Dr Manuel Alector Ribeiro

Lecturer in Tourism Management
BA (Hons), MSc, PhD, PGCLT
+44 (0)1483 686377
52 AP 02
E-mail me to arrange an online appointment

Academic and research departments

School of Hospitality and Tourism Management.


University roles and responsibilities

  • Programme Leader - BSc International Tourism Management
  • Pathway Lead for ESRC DTP Development Studies Pathway

My qualifications

Postgraduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education
University of Surrey
Ph.D in Tourism Studies
University of Algarve, Portugal
Msc in Tourism Management and Development
University of Algarve, Portugal
BA (Hons) in Translation Studies
Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal

Previous roles

November 2016 - August 2017
Associate Lecturer in Tourism
Middlesex University, London, UK

Affiliations and memberships

Higher Education Academy (UK)


Research interests

Research projects


Postgraduate research supervision

My teaching

Courses I teach on


Postgraduate taught

Postgraduate taught

My publications


Ribeiro Alector (2015) Cape Verde, tourism,In: Jafari J., Xiao H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Tourism Springer
Ribeiro Alector, Valle P. O. (2015) Tourism and job creation: lessons from Cape Verde,In: Tourism and Development in Sub-Sahara Africa: Current issues and local realities pp. 36-38 Routledge
López-Guzmán T., Ribeiro Alector, Orgüera-Orgaz M.A., Martín J.A.M. (2015) El turismo en Cabo Verde: Perfil y valoración del viajero,Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo 24 (3) pp. 512-524 Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Turísticos

Las islas han tenido en los últimos años un cambio significativo en su estructura económica que se ha reflejado en un incremento significativo de su desarrollo económico. En este artículo se analiza la transformación que ha tenido Cabo Verde en la última década gracias, sobre todo, a la actividad turística y al aumento de la construcción. Asimismo, se presentan los resultados de una investigación en la que se analiza la opinión y valoración que de diferentes variables relacionadas con el turismo tienen los viajeros extranjeros que visitan la principal isla turística del país, la isla de Sal. Se expone las conclusiones de un estudio basado en la realización de encuestas a los turistas extranjeros que se han alojado en dicha isla en régimen de todo incluido. Estas conclusiones muestran un elevado nivel de satisfacción de los turistas extranjeros, principalmente por las playas, la hospitalidad y el clima. Sin embargo, se debe destacar la necesidad de facilitar y simplificar los trámites de entrada al país de los turistas y el aumento de zonas comerciales. También se discuten las implicaciones y las limitaciones prácticas del estudio.


Tourism in Cape Verde. Profile and Valuation of the Traveler. In recent years, the islands have had a significant change in its economic structure that is reflected in a significant increase in their economic development. This paper describes the transformation that Cape Verde has taken in the last decade, thanks mainly to tourism and the increase of the construction sector. In addition, the results of this study present the review and assessment of different variables related to tourism and foreign travelers who visited the main tourist island of the country, the island of Sal. Accordingly, this study is based on surveys applied to foreign tourists who visit the island in All-Inclusive System. The findings show a high level of satisfaction of foreign tourists, especially related to the beaches, the hospitality of local people and the weather. However, it must be emphasized the need to facilitate and simplify the procedures of the entry of tourists in the country and the increasing of the shopping areas. The study's practical implications and limitations are also discussed.

Ribeiro Alector, Valle Patrícia Oom do, Silva João Albino (2013) Residents? Attitudes towards Tourism Development in Cape Verde Islands,Tourism Geographies 15 (4) pp. 654-679 Taylor & Francis
The purpose of this study is to examine residents? attitudes and perceptions towards tourism development in the Cape Verde islands, a little-explored issue in the context of small islands? developing states, especially in Africa. Since the country is in the initial stage of tourism development, it is intended to show that residents predominantly share a positive attitude, which supports previous research. It is also intended to understand whether attitudes are homogeneously shared or instead tourism is differently perceived by residents. To address these objectives, a survey based on 492 questionnaires was applied to national residents in five countries that represent the major tourist areas of Cape Verde. The findings reveal that, in general, residents are optimistic about tourism. Yet, despite the overall positive attitude towards tourism, different segments of residents according to the way the tourism impacts are perceived could be identified. These segments report significant differences concerning socio-demographic characteristics and the degree of involvement in the tourism sector. This analysis provides important inputs for the planning process and sustainable development of tourism in the archipelago.
Ribeiro Alector, Valle P. O. (2013) Atitude dos residentes face ao desenvolvimento do turismo em Cabo Verde: uma análise de segmentação,Revista Internacional em Língua Portuguesa 26 pp. 89-108 Associação das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa
López-Guzmán T., Ribeiro Alector, Orgüera-Orgaz F. (2015) Contributions of gastronomy for developing border tourist destinations: a case study,Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento 24 pp. 9-21 Universidade de Aveiro
The tourism activity promotes socioeconomic development and conservation of the resources of a destination. In developing border areas, tourism is part of the engine of its economy being exploited through different historical, cultural and natural resources near the border. The gastronomy is among these cultural resources. The purpose of this research was threefold: first analyze the strengths of gastronomy in the Dominican-Haitian border; second, to analyze the motivations of foreign tourists who visit the most important city in this region: Dajabón; and contribute to strengthen research in the field of border tourism. The methodology is qualitative and a questionnaire was design to collect data from international tourists. The main results of this research, it is noteworthy that the main motivation of demand is marked by eating and drinking. The strengths of gastronomy in this border tourist destination is related with good prices, customer service and hospitality, the quality of the dishes and the friendly atmosphere of their establishments. As weakness, the lack of innovation and new flavors in the dishes and, moreover, the facilities are highlighted.
Ribeiro Alector, Valle M.A., Silva J.A. (2014) Residents? Attitudes towards Tourism Development in Cape Verde Islands,In: Klaus Meyer-Arendt Alan A. (eds.), Understanding Tropical Coastal and Island Tourism Development pp. 125-150 Routledge
Woosnam Kyle M., Aleshinloye Kayode D., Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Stylidis Dimitrios, Jiang Jingxian, Erul Emrullah (2018) Social determinants of place attachment at a World Heritage Site,Tourism Management 67 pp. 139-146 Elsevier
While the work on place attachment is extensive, it neglects to focus on residents' and tourists' perspectives of the construct concurrently. Additionally, the role that social factors play in forging attachment to place is lacking within the tourism literature. This work focuses on whether residents' (n/=/469) and tourists' (n/=/461) degree of place attachment at the Osun Oshogbo Cultural Festival (Nigeria) were significantly different. Examining the psychometric properties of the place attachment scale in an international context was a second aim. The final purpose of this work was to assess whether social factors (i.e., frequency of interaction and emotional closeness) between residents and tourists could explain the resulting CFA place attachment factors. MANOVA results revealed tourists demonstrated a significantly higher degree of attachment. Each social determinant predicted the attachment factors for both samples, with the two independent variables explaining higher degrees of variance among residents.
Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Prayag Girish (2019) Perceived Quality and Service Experience: Mediating Effects of Positive and Negative Emotions,Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management 28 (3) pp. 285-305 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Using the cognition-affect-behavior response system, this study examines the effects of three dimensions of perceived quality (service quality, food quality and restaurant atmospherics) and emotions on overall customer service experience in ethnic restaurants. The study builds on the gap in the literature with respect to the evaluation of perceived quality as a higher-order construct consisting of three dimensions. The baseline and two competing models are proposed and tested on a sample of 665 diners to Brazilian restaurants in the United Kingdom (UK). The findings revealed that all hypothesized relationships were statistically significant, except for the relationship between restaurant atmospherics and negative emotions. Only positive emotions mediated the effect of perceived quality on customer service experience. The findings have significant theoretical and managerial implications for service providers and encouraging diners to experience Brazilian restaurants in the UK.
Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Pinto Patrícia, Silva João Albino, Woosnam Kyle M. (2018) Examining the predictive validity of SUS-TAS with maximum parsimony in developing island countries,Journal of Sustainable Tourism 26 (3) pp. 379-398 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
The Sustainable Tourism Attitude Scale (SUS-TAS) has been used as a tool to gauge the sentiment of local residents toward sustainable tourism development. This scale has been validated in cross-cultural settings by several scholars. In a like manner, in order to validate this scale, data were collected in the Cape Verde islands (off the coast of Africa) and the results showed (1) a parsimonious version of the 21-item SUS-TAS that facilitates the process of data collection without compromising its robustness and psychometric properties, (2) a validated second-order factor model, confirming that the seven factors of SUS-TAS can be loaded in two broader dimensions named ?perceived tourism impacts? and ?expected tourism sustainability?, (3) a SUS-TAS second-order factor model with validity in predicting residents? support for sustainable tourism development, (4) that SUS-TAS can be interpreted by seven individual factors and/or as a global factor as indicated by the hierarchical measurement model and predictive validity. Methodological and theoretical interpretations are discussed and future refinement and applications are also offered.
Nunkoo Robin, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Sunnassee Vivek, Gursoy Dogan (2018) Public trust in mega event planning institutions: The role of knowledge, transparency and corruption,Tourism Management 66 pp. 155-166 Elsevier
The political ramifications of hosting mega-events are huge. In this article, we investigate the relationships among corruption, transparency, knowledge, and public trust using data collected from 3786 Brazilians in the context of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Games. Findings from the structural equation modeling indicate that public trust in government is determined by the respondents' perceptions of corruption and transparency and their level of knowledge about the roles of government and the local organizing committee in the mega-event. The respondents? level of trust in the local organizing committee also exerts an influence on their trust in the government. The implications of the findings for governments planning to host mega-events in the future are discussed. This research makes an important contribution to the literature, being the first study to test a theoretical model that analyses the relationships between corruption, transparency, knowledge, and public trust in the context of a mega-sport event.
Woosnam Kyle M., Erul Emrullah, Ribeiro Manuel Alector (2017) Heterogeneous community perspectives of emotional solidarity with tourists: Considering Antalya, Turkey,International Journal of Tourism Research 19 (6) pp. 639-647 Wiley
This work examines emotional solidarity to determine to what extent residents' perceptions are heterogeneous by considering a host of sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. An on?site survey instrument was administered to 660 residents living in the popular Turkish tourism destination, Antalya. Psychometric results provide support for the employment of the Emotional Solidarity Scale and its factor structure in an international context. Significant differences in Emotional Solidarity Scale factor means were found across five variables (e.g., gender, age, education level, tourism employment status, and level of tourism dependence). Theoretical and practical implications are offered, as are the limitations and potential future research opportunities.
Orgaz-Agüera Francisco, López-Guzmán Tomás, Domínguez Estrada José Francisco, Ribeiro Manuel Alector (2018) Comparative Analysis from the Perspective of Tourists in the All-Inclusive System in Cancun, Mexico, and Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic,PODIUM Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review 7 (2) pp. 178-192 Universidade Nove de Julho
The all-inclusive system has been highly developed in different countries of the Caribbean. This paper shows a comparative analysis of two established destinations such as Cancun and Puerto Plata in order to know the sociodemographic profile and valuation of the all-inclusive system of tourists visiting these areas. The main results show the high degree of satisfaction with the trip because of the convenience that this system gives clients and the knowledge of the spending budget prior to the travel. An aspect to improve stands out as the need to strengthen the interaction between the local community and travellers.
Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Woosnam Kyle M., Pinto Patricia, Silva João Albino (2018) Tourists? Destination Loyalty through Emotional Solidarity with Residents: An Integrative Moderated Mediation Model,Journal of Travel Research 57 (3) pp. 279-295 SAGE Publications
This study proposes a theoretical model integrating two lines of tourism research: emotional solidarity and destination loyalty. In order to test the proposed model, a survey of visitors to Cape Verde islands was undertaken. Structural equation modeling and moderated mediation analysis were implemented to assess the relationships involving visitors? emotional solidarity with residents, satisfaction, and destination loyalty. The three dimensions of emotional solidarity were considered in the study: feeling welcomed, sympathetic understanding, and emotional closeness. Results indicate that visitors? feeling welcomed and sympathetic understanding directly influence loyalty. In particular, the relationships involving visitors? feeling welcomed by residents, emotional closeness with residents, and sympathetic understanding with residents and loyalty were all mediated by satisfaction. Additionally, gender was found to moderate the conditional indirect effects of emotional closeness and feeling welcomed on loyalty (via satisfaction). Such relationships were stronger among male visitors. Implications as well as future research opportunities are offered.
Gursoy Dogan, Yolal Medet, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Panosso Netto Alexandre (2017) Impact of Trust on Local Residents? Mega-Event Perceptions and Their Support,Journal of Travel Research 56 (3) pp. 393-406 SAGE Publications
This study examines the influence of residents? trust in government and organizing committee on their impact perceptions and support for a mega-event, namely, 2014 FIFA World Cup. Findings suggest significant relationships between impact perceptions and support. While trust in government is found to be a significant determinant of impact perceptions, findings indicate no significant relationship between trust in government and support, which suggest that the relationship is mediated by impact perceptions. While a positive relationship between trust in the organizing committee and positive impact perceptions is found, findings suggest no significant relationship between trust in the organizing committee and negative impact perceptions. Trust in the organizing committee is also found to have significant positive impact on support.
López-Guzmán Tomás, Orgaz-Agüera Francisco, Martín Juan Antonio Marmolejo, Ribeiro Manuel Alector (2016) The all-inclusive tourism system in Cape Verde islands: The tourists' perspective,Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 29 pp. 9-16 Elsevier
The advent of tourism in certain resort areas has led to sharply
rising socio-economic development, sometimes contributing to a
change in the local economic structure. Thus, in certain States, as a
result of the tourism boom the model of economic production has
undergone a radical change. An example of this can be seen in Cape
Verde, a country whose economy was characterised, until 15 or 20
years ago, by a predominance of the primary sector and an economy
based on cooperation aid from developed countries and by
remittances from emigrants. However, in 2007 the World Bank
declared Cape Verde a middle-income country. This change was
due to the impact of diverse variables, some of a political nature,
such as a well-consolidated democratic political system, based on
the rule of law, together with excellent legal security and also the
country's international outlook, based on very close trade relations
with the European Union; other variables were of a commercial nature, and reflected a change in the business model, with a greater
focus on the tourism sector and, therefore, on construction.
López-Guzmán Tomás, Orgaz Agüera Francisco, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Domínguez Estrada José Francisco (2016) Turismo All-Inclusive en República Dominicana. Un análisis desde la perspectiva de la demanda turística,Revista de Economía del Caribe 17 pp. 125-142 Universidad del Norte Apartado Aéreo
All Inclusive System has become a predominant service in sun and beach destinations, generating significant benefits for tourists, but also some negative aspects in the destination. In Dominican Republic is set as the main tourist attractions of the country, highlighting in Punta Cana - Bavaro and Puerto Plata. The purpose of this research is to analyze the ratings of international tourists ?all inclusive? that reach the tourist resort of Puerto Plata, to know its perception. This research is based on the realization of a questionnaire to foreign visitors. The main results show that tourists are a medium-high economic profile highlighting those visitors who choose this destination for Internet and travel agencies. The beaches and ease of entry are the most valued by tourists.
Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Pinto Patricia, Silva João Albino, Woosnam Kyle M. (2017) Residents? attitudes and the adoption of pro-tourism behaviours: The case of developing island countries,Tourism Management 61 pp. 523-537 Elsevier
This study considers both economic and non-economic factors to examine how residents perceive tourism and ultimately develop pro-tourism behaviour. The concepts used in model creation are Social Exchange Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Based on data derived from 418 residents of the Cape Verde Islands (off the coast of western Africa) a structural equation model is used to test how perceived personal benefits and general economic conditions shape perceptions of tourism, and in turn how these perceptions determine pro-tourism behaviour. Additionally, the concept of welcoming behaviour is included in the model. It is found the perceived tourism impacts mediate between welcoming and pro-tourism behaviours.
de Oliveira Santos Glauber Eduardo, Gursoy Dogan, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Netto Alexandre Panosso (2019) Impact of Transparency and Corruption on Mega-Event Support,Event Management 23 (1) pp. 27-40 Cognizant Communication Corporation
Mega-events and corruption are two major issues in modern society. Unfortunately, both sometimes go hand in hand. This study examined the effects of corruption perceptions on residents' impact perceptions and their support for hosting a mega-event in their community. Furthermore, this study investigated the influence of transparency on corruption, residents' impact perceptions, and their support for a mega-event by focusing on the 2014 FIFA World Cup held in Brazil. Findings indicated that corruption perceptions are critical determinants of residents' impact perceptions and their support for hosting a mega-event. Findings further suggested that transparency is an important determinant of residents' corruption perceptions, impact perceptions, and support for hosting a mega-event.
Patwardhan Vidya, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Payini Valsaraj, Woosnam Kyle M., Mallya Jyothi, Gopalakrishnan Parvadhavardhini (2020) Visitors? Place Attachment and Destination Loyalty: Examining the Roles of Emotional Solidarity and Perceived Safety,Journal of Travel Research 59 (1) pp. 3-21 SAGE Publications
Hosting ethnically and culturally rich religious festivals provides visitors a glimpse into how a sense of togetherness and faith are not only established but strengthened through shared beliefs and ritualistic behavior. This research examines visitors? destination loyalty through their emotional bonding with place, the emotional solidarity they experience with residents, and their perceived level of safety. Based on data collected from 813 visitors during the Attur Church Feast in Karkala, India, the results indicated that place attachment directly influences loyalty and two dimensions of emotional solidarity and, in turn, emotional solidarity has a positive effect on loyalty. Additionally, it was found that emotional solidarity partially mediates the effect of place attachment on destination loyalty. Finally, employing a moderated mediation analysis, visitor level of perceived safety at the festival partially moderated the indirect effect of place attachment on destination loyalty through emotional solidarity.
Woosnam Kyle M., Maruyama Naho U., Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Joo Dongoh (2019) Explaining minority residents? attitudes of ethnic enclave tourism from general perceptions of tourism impacts,Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change 17 (4) pp. 467-484 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
This study examined how Brazilian and Korean residents in two Japanese towns differed in their views of tourism in general and ethnic neighborhood tourism (ENT) focused on their own culture and if their perceptions of tourism in general translate into their corresponding attitudes about ENT. A series of MANOVAs revealed that Brazilian residents held more positive views toward tourism in general and ENT than their Korean counterparts. Although the two groups differed in their perception of community benefits from tourism in general, they demonstrated a similar mix of hopes and worries regarding ENT. Results from multiple regression analyses also revealed that minority residents? perceptions of tourism in general can be a significant predictor of their attitudes toward ENT explaining 4?40% of variance in the Brazilian sample and 4?12% in the Korean sample. These findings imply that perceptions of general tourism are precursors to perceptions of specific, niche forms of tourism. In a practical sense, this study underscores the importance of inviting residents? opinion into the tourism planning process, especially in ENT contexts. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed at the close of the paper.
Aleshinloye Kayode D., Fu Xiaoxiao, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Woosnam Kyle Maurice, Tasci Asli D.A. (2020) The Influence of Place Attachment on Social Distance: Examining Mediating Effects of Emotional Solidarity and the Moderating Role of Interaction,Journal of Travel Research 59 (5) pp. 828-849 SAGE Publications
Building on common identity theory and intergroup contact theory, this study sought to further understanding of people?place relationships by developing a holistic theoretical model to scrutinize place attachment as an antecedent of social distance, mediated by emotional solidarity and moderated by frequency of contact between tourists and residents. Visitor data analyzed with SEM revealed that place dependence is a significant predictor of social distance given it affects affinity positively and avoidance negatively, both of which are mediated by the three dimensions of emotional solidarity. Furthermore, the mediated relationships (via emotional solidarity) between place attachment and social distance vary by level of visitors? frequency of interaction with residents. This study expands current theorization by examining the merits of emotional solidarity as an affective link in a tourist cognitive-behavioral model. From a practical standpoint, DMOs need to understand these construct linkages and include residents in their marketing strategies to increase repeat visitation.
Megeirhi Huda A., Maurice Woosnam Kyle, Ribeiro Alector, Ramkissoon Haywantee, Denley Tara J. (2020) Employing a value-belief-norm framework togauge Carthage residents? intentions to supportsustainable cultural heritage tourism,Journal of Sustainable Tourism 28 (9) pp. 1351-1370 Taylor and Francis
In light of the recent conflicts in Carthage over land use, culturalheritage preservation, and sustainable tourism, this work utilized avalue-belief-norm (VBN) theoretical framework to consider psychologicalantecedents of residents?behavioral intentions to support cultural heri-tage tourism. As such, personal values, cultural worldview, awareness ofconsequences, ascription of responsibility, and subjective norms wereconsidered antecedents of intentions to support cultural heritagetourism. Data were collected from 475 Carthage residents in nine neigh-borhoods adjacent to UNESCO World Heritage Sites using an on-siteself-administered questionnaire. The proposed model was assessedthrough confirmatory factor analysis (to demonstrate sound psychomet-ric properties across all 11 factors within the model), followed by struc-tural equation modelling. Overall, 15 of the 19 proposed hypotheseswere supported, ultimately contributing to 28% of the varianceexplained in residents?behavioral intentions to support cultural heritagetourism. This work not only provides support for the utilization of theVBN model within the context of cultural heritage tourism, it also deep-ens our understanding of the theoretical framework through the inclu-sion of the multi-dimensional construct cultural worldview
Denley Tara J., Woosnam Kyle Maurice, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Boley B. Bynum, Hehir Christy, Abrams Jesse (2020) Individuals? intentions to engage in last chance tourism: applying the value-belief-norm model,Journal of Sustainable Tourism 28 (11) pp. 1860-1881
For tourism to be entirely sustainable, one cannot travel. This is impossible. This paradox is particularly evident within last chance tourism (LCT), where tourists, seeking experiences with vanishing animals and land/seascapes, can accelerate the decline of those very attractions. Though recent studies hint that those with the highest intentions to visit LCT destinations are also some of the most concerned with climate change, no study has assessed the psychological drivers that may help explain why individuals are increasingly engaging in this paradox. Drawing on the VBN model, this research examines a theoretical framework to assess the psychological drivers behind individuals? intention to engage in environmentally responsible behavior while traveling and, ultimately, their desire to participate in LCT. Results reveal that a set of environmentally referent cognitions (i.e., values, environmental worldview, awareness of consequences, and ascription of responsibility) lead to personal norms activation, which then influence tourists? intent to behave in pro-sustainable ways and, ultimately, individuals? intentions to engage in LCT. Findings are important as they further confirm the benefits of using VBN theory within an LCT context. For practitioners, this research strengthens the appeal of sustainable tourism operations to secure business and receive positive word-of-mouth from potential LCT tourists.
Megeirhi Huda A., Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Woosnam Kyle Maurice (2020) Job search behavior explained through perceived tolerance for workplace incivility, cynicism and income level: A moderated mediation model,Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 44 pp. 88-97 Elsevier
This study aims to propose and examine a research model that explores how income level can moderate the mediating relationship between organizational tolerance workplace incivility and job search behavior through employee cynicism within the hotel industry. As such, the theoretical framework and non-western study context are each a novel consideration. Data were collected from 331 employees of 5-star hotels within Jordan, whereby structural equation modeling was adopted to test the relationships between constructs. The analysis revealed that when employees perceive a high level of organizational tolerance for workplace incivility, they reinforce cynical beliefs and increase their job search behavior. Results provide empirical support for income moderating the indirect relationships (via employee cynicism) between organization workplace incivility and job search behavior. This relationship is stronger among employees with lower levels of income. Practical implications concerning ways to improve managers' knowledge of workplace incivility and more operational ways of handling conflict are discussed.
Erul Emrullah, Woosnam Kyle Maurice, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Salazar John (2020) Complementing theories to explain emotional solidarity,Journal of Sustainable Tourism pp. 1-16 Routledge
The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of residents? attitudes concerning tourism development on support for future tourism development, and ultimately whether such a relationship explains a sense of solidarity with tourists. To do this, a theoretical model was developed and tested based on the social exchange theory and affect theory of exchange. Residents of Antalya, Turkey (N = 660) comprised the sample from which data were collected. Structural equation modelling results demonstrated that residents' attitudes explained 69% of the variance in support for future tourism development, and in turn, this support explained between 25% and 80% of the variance in factors comprising residents? emotional solidarity with tourists. Findings provide support for the complementary use of the two theories. To round out the paper, implications, limitations and future research are offered.
Patwardhan Vidya, Ribeiro Manuel Alector, Woosnam Kyle Maurice, Payini Valsaraj, Mallya Jyothi (2020) Visitors' loyalty to religious tourism destinations: Considering place attachment, emotional experience and religious affiliation,Tourism Management Perspectives 36 100737 Elsevier
This study investigates the influence of visitors' place attachment and emotional experience on destination loyalty. Furthermore, religious affiliation was examined as a moderator within the model. Survey data from Attur Feast attendees (n = 812) were analysed using a series of multiple regression analyses to test proposed hypotheses. Visitors' emotional experiences were found to mediate the effect of place attachment dimensions (i.e., place identity and place dependence) on loyalty. Additionally, visitors' religious affiliation was found to moderate place attachment and emotional experience effects on destination loyalty. Furthermore, visitors' religious affiliation moderates only the indirect effect of place dependence on destination loyalty via emotional experience and this effect was strongest for Christian visitors compared to Hindu or Muslim visitors. In sum, we found that perceived emotional experiences mediate the relationship between place attachment and destination loyalty. Implications, limitations and directions for future research are offered.