Professor Roger Maull

Research Interests

Since joining Surrey in 2014 his research has entered a new phase: considering the implications of the Digital Revolution for businesses and society. He has been an investigator on over £5m of EPSRC funding and currently has three major RCUK research grants: CONTRIVE ( ) which is based on the earlier HAT grant; CREDIT ( ) which is investigating digital currencies and ACCEPT ( ) which is concerned with human dimensions of cyber security.

1. Hub-of-all things (HAT). The HAT is a home based personal data repository that ensures that ‘my data belongs to me’. It collects data from a range of IoT devices, social media, wearables etc onto a platform that can subsequently be used for analysis. The HAT has recently undergone a successful Indiegogo campaign which will expand the user base to over 250 HATs. The HAT is also at the core of one recent successful research bid (Contrive) and is the platform on which we investigate a number of research questions around trust and personalisation.  Contrive explores the notion of vulnerability using the HAT platform to explore how a consumer’s notions of trust and perceived control (together making up vulnerability) contribute to online behaviour. Alongside this we have commercial funding for a major trust questionnaire in financial services.

One area I am very keen to investigate further is collecting data on food use in the home. This links back to previous research in supply chains in the service industry (Maull, Geraldi and Johnston) and IoT and supply chains (Parry, Brax, Maull and Ng). It also has strong links to our ongoing research with Fareshare ( who distribute food to over 250,000 people a week. This research was the subject of a recent paper in the Journal of Service Research, (

2. CREDIT. This is the UK’s first research grant investigating the impact of Distributed Ledger Technologies in 4 areas: business models; governance; legal and regulatory issues and privacy and trust. The team have been closely involved in producing the UK government report on DLTs - Blackett report. This project is led by Dr Phil Godsiff.

Roger is very interested in how organisations change their business model in response to these major technological changes. For incumbents there are massive challenges as they seek to change what is provided, how it is provided and how it is financed. Inevitably, this leads to questions about changing the organisation’s culture or ‘dominant design’.

3. ACCEPT. Human-related risks among the most important factors in cybersecurity, e.g. an IBM report (2014) shows that over 95% of security incidents involved "human errors". Responses to human-related cyber risks remain undermined by a conceptual problem: the mindset associated with the term 'cyber'-crime which has persuaded us that that crimes with a cyber-dimension occur purely within a (non-physical) 'cyber' space, and that these constitute wholly new forms of offending, divorced from the human/social components of traditional (physical) crime landscapes. In this context, the unprecedented linking of individuals and technologies into global social-physical networks - hyperconnection - has generated exponential complexity and unpredictability of vulnerabilities.

The project's overall aim is to develop a framework through which we can analyse the behavioural co-evolution of cybersecurity/cybercrime ecosystems and effectively influence behaviours of a range of actors in the ecosystems in order to reduce human-related risks. This project will involve a group of researchers working in 5 academic disciplines (Computer Science, Crime Science, Business, Engineering, Behavioural Science) at 4 UK research institutes, and be supported by an Advisory Board with 12 international/UK researchers and a Stakeholder Group formed by 12 non-academic partners (including LEAs, NGOs and industry).

Theoretically, Roger’s research is underpinned by his long-standing interest in systems thinking. Systems thinking comprises two questions: what is a system and how does it behave? To address the first, he suggests reading Jackson’s SoSM papers and books. The framework of complexity and viewpoint sums it up elegantly and leaves systems thinkers with two issues; establishing boundary and viewpoint. The issue of how a system behaves is more intriguing. He is a strong advocate of Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety (LRV) and has written some conference papers of the topic with Phil Godsiff. The Customer Disturbance Model on P6 of this paper is probably our best effort so far.

Ashby defines variety ‘as the number of states a system can be in’. Taken together with LRV this suggests that firms need to match the value proposition with the needs of the customer. Of course, firms can choose at which point on the Line of RV to compete (Fig 3 in the paper) but positions of the line correspond to positions where costs are too high or where customer requirements are not being met.
The study of variety has implications for the digital world. The ‘market of one’ implies huge and overwhelming producer variety. Matching that variety is a challenge we have considered in a recent paper. He is currently trying to carve out some time so that he can develop these ideas further.

The wider societal implications of understanding digital and its implications for variety are reflected in Roger’s on-going interest in the nature of wicked problems and how digital technologies may be used to reduce uncertainty (known unknowns) in decision making.  

Departmental Duties

Deputy Head of the Department of Digital Economy
Director of Centre for Digital Economy (CoDE)

Contact Me

Phone: 01483 68 2014

Find me on campus
Room: 57 MS 03



  • Ng I, Scharf K, Pogrebna G, Maull R. (2015) 'Contextual variety, Internet-of-Things and the choice of tailoring over platform: Mass customisation strategy in supply chain management'. International Journal of Production Economics, 159, pp. 76-87.

Journal articles

  • Maull R, Godsiff P, Mulligan C, Brown A, Kewell E. (2017) 'Distributed Ledger Technology: Applications and Implications'. Wiley Strategic Change, 26 (5), pp. 481-489.


    Distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) are rewriting conventional notions of business transacting, creating fresh opportunities for value creation and capture. Using qualitative interview data as a primary resource, the proposed five-point model synthesizes these possibilities, demonstrating how they may lead to “disruptive innovation.” A further conceptual model is subsequently provided with a view to assisting future problem solving in the area.

  • Maull RS. (2017) 'Servitization through outcome-based contract – A systems perspective from the defence industry'. International Journal of Production Economics,
  • Maull RS, Batista, L, Bourlakis M, Smart P. (2017) 'SI:CircE - In Search of a Circular Supply Chain Archetype – A Content-Based Systematic Literature Review'. Production Planning and Control,
    [ Status: Accepted ]
  • Baron S, Patterson A, Maull RS, Warnaby G. (2017) 'Feed people first: A service ecosystem perspective on innovative food waste reduction'. SAGE Publications Journal of Service Research,
    [ Status: Accepted ]


    Service research highlights the utility of adopting a service ecosystem approach to studying service innovation. It suggests that service innovations can arise from challenging and developing the institutions (i.e. norms, rules, practices, meanings and symbols) which underpin an ecosystem. Also, recent emphasis on consumer wellbeing posits that studies of service provision to poor consumers are needed. Reflecting these research priorities, the context of this case study on service innovation is the food waste ecosystem, whereby service innovations can contribute to the alleviation of food poverty for thousands of citizens. The central actor of the ecosystem is the leading UK charity organization fighting food waste. The paper’s contribution lies in using data from ecosystem actors to clarify the distinctions between institutions, thereby enhancing understanding of the application of institutional theory within the ecosystem, and highlighting some theoretical implications for service innovation both within and between system levels. An Actor Institutions Matrix is offered as a fruitful outcome of the analysis of the institutions, and suggested recommendations for operationalizing service ecosystem studies are outlined.

  • Ponsignon F, Klaus P, Maull RS. (2015) 'Experience co-creation in financial services: An empirical exploration'. Journal of Service Management, 26 (2), pp. 295-320.
  • Ng I, Scharf K, Pogrebna G, Maull R. (2015) 'Contextual variety, Internet-of-Things and the choice of tailoring over platform: Mass customisation strategy in supply chain management'. International Journal of Production Economics, 159, pp. 76-87.
  • Maddern H, Smart PA, Maull RS, Childe S. (2014) 'End-to-end process management: Implications for theory and practice'. Production Planning and Control, 25 (16), pp. 1303-1321.
  • Maull R, Smart A, Liang L. (2014) 'A process model of product service supply chains'. Production Planning and Control, 25, pp. 1091-1106.
  • Ponsignon F, Maull RS, Smart PA. (2014) 'Four archetypes of process improvement: A Q-methodological study'. International Journal of Production Research, 52 (15), pp. 4507-4525.
  • Maull R, Godsiff P, Mulligan CEA. (2014) 'The impact of datafication on service systems'. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, , pp. 1193-1201.
  • Smith L, Maull RS, Ng I. (2014) 'Servitization and operations management: a service dominant-logic approach'. EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OPERATIONS & PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, 34 (2), pp. 242-269.



    The purpose of this paper is to provide further insight into operations management of the product-service (P-S) transition, known as servitization, and the resulting product service system (PSS) offerings. In exploring the P-S transition, this paper adopts a service-dominant (S-D) logic view of value creation, using it as a lens through which to explore value propositions of the P-S transition and their operations design.


    This paper presents an in-depth case study of an original equipment manufacturer of durable capital equipment who, over the last five years, has expanded its offerings to include use- and result-orientated PSS. The research design uses a multi-method approach; employing 28 in-depth qualitative interviews with customers and employees and analysis of texts, documents and secondary data including five years of enterprise resource planning (ERP), call centre and contract data.


    The paper identifies ten generic P-S attributes that are abstracted into four nested value propositions: asset value proposition; recovery value proposition; availability value proposition; and outcome value proposition. In examining the operations design for delivery of these value propositions, it is found that the role and importance of contextual variety increases as the organisation moves through the value propositions. Interdependencies amongst the value propositions and differences in operational design for each value proposition are also found.

    Research limitations/implications

    The paper investigates PSS through a S-D logic mindset. First, the paper considers value propositions of PSS not according to “product” or “service” but in terms of how resources (both material and human) are optimally designed to co-create customer value. Second, a value co-creation system of nested value propositions is illustrated. In so doing, the findings have a number of implications for literature on both PSS and S-D logic. In addition, the research adds to the PSS literature through the identification and consideration of the concept of contextual use variety.

    Practical implications

    The paper demonstrates the complexity of the transition from product to service. Specifically, service cannot be seen as a bolt-on extra to their product offering; complexity caused by interactions and changes to the core offering require a systems perspective and consideration of both firm a

  • Maull R, Mulligan CEA. (2014) 'New economic models of the digital economy'. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,
  • Ponsignon F, Smart PA, Maull RS. (2012) 'Process design principles in service firms: Universal or context dependent? A literature review and new research directions'. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 23 (11-12), pp. 1273-1296.
  • Maull R, Geraldi J, Johnston R. (2012) 'Service Supply Chains: A Customer Perspective'. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 48 (4), pp. 72-86.
  • Andreu L, Ng I, Maull R, Shadbolt W. (2012) 'Reducing the fear of crime in a community as a complex service system: The case of London Borough of Sutton'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD EUROPEAN MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, 30 (5), pp. 410-417.
  • Smith L, Ng I, Maull R. (2012) 'The three value proposition cycles of equipment-based service'. Production Planning and Control, 23 (7), pp. 553-570.
  • Ng I, Parry G, Smith L, Maull RS, Briscoe G. (2012) 'Transitioning from a goods-dominant to a service-dominant logic Visualising the value proposition of Rolls-Royce'. EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED JOURNAL OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT, 23 (3), pp. 416-439.
  • Ponsignon F, Smart P, Maull RS. (2011) 'Service delivery system design: characteristics and contingencies'. EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OPERATIONS & PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, 31 (3), pp. 324-349.
  • Ng ICL, Maull R, Yip N. (2009) 'Outcome-based contracts as a driver for systems thinking and service-dominant logic in service science: Evidence from the defence industry'. European Management Journal, 27 (6), pp. 377-387.
  • Smart PA, Maddern H, Maull RS. (2009) 'Understanding business process management: Implications for theory and practice'. British Journal of Management, 20 (4), pp. 491-507.
  • Maull RS, Smart PA, Harris A, Karasneh AA-F. (2009) 'An evaluation of 'fast track' in AE: a discrete event simulation approach'. ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD SERVICE INDUSTRIES JOURNAL, 29 (7) Article number PII 912443126 , pp. 923-941.
  • Ng ICL, Maull R. (2009) 'Embedding the new discipline of service science: A service science research agenda'. 2009 IEEE/INFORMS International Conference on Service Operations, Logistics and Informatics, SOLI 2009, , pp. 68-73.
  • Batista L, Smart A, Maull R. (2008) 'The systemic perspective of service processes: Underlying theory, architecture and approach'. Production Planning and Control, 19 (5), pp. 535-544.
  • Kumar V, Smart P, Maddern H, Maull RS. (2008) 'Alternative perspectives on service quality and customer satisfaction: the role of BPM'. EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERVICE INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT, 19 (2), pp. 176-187.
  • Maddern H, Maull RS, Smart A. (2007) 'Customer satisfaction and service quality in UK financial services'. Emerald Group Publishing Limited INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OPERATIONS & PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, 27 (9), pp. 999-1019.



    The paper seeks to evaluate the drivers of customer satisfaction (CS), specifically exploring the impact of business process management (BPM) on service quality and CS.


    A longitudinal case study uses quantitative and qualitative data to test six propositions derived from current literature.


    Analysis confirms the role of staff satisfaction and service quality as key drivers of CS, suggested in the service profit chain, but proposes a more complex set of relationships. Technical service quality (TSQ) is found to play a critical role in determining CS and a strong causal link is found between TSQ and BPM.

    Research limitations/implications

    Findings are based on a single case, in a fast‐changing sector.

    Practical implications

    Findings suggest that managers should focus on TSQ as a priority. End‐to‐end BPM is identified as a key enabler of TSQ.


    The research challenges the adequacy of the service profit chain and the emphasis on soft factors evident in much of the existing marketing and service operations literature. In examining the drivers of CS, this research offers an alternative perspective which places BPM at the centre of the debate.

  • Singh RK, Choudhury AK, Tiwari MK, Maull RS. (2006) 'An integrated fuzzy-based decision support system for the selection of lean tools: A case study from the steel industry'. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 220 (10), pp. 1735-1749.
  • Smart PA, Maull RS, Childe SJ, Radnor ZJ. (2004) 'Capitalizing on thematic initiatives: A framework for process-based change in SMEs'. Production Planning and Control, 15 (1), pp. 2-12.
  • Bales R, Maull RS, Radnor Z. (2004) 'The development of supply chain management within the aerospace manufacturing sector'. Emerald Group Publishing Limited Supply Chain Management, 9 (3-4), pp. 250-255.


    This paper analyses the development of aerospace material supply chains. The paper begins with an overview of operations management literature, which introduces and conceptualises the research area. Supply chain literature is examined, focusing on supply chain structure and the inter‐organisational links between supply chain actors. Analysis of case study material is presented to illustrate the scope, complexity and interdependent nature of the aerospace supply chain. Recurring themes from the literature are compared with the data categories emergent from the empirical case data. The results are discussed in terms of the changes that are taking place in supply chain structure to increase the overall effectiveness of the network. The paper concludes by identifying the need for, and discussing the nature of, a specialised organisation focused on managing the complex structure of the supply chain.

  • Maull RS, Tranfield D, Maull W. (2003) 'Factors characterising the maturity of BPR programmes'. MCB UP Ltd International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23 (5-6), pp. 596-624.


    Addresses the implementation of business process re‐engineering (BPR) programmes in 33 public and private organisations wishing to improve performance. By reviewing the existing literature, the research presented here began by identifying ten dimensions along which BPR projects might be measured. This research then uses these dimensions to investigate two research questions. Uses factor analysis based on quantitative data to address these questions. The factor analysis identified three independent aspects of BPR implementation: strategy, process and cost. These terms were then used in labelling three characteristic approaches, strategic BPR, process‐focused BPR and cost‐focused BPR. To investigate causality we re‐visited seven of the original organisations which had been in the early stages of implementation. Preliminary results indicate that managers might avoid the naturalistic tendency towards slow or stalled BPR maturity by intervening in a strategic sense at an earlier stage of implementation, thus bringing an organisation to a mature BPR programme more quickly.

  • Smart PA, Maull RS, Radnor ZJ, Housel TJ. (2003) 'An approach for identifying value in business processes.'. J. Knowledge Management, 7 Article number 4 , pp. 49-61.
  • Williams T, Maull R, Ellis B. (2002) 'Demand chain management theory: Constraints and development from global aerospace supply webs'. Journal of Operations Management, 20 (6), pp. 691-706.
  • Nash Z, Childe SJ, Maull RS. (2001) 'Factors affecting the implementation of process based change.'. IJTM, 22 Article number 1/2/3 , pp. 55-72.
  • Maull R, Brown P, Cliffe R. (2001) 'Organisational culture and quality improvement'. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21 (3), pp. 302-326.

Conference papers

  • Maull RS, Mulligan C, Godsiff P. (2015) 'Introduction to New Economic Models of the Digital Economy Minitrack.'. IEEE HICSS, , pp. 1264-1264.
  • Maull R, Godsiff P, Mulligan C. (2015) 'Preparing for the future - how managers perceive, interpret and assess the impact of digital technologies for business'. IEEE COMPUTER SOC 2015 48TH HAWAII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEM SCIENCES (HICSS), Kauai, HI: 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), pp. 1285-1294.
  • Maull RS, Godsiff P, Mulligan C. (2015) 'Transitioning to the Pull Economy: The Case of the UK Railways.'. IEEE HICSS, , pp. 1285-1294.
  • Maull RS, Godsiff P, Ng I. (2013) 'A Systems Model of a Service Organization.'. IEEE HICSS, , pp. 1016-1024.
  • Maull R, Maull W, James P. (2009) 'What is a Service: The Case of International Linen Service'. CHINESE UNIV HONG KONG, ECONOMICS & MANGEMENT SCHOOL, WUHAN UNIV ICOSCM 2009 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPERATIONS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT, Wuhan, PEOPLES R CHINA: 3rd International Conference on Operations and Supply Chain Management 3, pp. 807-810.
  • Kumar V, Maull RS, Smart PA, Tiwari MK. (2006) 'Artificial Immune System (AIS) based information system to solve scheduling problem in leagile driven steel industries.'. IEEE ICDIM, , pp. 373-380.

Book chapters

  • Ng I, Maull RS, Smith L. (2011) 'Embedding the New Discipline of Service Science.'. in Demirkan H, Spohrer JC, Krishna V (eds.) The Science of Service Systems Springer , pp. 13-35.

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