus on residents' and tourists' perspectives of the construct concurrently. Additionally, the role that social factors play in forging attachment to place is lacking within the tourism literature. This work focuses on whether residents' (n = 469) and tourists' (n = 461) degree of place attachment at the Osun Oshogbo Cultural Festival (Nigeria) were significantly different. Examining the psychometric properties of the place attachment scale in an international context was a second aim. The final purpose of this work was to assess whether social factors (i.e., frequency of interaction and emotional closeness) between residents and tourists could explain the resulting CFA place attachment factors. MANOVA results revealed tourists demonstrated a significantly higher degree of attachment. Each social determinant predicted the attachment factors for both samples, with the two independent variables explaining higher degrees of variance among residents.

      Vidya Patwardhan, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Valsaraj Payini, Kyle M. Woosnam, Jyothi Mallya, Parvadhavardhini Gopalakrishnan (2019)Visitors’ Place Attachment and Destination Loyalty: Examining the Roles of Emotional Solidarity and Perceived Safety, In: Journal of Travel Research59(1)pp. 3-21 SAGE Publications

      Hosting ethnically and culturally rich religious festivals provides visitors a glimpse into how a sense of togetherness and faith are not only established but strengthened through shared beliefs and ritualistic behavior. This research examines visitors’ destination loyalty through their emotional bonding with place, the emotional solidarity they experience with residents, and their perceived level of safety. Based on data collected from 813 visitors during the Attur Church Feast in Karkala, India, the results indicated that place attachment directly influences loyalty and two dimensions of emotional solidarity and, in turn, emotional solidarity has a positive effect on loyalty. Additionally, it was found that emotional solidarity partially mediates the effect of place attachment on destination loyalty. Finally, employing a moderated mediation analysis, visitor level of perceived safety at the festival partially moderated the indirect effect of place attachment on destination loyalty through emotional solidarity.

      Kyle M. Woosnam, Emrullah Erul, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2017)Heterogeneous community perspectives of emotional solidarity with tourists: Considering Antalya, Turkey, In: International Journal of Tourism Research19(6)pp. 639-647 Wiley

      This work examines emotional solidarity to determine to what extent residents' perceptions are heterogeneous by considering a host of sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. An on‐site survey instrument was administered to 660 residents living in the popular Turkish tourism destination, Antalya. Psychometric results provide support for the employment of the Emotional Solidarity Scale and its factor structure in an international context. Significant differences in Emotional Solidarity Scale factor means were found across five variables (e.g., gender, age, education level, tourism employment status, and level of tourism dependence). Theoretical and practical implications are offered, as are the limitations and potential future research opportunities.

      Alector Ribeiro, Patrícia Oom do Valle, João Albino Silva (2013)Residents’ Attitudes towards Tourism Development in Cape Verde Islands, In: Tourism Geographies15(4)pp. 654-679 Taylor & Francis

      The purpose of this study is to examine residents’ attitudes and perceptions towards tourism development in the Cape Verde islands, a little-explored issue in the context of small islands’ developing states, especially in Africa. Since the country is in the initial stage of tourism development, it is intended to show that residents predominantly share a positive attitude, which supports previous research. It is also intended to understand whether attitudes are homogeneously shared or instead tourism is differently perceived by residents. To address these objectives, a survey based on 492 questionnaires was applied to national residents in five countries that represent the major tourist areas of Cape Verde. The findings reveal that, in general, residents are optimistic about tourism. Yet, despite the overall positive attitude towards tourism, different segments of residents according to the way the tourism impacts are perceived could be identified. These segments report significant differences concerning socio-demographic characteristics and the degree of involvement in the tourism sector. This analysis provides important inputs for the planning process and sustainable development of tourism in the archipelago.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Patrícia Pinto, João Albino Silva, Kyle M. Woosnam (2018)Examining the predictive validity of SUS-TAS with maximum parsimony in developing island countries, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism26(3)pp. 379-398 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

      The Sustainable Tourism Attitude Scale (SUS-TAS) has been used as a tool to gauge the sentiment of local residents toward sustainable tourism development. This scale has been validated in cross-cultural settings by several scholars. In a like manner, in order to validate this scale, data were collected in the Cape Verde islands (off the coast of Africa) and the results showed (1) a parsimonious version of the 21-item SUS-TAS that facilitates the process of data collection without compromising its robustness and psychometric properties, (2) a validated second-order factor model, confirming that the seven factors of SUS-TAS can be loaded in two broader dimensions named “perceived tourism impacts” and “expected tourism sustainability”, (3) a SUS-TAS second-order factor model with validity in predicting residents’ support for sustainable tourism development, (4) that SUS-TAS can be interpreted by seven individual factors and/or as a global factor as indicated by the hierarchical measurement model and predictive validity. Methodological and theoretical interpretations are discussed and future refinement and applications are also offered.

      Robin Nunkoo, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Vivek Sunnassee, Dogan Gursoy (2018)Public trust in mega event planning institutions: The role of knowledge, transparency and corruption, In: Tourism Management66pp. 155-166 Elsevier

      The political ramifications of hosting mega-events are huge. In this article, we investigate the relationships among corruption, transparency, knowledge, and public trust using data collected from 3786 Brazilians in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Games. Findings from the structural equation modeling indicate that public trust in government is determined by the respondents' perceptions of corruption and transparency and their level of knowledge about the roles of government and the local organizing committee in the mega-event. The respondents’ level of trust in the local organizing committee also exerts an influence on their trust in the government. The implications of the findings for governments planning to host mega-events in the future are discussed. This research makes an important contribution to the literature, being the first study to test a theoretical model that analyses the relationships between corruption, transparency, knowledge, and public trust in the context of a mega-sport event.

      Francisco Orgaz-Agüera, Tomás López-Guzmán, José Francisco Domínguez Estrada, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2018)Comparative Analysis from the Perspective of Tourists in the All-Inclusive System in Cancun, Mexico, and Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, In: PODIUM Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review7(2)pp. 178-192 Universidade Nove de Julho

      The all-inclusive system has been highly developed in different countries of the Caribbean. This paper shows a comparative analysis of two established destinations such as Cancun and Puerto Plata in order to know the sociodemographic profile and valuation of the all-inclusive system of tourists visiting these areas. The main results show the high degree of satisfaction with the trip because of the convenience that this system gives clients and the knowledge of the spending budget prior to the travel. An aspect to improve stands out as the need to strengthen the interaction between the local community and travellers.

      Kyle M. Woosnam, Naho U. Maruyama, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Dongoh Joo (2019)Explaining minority residents’ attitudes of ethnic enclave tourism from general perceptions of tourism impacts, In: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change17(4)pp. 467-484 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

      This study examined how Brazilian and Korean residents in two Japanese towns differed in their views of tourism in general and ethnic neighborhood tourism (ENT) focused on their own culture and if their perceptions of tourism in general translate into their corresponding attitudes about ENT. A series of MANOVAs revealed that Brazilian residents held more positive views toward tourism in general and ENT than their Korean counterparts. Although the two groups differed in their perception of community benefits from tourism in general, they demonstrated a similar mix of hopes and worries regarding ENT. Results from multiple regression analyses also revealed that minority residents’ perceptions of tourism in general can be a significant predictor of their attitudes toward ENT explaining 4–40% of variance in the Brazilian sample and 4–12% in the Korean sample. These findings imply that perceptions of general tourism are precursors to perceptions of specific, niche forms of tourism. In a practical sense, this study underscores the importance of inviting residents’ opinion into the tourism planning process, especially in ENT contexts. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed at the close of the paper.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle M. Woosnam, Patricia Pinto, João Albino Silva (2018)Tourists’ Destination Loyalty through Emotional Solidarity with Residents: An Integrative Moderated Mediation Model, In: Journal of Travel Research57(3)pp. 279-295 SAGE Publications

      This study proposes a theoretical model integrating two lines of tourism research: emotional solidarity and destination loyalty. In order to test the proposed model, a survey of visitors to Cape Verde islands was undertaken. Structural equation modeling and moderated mediation analysis were implemented to assess the relationships involving visitors’ emotional solidarity with residents, satisfaction, and destination loyalty. The three dimensions of emotional solidarity were considered in the study: feeling welcomed, sympathetic understanding, and emotional closeness. Results indicate that visitors’ feeling welcomed and sympathetic understanding directly influence loyalty. In particular, the relationships involving visitors’ feeling welcomed by residents, emotional closeness with residents, and sympathetic understanding with residents and loyalty were all mediated by satisfaction. Additionally, gender was found to moderate the conditional indirect effects of emotional closeness and feeling welcomed on loyalty (via satisfaction). Such relationships were stronger among male visitors. Implications as well as future research opportunities are offered.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Girish Prayag (2019)Perceived Quality and Service Experience: Mediating Effects of Positive and Negative Emotions, In: Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management28(3)pp. 285-305 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

      Using the cognition-affect-behavior response system, this study examines the effects of three dimensions of perceived quality (service quality, food quality and restaurant atmospherics) and emotions on overall customer service experience in ethnic restaurants. The study builds on the gap in the literature with respect to the evaluation of perceived quality as a higher-order construct consisting of three dimensions. The baseline and two competing models are proposed and tested on a sample of 665 diners to Brazilian restaurants in the United Kingdom (UK). The findings revealed that all hypothesized relationships were statistically significant, except for the relationship between restaurant atmospherics and negative emotions. Only positive emotions mediated the effect of perceived quality on customer service experience. The findings have significant theoretical and managerial implications for service providers and encouraging diners to experience Brazilian restaurants in the UK.

      Vidya Patwardhan, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Valsaraj Payini, Jyothi Mallya (2020)Visitors' loyalty to religious tourism destinations: Considering place attachment, emotional experience and religious affiliation, In: Tourism Management Perspectives36100737 Elsevier

      This study investigates the influence of visitors' place attachment and emotional experience on destination loyalty. Furthermore, religious affiliation was examined as a moderator within the model. Survey data from Attur Feast attendees (n = 812) were analysed using a series of multiple regression analyses to test proposed hypotheses. Visitors' emotional experiences were found to mediate the effect of place attachment dimensions (i.e., place identity and place dependence) on loyalty. Additionally, visitors' religious affiliation was found to moderate place attachment and emotional experience effects on destination loyalty. Furthermore, visitors' religious affiliation moderates only the indirect effect of place dependence on destination loyalty via emotional experience and this effect was strongest for Christian visitors compared to Hindu or Muslim visitors. In sum, we found that perceived emotional experiences mediate the relationship between place attachment and destination loyalty. Implications, limitations and directions for future research are offered.

      Emmanuel Akwasi Adu-Ampong, Marina Novelli, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2020)Tourism in Africa - continental issues and regional contexts, In: Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africapp. 3-32 Routledge

      In recent times, the “Africa Rising” chorus is being heard across multiple socio-economic, political and cultural arenas. The tourism sector is one of such arenas in which much has been written about the promise, potential and pitfalls of tourism in transforming communities across the continent. Much of this “Africa Rising” related narratives within the tourism sector, however, tend to be written by those with only a passing knowledge of a vastly complex continent. Tourism, while a global phenomenon, is mediated by local specificities. There is an urgent need to pay attention to the nuances this entail instead of relying on unexamined categories and stereotypes. It is this commitment to nuance, specificity and local perspectives that has drawn the three editors together for this project. When the invitation came to develop this Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africa, we enthusiastically signed up, as we envisaged the potential opportunities it represented – although we underestimated the challenges this would also pose. This Handbook of Tourism in Africa was conceived out of a commitment to a collaborative project that showcases critical research grounded in local thinking and nuance, the wisdom and empirically grounded writings, primarily by African academics and practitioners about Africa. We sought to make this Handbook a dialogue between academics and industry practitioners. Our attempt has been to allow those at the forefront of the day-to-day workings of the tourism sector on the African continent to provide the perspectives paramount to a critical study of the sector. We have endeavored to balk the trend of distinguishing North Africa from Sub Saharan by viewing the continent as a whole. Using the United Nations Geoscheme for Africa as a guide, we have included Chapters and InFocus sections from Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa and Western Africa. Our ambition from the onset was to have a comprehensive representation of countries across the continent, especially countries that are poorly represented within the tourism literature. In the end, our ambition met with the reality of the availability of research and willingness of authors to contribute to this project. We believe that the results of our approach have been the assembly of Chapters and InFocus sections by a distinguished array of scholars in various stages of their academic careers and industry practitioners. We have made considerable efforts to have contributions from non-English speaking countries on the continent. We believe that the contributors to this Handbook have presented what collectively comes together as an extensive overview of some of the challenging, changing and innovative areas of tourism research and practice across the continent. The geographic spread of cases and topics covered in this Handbook is especially gratifying, as they are at the interface of academic research and the concerns of industry practitioners. We see our role in this regard as providing an avenue that stimulates further critical reflection on the dynamism and complexity of tourism on the continent by curating research which is representative of academics, practitioners and community members from as many walks of life possible. As with a book of this nature, there are many people who have to be acknowledged and thanked for their support. We would like to firstly thank all our contributors, both scholars and practitioners who have contributed a Chapter or an InFocus piece. We are immensely grateful for their willingness and commitment. Marina would like to acknowledge the critical eyes and inspirational presence of her two co-editors of this volume: Dr Adu-Ampong to whom she will be forever grateful for taking over the bulk of the editorial work at a rather difficult time of her life and Dr Ribeiro for working tirelessly to complete this collection. There are very special people which we encounter during our professional life and those two are undoubtedly a reflection of that. In addition to this, she would like acknowledge the importance of the continued support received by her family, friends and colleagues and the immense value of the inspiring encounters during her travel throughout the continent. Emmanuel would like to thank his fellow editors for the conviviality and discussions throughout this project; his children, Zoë, Joshua and Daniel for allowing their Papa the space to ‘work-from-home’ and for providing him respite through their “Buurman & Buurman” antics; and - above all - he would like to acknowledge the devoted and constant support of his wife, Marre, who makes it possible for him to maintain an academic life amidst family life. Alector would like to thank his fellow editors Marina and Emmanuel for their encouragement to embrace this project, ongoing camaraderie and their passion for studying tourism in Africa. He would also like to thank his parents Artur and Maria Antónia, for their continuous support and love. Finally, Alector would like to extend the most sincere gratitude to Montserrat for her extraordinary love and support throughout the years. We hope this Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africa will be the first of many collections sharing what African tourism is all about. Despite the obvious challenges associated with the sector and the fast-evolving continental socio-economic context, we hope that some of the lesson learnt here may serve to make a better future for the continent.

      Huda Abdullah Megeirhi, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)Understanding the complexities of residents’ support for cultural heritage preservation through an equity theory lens: The case of World Heritage Sites of Carthage, Tunisia, In: Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africapp. 154-169 Routledge
      Marina Novelli, Emmanuel Akwasi Adu-Ampong, Manuel Alector Ribeiro (2020)Prospects and futures for tourism in Africa, In: Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africapp. 491-498 Routledge

      This chapter provides some reflections on the prospects and futures for tourism in Africa and advance suggestions about possible directions for forthcoming research opportunities on tourism ‘in’ and ‘for’ Africa. The demand for new tourism products and services gives way to the creation of new jobs, hence potentially contributing to poverty alleviation and reducing inequalities through entrepreneurship. In some countries, tourism has been the seed of collaborative approaches leading to funds fully dedicated to the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity, the regeneration of local assets and the boost of skills across the entire value chain. The chapter also provides an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. The book offers a varied and far-reaching set of insights into the workings of tourism in Africa. It is also devoted to the intricacies of tourism development in the Middle Africa region.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Huda Abdullah Megeirhi, Kyle Maurice Woosnam (2020)The political economy of tourism development in Cape Verde islands, In: Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africa Routledge
      Vasanth Kamath, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Kyle Maurice Woosnam, Jyothi Mallya, Giridhar Kamath (2021)Determinants of Visitors’ Loyalty to Religious Sacred Event Places: A Multigroup Measurement Invariance Model, In: Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications

      Places hosting religious sacred events provide opportunities for visitors to find spiritual growth and also afford glimpses into the local culture, community, and hosting religious group. This study looks at tourists’ intended behavioral loyalty to a religious sacred event place as determined through motivations, shared beliefs, and emotional solidarity with other visitors, and memorable religious experiences. Data were collected from 985 visitors (556 domestic and 429 international) during the 2019 Kumbh Mela, held in Prayagraj, India. Contrary to previous studies, results indicated that emotional solidarity did not significantly influence attendees’ intended behavioral loyalty (among domestic visitors). Furthermore, in employing an invariance structural test for paths mentioned in the model, results revealed that the effects of shared beliefs, motivations, emotional solidarity, and memorable religious experiences differed among domestic and international visitors. Study implications and limitations are provided at the close of the paper, giving way to future research opportunities.

      Manuel Alector Ribeiro, Dogan Gursoy, Oscar Hengxuan Chi (2021)Customer Acceptance of Autonomous Vehicles in Travel and Tourism, In: Journal of Travel Research Sage

      Since the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the use of personal vehicles in travel, adoption of self-driving autonomous vehicles can radically transform the travel industry. Thus, this study develops and tests a conceptual autonomous vehicle acceptance model that identifies hedonic motivation, trust in autonomous vehicles and social influence as critical determinants of performance expectancy, perceived risk and emotions, which determine travelers’ intentions to use autonomous vehicles (AVs) utilizing the Cognitive Appraisal Theory and the Artificially Intelligent Device Use Acceptance model as conceptual frameworks. Findings indicate that trust is the most powerful determinant of performance expectancy and essential to decrease risk perceptions. Furthermore, performance expectancy and hedonic motivation are critical determinants of travelers’ positive emotions, which in turn determines the acceptance of AVs. Contribution to theoretical knowledge and implications for practice are provided, and limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

      YOUNGSOO KIM, MANUEL ALECTOR RIBEIRO, GANG LI (2021)Tourism Memory Characteristics Scale: Development and Validation, In: Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications

      Recall of tourism experiences is a decisive factor in tourists’ future behavior and decision making when choosing destinations. Understanding the phenomenology of tourism memory can enable tourism organizations to enter a more competitive marketplace. Although extensive literature has addressed how to provide memorable tourism experiences, limited studies have focused on the autobiographical memories associated with these experiences. This research employed rigorous scale development procedures to establish the Tourism Memory Characteristics Scale (TMCS). Findings point to a seven-dimension scale consisting of accessibility, trip details, vividness, sensory details, valence, emotional intensity, and sharing. Tourism memory characteristics were found to support the scale’s dimensional structure, validity, and reliability. It was also found that tourism memory influences revisit intention and word of mouth. Results present opportunities for tourism organizations to capture the fundamental characteristics of their products by using the TMCS.

      Despite the increasing interests surrounding online consumer behavior in recent years, there is a paucity in the current literature that attempt to substantiate the relationship between online information search behavior and value-conscious search behavior. This study explores the antecedents that prompt value-conscious online search behavior in hospitality and tourism. Data were collected from 2,013 participants in the United Kingdom. The result shows that hotel information search frequency affects value-conscious search behavior, and that this effect is fully mediated by source familiarity and search attitude. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

      Alector Ribeiro, P. O. Valle (2015)Tourism and job creation: lessons from Cape Verde, In: Tourism and Development in Sub-Sahara Africa: Current issues and local realitiespp. 36-38 Routledge
      Tomás López-Guzmán, Francisco Orgaz Agüera, Manuel Alector Ribeiro, José Francisco Domínguez Estrada (2016)Turismo All-Inclusive en República Dominicana. Un análisis desde la perspectiva de la demanda turística, In: Revista de Economía del Caribe17pp. 125-142 Universidad del Norte Apartado Aéreo

      All Inclusive System has become a predominant service in sun and beach destinations, generating significant benefits for tourists, but also some negative aspects in the destination. In Dominican Republic is set as the main tourist attractions of the country, highlighting in Punta Cana - Bavaro and Puerto Plata. The purpose of this research is to analyze the ratings of international tourists “all inclusive” that reach the tourist resort of Puerto Plata, to know its perception. This research is based on the realization of a questionnaire to foreign visitors. The main results show that tourists are a medium-high economic profile highlighting those visitors who choose this destination for Internet and travel agencies. The beaches and ease of entry are the most valued by tourists.

      T. López-Guzmán, Alector Ribeiro, M.A. Orgüera-Orgaz, J.A.M. Martín (2015)El turismo en Cabo Verde: Perfil y valoración del viajero, In: Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo24(3)pp. 512-524 Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Turísticos

      Resumen: Las islas han tenido en los últimos años un cambio significativo en su estructura económica que se ha reflejado en un incremento significativo de su desarrollo económico. En este artículo se analiza la transformación que ha tenido Cabo Verde en la última década gracias, sobre todo, a la actividad turística y al aumento de la construcción. Asimismo, se presentan los resultados de una investigación en la que se analiza la opinión y valoración que de diferentes variables relacionadas con el turismo tienen los viajeros extranjeros que visitan la principal isla turística del país, la isla de Sal. Se expone las conclusiones de un estudio basado en la realización de encuestas a los turistas extranjeros que se han alojado en dicha isla en régimen de todo incluido. Estas conclusiones muestran un elevado nivel de satisfacción de los turistas extranjeros, principalmente por las playas, la hospitalidad y el clima. Sin embargo, se debe destacar la necesidad de facilitar y simplificar los trámites de entrada al país de los turistas y el aumento de zonas comerciales. También se discuten las implicaciones y las limitaciones prácticas del estudio. Abstract: Tourism in Cape Verde. Profile and Valuation of the Traveler. In recent years, the islands have had a significant change in its economic structure that is reflected in a significant increase in their economic development. This paper describes the transformation that Cape Verde has taken in the last decade, thanks mainly to tourism and the increase of the construction sector. In addition, the results of this study present the review and assessment of different variables related to tourism and foreign travelers who visited the main tourist island of the country, the island of Sal. Accordingly, this study is based on surveys applied to foreign tourists who visit the island in All-Inclusive System. The findings show a high level of satisfaction of foreign tourists, especially related to the beaches, the hospitality of local people and the weather. However, it must be emphasized the need to facilitate and simplify the procedures of the entry of tourists in the country and the increasing of the shopping areas. The study's practical implications and limitations are also discussed.

      T. López-Guzmán, Alector Ribeiro, F. Orgüera-Orgaz (2015)Contributions of gastronomy for developing border tourist destinations: a case study, In: Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento24pp. 9-21 Universidade de Aveiro

      The tourism activity promotes socioeconomic development and conservation of the resources of a destination. In developing border areas, tourism is part of the engine of its economy being exploited through different historical, cultural and natural resources near the border. The gastronomy is among these cultural resources. The purpose of this research was threefold: first analyze the strengths of gastronomy in the Dominican-Haitian border; second, to analyze the motivations of foreign tourists who visit the most important city in this region: Dajabón; and contribute to strengthen research in the field of border tourism. The methodology is qualitative and a questionnaire was design to collect data from international tourists. The main results of this research, it is noteworthy that the main motivation of demand is marked by eating and drinking. The strengths of gastronomy in this border tourist destination is related with good prices, customer service and hospitality, the quality of the dishes and the friendly atmosphere of their establishments. As weakness, the lack of innovation and new flavors in the dishes and, moreover, the facilities are highlighted.

      Alector Ribeiro, M.A. Valle, J.A. Silva (2014)Residents’ Attitudes towards Tourism Development in Cape Verde Islands, In: Alan A. Klaus Meyer-Arendt (eds.), Understanding Tropical Coastal and Island Tourism Developmentpp. 125-150 Routledge
      Alector Ribeiro (2015)Cape Verde, tourism, In: J. Jafari, H. Xiao (eds.), Encyclopedia of Tourism Springer
      Alector Ribeiro, P. O. Valle (2013)Atitude dos residentes face ao desenvolvimento do turismo em Cabo Verde: uma análise de segmentação, In: Revista Internacional em Língua Portuguesa26pp. 89-108 Associação das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa