Jaime Spencer Martin

Postgraduate Research Student
+44 (0)1483 682260
10 BA 00

My research project

My qualifications

BEng Electronic Engineering (First Class)
University of Surrey

My teaching

Courses I teach on


My publications


Spencer, Jaime; Bowden, Richard; Hadfield, Simon (2020). DeFeat-Net: General Monocular Depth via Simultaneous Unsupervised Representation Learning
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In the current monocular depth research, the dominant approach is to employ unsupervised training on large datasets, driven by warped photometric consistency. Such approaches lack robustness and are unable to generalize to challenging domains such as nighttime scenes or adverse weather conditions where assumptions about photometric consistency break down. We propose DeFeat-Net (Depth & Feature network), an approach to simultaneously learn a cross-domain dense feature representation, alongside a robust depth-estimation framework based on warped feature consistency. The resulting feature representation is learned in an unsupervised manner with no explicit ground-truth correspondences required. We show that within a single domain, our technique is comparable to both the current state of the art in monocular depth estimation and supervised feature representation learning. However, by simultaneously learning features, depth and motion, our technique is able to generalize to challenging domains, allowing DeFeat-Net to outperform the current state-of-the-art with around 10% reduction in all error measures on more challenging sequences such as nighttime driving.
Spencer, Jaime; Bowden, Richard; Hadfield, Simon (2020). Same Features, Different Day: Weakly Supervised Feature Learning for Seasonal Invariance
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"Like night and day" is a commonly used expression to imply that two things are completely different. Unfortunately, this tends to be the case for current visual feature representations of the same scene across varying seasons or times of day. The aim of this paper is to provide a dense feature representation that can be used to perform localization, sparse matching or image retrieval, regardless of the current seasonal or temporal appearance. Recently, there have been several proposed methodologies for deep learning dense feature representations. These methods make use of ground truth pixel-wise correspondences between pairs of images and focus on the spatial properties of the features. As such, they don't address temporal or seasonal variation. Furthermore, obtaining the required pixel-wise correspondence data to train in cross-seasonal environments is highly complex in most scenarios. We propose Deja-Vu, a weakly supervised approach to learning season invariant features that does not require pixel-wise ground truth data. The proposed system only requires coarse labels indicating if two images correspond to the same location or not. From these labels, the network is trained to produce "similar" dense feature maps for corresponding locations despite environmental changes. Code will be made available at: https://github.com/jspenmar/DejaVu_Features
Spencer, Jaime; Bowden, Richard; Hadfield, Simon (2019). Scale-Adaptive Neural Dense Features: Learning via Hierarchical Context Aggregation
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How do computers and intelligent agents view the world around them? Feature extraction and representation constitutes one the basic building blocks towards answering this question. Traditionally, this has been done with carefully engineered hand-crafted techniques such as HOG, SIFT or ORB. However, there is no "one size fits all" approach that satisfies all requirements. In recent years, the rising popularity of deep learning has resulted in a myriad of end-to-end solutions to many computer vision problems. These approaches, while successful , tend to lack scalability and can't easily exploit information learned by other systems. Instead, we propose SAND features, a dedicated deep learning solution to feature extraction capable of providing hierarchical context information. This is achieved by employing sparse relative labels indicating relationships of similarity/dissimilarity between image locations. The nature of these labels results in an almost infinite set of dissimilar examples to choose from. We demonstrate how the selection of negative examples during training can be used to modify the feature space and vary it's properties. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we apply the proposed features to a multitude of tasks, each requiring different properties. This includes disparity estimation, semantic segmentation, self-localisation and SLAM. In all cases, we show how incorporating SAND features results in better or comparable results to the baseline, whilst requiring little to no additional training. Code can be found at: https://github.com/jspenmar/SAND_features
Spencer, Jaime; Mendez Maldonado, Oscar; Bowden, Richard; Hadfield, Simon (2018). Localisation via Deep Imagination: learn the features not the map
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How many times does a human have to drive through the same area to become familiar with it? To begin with, we might first build a mental model of our surroundings. Upon revisiting this area, we can use this model to extrapolate to new unseen locations and imagine their appearance. Based on this, we propose an approach where an agent is capable of modelling new environments after a single visitation. To this end, we introduce “Deep Imagination”, a combination of classical Visual-based Monte Carlo Localisation and deep learning. By making use of a feature embedded 3D map, the system can “imagine” the view from any novel location. These “imagined” views are contrasted with the current observation in order to estimate the agent’s current location. In order to build the embedded map, we train a deep Siamese Fully Convolutional U-Net to perform dense feature extraction. By training these features to be generic, no additional training or fine tuning is required to adapt to new environments. Our results demonstrate the generality and transfer capability of our learnt dense features by training and evaluating on multiple datasets. Additionally, we include several visualizations of the feature representations and resulting 3D maps, as well as their application to localisation.
Kristan, Matej et al. (2018). The Sixth Visual Object Tracking VOT2018 Challenge Results
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The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2018 is the sixth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of over eighty trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis and a “real-time” experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. A long-term tracking subchallenge has been introduced to the set of standard VOT sub-challenges. The new subchallenge focuses on long-term tracking properties, namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. A new dataset has been compiled and a performance evaluation methodology that focuses on long-term tracking capabilities has been adopted. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard short-term and the new long-term tracking subchallenges. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://votchallenge.net).