Professor Iis Tussyadiah


Professor of Intelligent Systems in Service, Head of Department of Hospitality
B.Eng, M.Eng, PhD
+44 (0)1483 684292
56 AP 02
By appointment

Academic and research departments

School of Hospitality and Tourism Management.

Biography

Areas of specialism

Human-Machine Interaction; Travel Behaviour; Intelligent Systems, AI, Robotics; Sharing Economy; Privacy

University roles and responsibilities

  • Head of Department of Hospitality

    My qualifications

    2006
    PhD in Information Sciences
    Tohoku University
    2002
    M.Eng. in Industrial Engineering & Management
    Bandung Institute of Technology

    Previous roles

    2017 - 2019
    Lead of Digital Visitor Economy Research Group and Digital Lab
    School of Hospitality and Tourism Management
    2013 - 2016
    Associate Clinical Professor, Carson College of Business
    Washington State University
    2008 - 2012
    Assistant Professor and Associate Director of the National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce (NLTeC)
    Temple University

    News

    In the media

    Unpacking Travel: What Makes Today's Travel Consumer Tick
    Carat Manchester & Canvas8
    Meet the Digital Lab
    SHTM
    Emotional intelligence in the travel sector
    University of Surrey

    Research

    Research interests

    Research projects

    Research collaborations

    Indicators of esteem

    • 2019, September: Keynote speech: "Preparing for the Future of Travel & Tourism." Advances in Tourism Marketing Conference (ATMC), Namur, Belgium. 

    • 2019, August. Keynote Speech: "Can we create a sustainable future with intelligent machines?" the 69th AIEST (International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism) Conference, Varna, Bulgaria. Link to press release.

    • 2019, February. IFITT Journal Paper of the Year Award for: Tussyadiah, I.P., Wang, D., Jung, T., tom Dieck, M.C. (2018). Virtual Reality, Presence and Attitude Change: Empirical Evidence from TourismTourism Management, 66, 140-154.

    • 2019, January. Best Paper Award. Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism (USA). Title: "Robotised Hospitality: Empirical Insights from Japan" (with Aarni Tuomi and Jason Stienmetz). 

    • 2018, December. Keynote Speech: "Nudging for Privacy in Tourism." CBTS2018 Winter School and Summit, Bruneck, Italy.

    • 2018, November. Keynote Speech: "Digital Transformation in Tourism." III International Conference on Tourism Dynamics and Trends jointly X SISTUR Scientific Meeting, Benevento, Italy

    • 2018, October. Keynote Speech: "Intelligent Automation for Tomorrow's Tourism." XII International Conference in Tourism and ICT (TURITEC). Màlaga, Spain. 

    • 2018, September. Invited Speaker: A Panel on "The Roles of Technology in Sustainable Tourism." UNWTO World Tourism Day 2018 Official Celebration, theme: Tourism and the Digital Transformation. Budapest, Hungary. 

    • 2018, May. Invited Talk: "The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in the Future of Urban Tourism." Challenges in European City Tourism, The European Forum at Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel

    • 2018, April. Invited Talk: "Designing Technologies for Behavioral Change." Research Seminar, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

    • 2018, February. Keynote Speech: "The Technological Future: Creating Fascinating Tourism Experiences in Tourism." IMTM 2018 Exhibition, Israeli Ministry of Tourism, Tel Aviv, Israel

    • 2017, December. Keynote Speech: "Designing Technology for Behavioral Change." CBTS 2017 Conference, Bruneck, Italy

    • 2017, November. Keynote Speech: "Innovation and Technology in Tourism and Hospitality." V FCGTourH, Balneario Camboriu, Brazil

    • 2017, November. Invited Presentation: "Designing Experiences with Technology in Tourism." CTF - Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden

    • 2017, November. Invited Presentation: "Psychophysiological Measurements in the Study of Digital Media and Tourism." Workshop on Analytics in Tourism Design, Vienna, Austria

    • 2017, June. Keynote Speech: "Technological Advances in Tourism." II International Conference on Tourism Dynamics and Trends, Seville, Spain

    • 2016. Best Emerging Scholar in Tourism (BEST) Award. International Tourism Studies Association (ITSA).

    • 2016. 1st Place, Best Research Paper Award. ENTER2016 eTourism Conference (Spain), International Federation for Information Technology in Travel &Tourism (IFITT). Title: “Strategic Self-Presentation in the Sharing Economy - Implications for Host Branding.”

    • 2013. 1st Place, Best Research Paper Award. ENTER2013 eTourism Conference (Austria), International Federation for Information Technology in Travel &Tourism (IFITT). Title: “Social Media Strategy and Capacity for Co-Creation among Destination Marketing Organisations.” (with Florian Zach)

    • 2012. Best Paper Award. The 1st Biannual Forum on Advances in Destination Management (Switzerland), Elsevier. Title: “Mobile Social Computing for Destination Marketing: Valuing Territoriality and Social Contagion.”

    • 2012. 2nd Place, Journal Paper of the Year Award. ENTER2012 eTourism Conference (Sweden), International Federation for Information Technology in Travel &Tourism (IFITT). Title: “The Role of Geo-Based Technology in Place Experiences.” Published in Annals of Tourism Research. (with Florian Zach)

    • 2008. Best Paper Award in Marketing. I-CHRIE Conference (USA), International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (I-CHRIE). Title: “Conceptualizing the Effectiveness of Consumer Narratives for Destination Marketing.” (with Sangwon Park and Daniel R. Fesenmaier)

    • 2008. 2nd Place, Best Research Paper Award. ENTER2008 eTourism Conference (Austria), International Federation for Information Technology in Travel &Tourism (IFITT). Title: “Designing Interactions in Tourism Mediascape: Identification of Patterns for Mobile 2.0 Platform.” (with Youngjin Yoo and Daniel R. Fesenmaier)

    • 2007. GSIS Dean Certificate of Merit for Excellent Achievements in Doctoral Studies. Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University

    Past research projects and collaborations

    • Tussyadiah, I. (PI), Femenia-Serra, F., Setty, E., Leveringhaus, A. "The Ethics of AI Influencers," sponsored by Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Challenge Fund + UKRI Strategic Priorities Fund 2019. [Internal]
    • Wang, D., Fesenmaier, D., Tussyadiah, I. "Conceptualising in-destination decision making by tourists," sponsored by Hong Kong Research Grant Council (RGC) General Research Fund (GRF) 2018/2019. 
    • Tussyadiah, I. (PI), Miller, G. "Intelligent solutions for proenvironmental behaviour change," sponsored by Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Surrey, FASS Pump Priming Fund 2018. [Internal]
    • Howarth, C. (PI), Jones, C., Tussyadiah, I., Kantenbacher, J., Tian, S. "Increasing sustainable travel behaviour in urban environments: Proactive and reactive responses to environmental images in a digital setting," sponsored by University of Surrey, Urban Living Award 2018. [Internal]
    • Stangl, B. (PI), Tussyadiah, I. "Assessing the effectiveness of game design elements for interpretative experiences in tourist places," sponsored by Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Surrey, FASS Pump Priming Fund 2018. [Internal]
    • Tussyadiah, I.P. “Online Self-Presentation Strategies in the Sharing Economy,” sponsored by Carson College of Business, Washington State University (Summer Research Grant), May 16, 2016 – September 30, 2016. [Internal]
    • Wallace, S. (PI), Zach, F., Tussyadiah, I.P. “Twitter Sentiment Analysis,” sponsored by Washington State University Vancouver (Research Mini Grant), May 16, 2016 – May 15, 2017. [Internal]
    • Zach, F. (PI), Tussyadiah, I.P. “Virtual Reality and its Effects on Sales,” sponsored by Carson College of Business, Washington State University (Industry Research Fund), March 16, 2016 – August 15, 2017. [Internal]
    • Wang, D. (PI), Tussyadiah, I.P. “The Narrative Persuasion of Virtual Reality Imagery for Tourism Marketing,” sponsored by the School of Hotel & Tourism Management, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China, January 1, 2016 – December 31, 2017. 
    • Tussyadiah, I.P. (PI), Zach, F., Wallace, S., Munkhjargal, S., "Twitter-feed Analysis of Travel and Tourism in Pierce County, Washington," Sponsored by Pierce County, Washington, September 15, 2015 – December 31, 2016. 
    • Goucher, C. (PI), Narayanan, P., Zach, F., Tussyadiah, I.P., Doutrich, D., “Local Food Justice through Global Citizenship: Civic Lessons from the Rural Caribbean,” Sponsored by Washington State University Vancouver (Diversity Research Grant), 2015 - 2016. [Internal]
    • Tussyadiah, I.P., "Text Analytics of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Reviews," Sponsored by the Carson College of Business (Summer Research Grant), Washington State University Vancouver, May 16, 2015 – August 14, 2015. [Internal]
    • Tussyadiah, I.P., "Assessing Consumer Intention to Participate in Co-Creation of New Tourism Services," Sponsored by the Carson College of Business (Summer Research Grant), Washington State University Vancouver, May 16, 2014 – August 14, 2014. [Internal]
    • Wang, D. (PI), Tussyadiah, I.P., "The Spillover Effects of Daily Use of Mobile Technology to the Travel Domain: Cognitive and Embodied Approaches," Sponsored by Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China, July 1, 2013 – December 1, 2014. 
    • Tussyadiah, I.P., "Quilt Gardens Tour Experience Study 2010," Sponsored by Elkhart County Conventions & Visitors Bureau, Indiana, May 1, 2010 - April 30, 2011. 
    • Zach, F. (PI), Tussyadiah, I.P., "The City of Cape May Tourism Plan - Extension," Sponsored by The City of Cape May, New Jersey, 2011 - 2012. 
    • Roehl, W. S. (PI), Zach, F., Tussyadiah, I.P., Fesenmaier, D. R., Barber, E. H., "The City of Cape May Tourism Plan," Sponsored by The City of Cape May, New Jersey, September 1, 2009 - March 31, 2011. 
    • Tussyadiah, I.P. (PI), Zach, F., "Quilt Gardens Tour Experience Study 2009," Sponsored by Elkhart County Conventions & Visitors Bureau, Indiana, May 1, 2009 - April 30, 2010. 
    • Fesenmaier, J. (PI), Tussyadiah, I.P., "Evaluation of Visitor Experience," Sponsored by The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, June 2008 - December 2008.
    • Yoo, Y. (PI), Tussyadiah, I.P., Saari, T., Fesenmaier, D.R., "Mobile Computing and User-Activated Narrative Networks in Tourism," Sponsored by Samsung Electronics, Inc., February 1, 2007 - September 30, 2008. 

    Supervision

    Postgraduate research supervision

    Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

    My teaching

    My publications

    Publications

    Lee G, Lee J, Tussyadiah IP (2016) The roles of perceived internal and external benefits and costs in innovation co-creation: lessons from Japan,Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 22 (4) pp. 381-394 Taylor & Francis
    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that motivate tourists to engage in collaborative efforts with tourist destinations for the co-creation of innovative tourism products. Targeting tourists who have visited Tokyo for tourism purpose, the study verifies the antecedents of tourists? intention to co-create, which include perceived benefits (PB), perceived costs (PC), subjective norms, and ability to co-create tourism innovation. This study further reveals that PC do not have a significant impact on tourists? intention to participate in innovation co-creation activities, while the other antecedents play important roles. Also, separating PB and costs into internal and external factors, perceived internal benefits (PIB) play a significant role in motivating tourists to participate in co-creation, while perceived external benefits do not. Practical implications are provided for destinations such as Japan to encourage tourists to share their valuable knowledge to improve tourism products and services of tourist destinations.
    Tussyadiah IP (2014) Expectation of Travel Experiences with Wearable Computing Devices,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014: Proceedings of the International Conference in Dublin, Ireland, January 21-24, 2014 pp. 539-552 Springer, Cham
    Based on a content analysis of textual data containing people?s ideas to use wearable computing devices, this paper identified five patterns of personal motivations to use wearable devices for travel and tourism experiences. They are exploration, adventure tourism, travel documentation, travel reporting, and positive transformation. These patterns suggest a potential transformation in tourists? behaviour due to perceived new ways of interactions with technology and with the near surroundings. The different features and functionalities that are unique to wearable technology trigger changes in three areas: the shift from tourists to explorers, an explosion of first-person visual travel narratives, and more social travel supported by real-time connectivity. Further, the findings also suggest a potential shift in terms of how personal technology is situated in human experience, from mediation to embodiment.
    Park S, Tussyadiah IP (2016) Multidimensional Facets of Perceived Risk in Mobile Travel Booking,Journal of Travel Research 56 (7) pp. 854-867 Sage
    Despite the growing prevalence of smartphones in daily life and travel context, travellers still perceive an extent of risk associated with using their smartphone to book travel products. In order to alleviate or reduce perceived risk, it is important to better understand the dimensions of and the factors that contribute to perceived risk. This study analysed 411 responses from an online panel to examine perceived risk in mobile travel booking and identified the following facets: time risk, financial risk, performance risk, privacy/security risk, psychological risk, physical risk, and device risk. Several antecedents of perceived risk were identified. Perceived collection of personal information via smartphones contributes positively, while consumer innovativeness, trust, and visibility contribute negatively to perceived risk. Further, the predictive validity of perceived risk is confirmed as it significantly explains perceived usefulness, attitude, and behavioural intention in mobile travel booking. Implications to manage perceived risk and its antecedents are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP (2010) Destination-promoted and visitor-generated images - do they represent similar stories?,In: Tourism and visual culture, Volume 2: Methods and cases pp. 156-168 CABI
    Drawing on the concept of mediation and scripting, this chapter applies a content-extraction method in an attempt to identify similarities and differences between images used by destination marketers and those shared by tourists at the visit and post-visit stages, and, most importantly, to identify the values created by the shared images for audiences in tourism settings. The official image data were selected from photo galleries of the Greater Philadelphia Tourism Marketing Corporation (GPTMC) website (gophila.com), resulting in 412 samples. Similarities of images provided on the GoPhila photo galleries within and between categories prove that destination marketing organizations have typically used similar types of images to communicate notions of the tourist experience to reinforce the desired image in the minds of potential travellers. On the other hand, based on the high similarities in regional, local and global semantics, it is also evident that some tourists tend to reproduce the same types of images projected to them at the pre-visit stage, resulting in continuous reproduction of destination representation.
    Gretzel U, Fesenmaier D, Lee Y, Tussyadiah IP (2011) Narrating travel experiences: the role of new media,In: Sharpley R, Stone P (eds.), Tourist Experience: Contemporary Perspectives pp. 171-182 Routledge
    The recounting of lived experiences is a central component of the tourism consumption process. However, reaching a wider audience with one?s travel tales has traditionally been restricted to privileged narrators who had access to official publishing channels. Consumer-generated media (CGM) allow for the distribution of travel narratives to a broad online audience. This chapter presents a study that investigates how widespread the use and creation of travel narratives published in the form of CGM are among online travelers in the United States. The findings indicate that about half of the online travelers use travel CGM created by others. In contrast, travel CGM are created by a small portion of online travelers who are more experienced and more involved travel planners than non-content creators. The results of this study clearly document the growing importance of CGM within the travel industry and offer substantial implications for tourism experience-related research and the marketing of tourism destinations.
    Tussyadiah IP, Pesonen J (2016) Impacts of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Use on Travel Patterns, Journal of Travel Research 55 (8) pp. 1022-1040 SAGE Publications UK
    As a result of the phenomenal growth of the sharing economy in the travel industry, investigating its potential impacts on travelers and tourism destinations is of paramount importance. The goal of this study was to identify how the use of peer-to-peer accommodation leads to changes in travelers? behavior. Based on two online surveys targeting travelers from the United States and Finland, it was identified that the social and economic appeals of peer-to-peer accommodation significantly affect expansion in destination selection, increase in travel frequency, length of stay, and range of activities participated in tourism destinations. Travelers? desires for more meaningful social interactions with locals and unique experiences in authentic settings drive them to travel more often, stay longer, and participate in more activities. Also, the reduction in accommodation cost allows travelers to consider and select destinations, trips, and tourism activities that are otherwise cost-prohibitive. Implications for tourism planning and management are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP, Wang D (2016) Tourists? Attitudes toward Proactive Smartphone Systems, Journal of Travel Research 55 (4) pp. 493-508 SAGE Publications UK
    In order to ensure the effectiveness of context-based proactive recommendations in influencing tourist behavior, it is important to understand the factors that drive tourists? inclination to adopt push recommendations from mobile devices. A projective method was applied to tap into tourists? opinions and feelings about their smartphones as intelligent agents, and how these influence their attitudes toward push recommendations they receive while experiencing tourist destinations. While smartphones have a mediating role in the tourism experience, a paradox exists in which tourists recognize an enhancement in certain aspects of a travel experience and a reduction in others. Confidence toward proactive recommendations is largely rooted in perceived proactiveness, autonomy, social ability and intelligence of smartphones, while perceived reactivity and control lead tourists to fear that they will lose control over their tourism experiences. Several managerial implications are provided.
    Tussyadiah I, Jung T, tom Dieck M (2017) Embodiment of Wearable Augmented Reality Technology in Tourism Experiences,Journal of Travel Research 57 (5) pp. 597-611 SAGE Publications
    The increasing use of wearable devices for tourism purposes sets the stage for a critical discussion on technological mediation in tourism experiences. This article provides a theoretical reflection on the phenomenon of embodiment relation in technological mediation and then assesses the embodiment of wearable augmented reality technology in a tourism attraction. The findings suggest that technology embodiment is a multidimensional construct consisting of ownership, location, and agency. These support the concept of technology withdrawal, where technology disappears as it becomes part of human actions, and contest the interplay of subjectivity and intentionality between humans and technology in situated experiences such as tourism. It was also found that technology embodiment affects enjoyment and enhances experience with tourism attractions.
    Ioannou Athina, Tussyadiah Iis, Lu Yang (2020) Privacy Concerns and Disclosure of Biometric and Behavioral Data for Travel,International Journal of Information Management 54 102122 Elsevier
    In light of mounting privacy concerns over the increasing collection and use of biometric and behavioral information for travel facilitation, this study examines travelers? online privacy concerns (TOPC) and its impact on willingness to share data with travel providers. A proposed theoretical model explaining antecedents and outcomes of TOPC related to biometric and behavioral data sharing was tested using structural equation modeling with data collected from 685 travelers. The results extend the Antecedents ? Privacy Concerns ? Outcomes (APCO) framework by identifying a set of salient individual factors that shape TOPC. The findings provide empirical evidence confirming the context dependence of privacy preferences, showing that although travelers are concerned over their information privacy they are still willing to share their behavioral data; while in the case of biometric information, the disclosure decision is dependent upon expected benefits rather than privacy concerns. This study offers insights into privacy behavior of online consumers in the travel context and constitutes one of the few focusing on the social aspects of biometric authentication.
    Tussyadiah IP (2012) Territoriality and Consumption Behaviour with Location-Based Media,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2012: Proceedings of the International Conference in Helsingborg, Sweden, January 25?27, 2012 pp. 249-259 Springer, Vienna
    The development in location-based mobile media has led to the popularity of its use for place experiences. This study explored the concept of territoriality, which is suggested as the underlying human behaviour that influences consumers? mobility and experience stimulated by the social gaming feature of location-based media. From an exploratory investigation with a series of focus group discussions with users of location-based media, this study observed the activities of territorial tagging for the purposes of territorial claim and defence to gain and maintain the perceived territorial control over resources and rewards attached to certain places. The ability of location-based media to make the physical territory to interact with informational devices enables territorial behaviour to manifest in the consumption of local establishments, making location-based media a powerful tool for marketers and managers to transform people- place experiences. Managerial implications are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP (2016) Factors of Satisfaction and Intention to Use Peer-to-Peer Accommodation,International Journal of Hospitality Management 55 pp. 70-80 Elsevier
    To better understand the behavioral characteristics of consumers in the sharing economy, this study examines factors that influence guests? satisfaction with a peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation and their intention to use it again for future trips. Based on an online survey of 644 travelers living in the United States, guest satisfaction was identified as being influenced by factors of enjoyment, monetary benefits (value), and accommodation amenities. Furthermore, it was found that future intention to use P2P accommodation was again determined by enjoyment and value. By differentiating guests based on their chosen types of accommodation, the analysis revealed that social benefits influence guest satisfaction for those staying in a private room that involved cohabitation with hosts, but that this was an insignificant factor for guest satisfaction for those staying in an entire home or apartment. Directions for future research as well as implications for accommodation providers are discussed in this paper.
    Tussyadiah IP (2015) The Influence of Innovativeness on On-Site Smartphone Use Among American Travelers: Implications for Context-Based Push Marketing,Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 33 (6) pp. 806-823 Taylor & Francis
    This study investigates the relationships between traveler innovativeness traits and the patterns of smartphone use during the experiential stage of travel. Using data collected from 1126 travelers residing in the United States (US), it was identified that tourism and technology innovativeness have significant positive effects on on-site use of smartphones for trip management, social networking, and searching deals, online reviews, and push recommendations. Technology innovativeness also influences smartphone use for navigation within destinations. The results suggest that highly innovative travelers are open to recommendations and influences when making on-site decisions, making them an effective target for context-based marketing.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Wang Dan, Jia Chenge (2017) Virtual Reality and Attitudes Toward Tourism Destinations,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017: Proceedings of the International Conference in Rome, Italy, January 24-26, 2017 pp. 229-239 Springer, Cham
    Recent developments in Virtual Reality (VR) technology present a tremendous opportunity for the tourism industry. This research aims to better understand how the VR experience may influence travel decision making by investigating spatial presence in VR environments and its impact on attitudes toward tourism destinations. Based on a study involving virtual walkthrough of tourism destinations with 202 participants, two dimensions of spatial presence were identified: being somewhere other than the actual environment and self-location in a VR environment. The analysis revealed that users? attention allocation to VR environments contributed significantly to spatial presence. It was also found that spatial presence positively affects post VR attitude change toward tourism destinations, indicating the persuasiveness of VR. No significant differences were found across VR stimuli (devices) and across prior visitation.
    Xiang Z, Tussyadiah IP, Buhalis D (2015) Smart destinations: Foundations, analytics, and applications,Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 4 (3) pp. 143-144 Elsevier
    Tussyadiah Iis, Zach Florian J., Wang Jianxi (2017) Attitudes Toward Autonomous on Demand Mobility System: The Case of Self-Driving Taxi,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017: Proceedings of the International Conference in Rome, Italy, January 24-26, 2017 pp. 755-766 Springer, Cham
    Self-driving cars are ready to serve customers, but previous studies found that the general public is still cautious to ride in autonomous vehicles. This study investigated the influence of attitude and trust in technology on intention to use self-driving taxi. Based on a survey with 325 residents in the United States (US), this research found low level of negative attitude towards technology (computers and robots) and high level of trust in autonomous vehicles. The likelihood of using self-driving taxi at home (as residents) and for travel (as tourists) is negatively influenced by perception that technology is dehumanizing and positively by expectations of reliability, functionality, and helpfulness of self-driving taxi. The analysis also revealed the effects of current patterns of mobility and innovativeness on intention to use self-driving taxi.
    Tussyadiah IP (2016) Strategic Self-presentation in the Sharing Economy: Implications for Host Branding,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2016: Proceedings of the International Conference in Bilbao, Spain, February 2-5, 2016 pp. 695-708 Springer, Cham
    Peer-to-peer accommodation platform is a unique venue of commercial social exchanges where mixed-mode interactions (i.e., online first, then offline) occur between hosts and guests. With the continuous growth of sharing economy comes the importance to better understand the strategies that hosts use to communicate with and attract their prospective consumers. Using the framework of personal branding and self-presentation, this study explored the different ways hosts of peer-to-peer accommodation articulate their profile online. Using host descriptions from 12,785 Airbnb listings in New York, United States, five clusters of host self-presentation were identified: The Global Citizen, The Local Expert, The Personable, The Established, and The Creative. Honest and positive self-presentation, as well as competence strategies were identified from these clusters. The host profiles were further explored to identify differences in their behaviour, listing characteristics, and guest review ratings.
    Pesonen J, Tussyadiah IP (2017) Peer-To-Peer Accommodation: Drivers and User Profiles,In: Dredge D, Gyimóthy S (eds.), Collaborative Economy and Tourism: Perspectives, Politics, Policies and Prospects pp. 285-303 Springer International Publishing
    The tourism industry is currently dealing with the impacts of collaborative consumption, with tourists increasingly using peer-to-peer (P2P) services such as Airbnb and Uber. This study aims to extend our knowledge of why P2P accommodation services are not just succeeding, but thriving, from the consumer perspective, and it contributes to an understanding of the reasons for the popularity of P2P accommodation services and how consumer heterogeneity affects consumer choices. In this study, the drivers of P2P accommodation services are examined in order to better understand consumer characteristics and behaviour. Based on a survey of Internet users in Finland, the major drivers affecting the use of P2P accommodation services are the age of consumers, active use of the Internet and online technologies, and the frequency of international travel. Cluster analysis identified two user profiles corresponding to consumer motivations for using P2P accommodation services. The first consumer group uses P2P accommodation services to make their trips more convenient, while the second uses them mostly for social reasons.
    Nicolau J, Zach F, Tussyadiah IP (2016) Effects Of Distance And First-Time Visitation On Tourists? Length Of Stay,Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research Sage
    The analysis of length of stay and its determinants remains important in tourism due to its significant implications for tourism management. Results from previous studies show conflicting effects of the two central factors of length of stay: distance and first-time visitation. Hence, taking into account the not always unambiguous effect of distance and the variety-seeking and inertial behaviors of repeat visitation, the objective of this research is to add to the extant literature further empirical evidence. Data were collected from 908 U.S. visitors to a tourism destination in the Atlantic Coast of the United States and analyzed using the truncated negative binomial models. A positive impact of both distance and first-time visitation on length of stay is found. Managerial implications are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP (2014) An Exploratory Study on Drivers and Deterrents of Collaborative Consumption in Travel,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015: Proceedings of the International Conference in Lugano, Switzerland, February 3 - 6, 2015 pp. 817-830 Springer, Cham
    Due to the rise of businesses utilizing the sharing economy concept, it is important to better understand the motivational factors that drive and hinder collaborative consumption in the travel and tourism marketplace. Based on responses from 754 adult travellers residing in the US, drivers and deterrents of the use of peer-to-peer accommodation rental services were identified. Factors that deter the use of peer-to-peer accommodation rental services include lack of trust, lack of efficacy with regards to technology, and lack of economic benefits. The motivations that drive the use of peer-to-peer accommodation include the societal aspects of sustainability and community, as well as economic benefits. Based on the empirical evidence, this study suggests several propositions for future studies and implications for tourism destinations and hospitality businesses on how to manage collaborative consumption.
    Tussyadiah IP (2013) Meta-design Approach for Mobile Platforms Supporting Creative Tourism Experiences,Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 8015: Proceedings (Part IV) of Second International Conference of Design, User Experience, and Usability: Web, Mobile, and Product Design. (DUXU 2013) 8015 pp. 733-739 Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
    This paper conceptualizes the application of meta-design approach in the development of a mobile system supporting creative experiences for tourists. Specifically, for those working in creative industries, adaptive mobile system will facilitate effective tourists? interactions with and interpretations of the local attributes of tourism destinations. The mobile system will integrate the sensory stimuli, the intense contact with cultural nuances and social network, the brand-based reputation, and the creative communities at tourism destinations into the iterative process of perception, conception, and expression of creative ideas among tourists. For destinations trying to highlight their unique characteristics as their value proposition, the development of such system may benefit them from a heightened sense of place due to on-going value co-creation. Individuals will benefit from such system from enhanced creative performances.
    Zach Florian J., Tussyadiah Iis (2017) To Catch Them All?The (Un)intended Consequences of Pokémon GO on Mobility, Consumption, and Wellbeing,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017: Proceedings of the International Conference in Rome, Italy, January 24-26, 2017 pp. 217-227 Springer, Cham
    In order to better understand the effectiveness of location-based mobile games in shaping user behaviour, this study investigates the behavioural impacts of playing Pokémon GO on mobility (i.e., travel) and consumption (i.e., spending) and its effects on users? wellbeing. Based on a survey with 405 players in the United States (US), three types of impacts were identified: sense of community (social), mobility (visitation to places), and physical activities. Two dimensions of players? wellbeing were also identified: improved daily functions and psychosocial functions. Enjoyment of the game as well as motivation to win a battle were consistently found to affect these behavioural impacts. Additionally, these factors also increase the probability of players? spending money on induced consumption, such as for retail, restaurants, and travel.
    Tussyadiah IP, Zach F (2016) Identifying Salient Attributes of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Experience,Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 34 (5) pp. 636-652 Taylor & Francis
    This study explores key content and themes from online reviews to explain major service attributes of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation sought by guests. The results from lexical analyses indicate that attributes frequently mentioned in guest reviews are associated with location (proximity to point of interest and characteristics of neighborhood), host (service and hospitality), and property (facilities and atmosphere). Reviews focusing on location and feeling welcome are consistently linked with higher rating scores, including accuracy, cleanliness, check-in, communication, value, and overall ratings. This confirms that P2P accommodation appeals to consumers who are driven by experiential and social motivations. Marketing implications are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP, Zach F (2013) Capacity for co-creation among destination marketing organizations,In: McCabe S (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Tourism Marketing pp. 425-434 Routledge
    Recently, trends in the market and discussions in marketing literature signal the changing roles of customers. Marketing literature not only emphasizes the importance of devising customer-focused strategies for organizations to stay competitive in the market, but also, to a great extent, makes an attempt to theorize consumers as co-producers and co-creators of value (Lusch and Vargo 2006; Cova and Dalli 2009). Many different terms have been suggested to signal this new role of consumers: prosumers (Toffler 1980), consumeractors, etc., all of which characterize consumers as able and willing to actively engage in the construction of value through experiences and relationships with organizations. Therefore, the concept of co-creation surfaces, suggesting that consumers can enter into and engage in production and innovation processes with companies.
    Tussyadiah IP, Zach F (2013) Social Media Strategy and Capacity for Consumer Co-Creation Among Destination Marketing Organizations,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2013: Proceedings of the International Conference in Innsbruck, Austria, January 22-25, 2013 pp. 242-253 Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
    Applying the concept of absorptive capacity in the context of consumer integration for new product development in tourism, this study provided empirical support for the multidimensionality of capacity for consumer co-creation. Co-creation capacity consists of lower level capabilities, including explorative, transformative and exploitative capacity to turn consumer knowledge into consumer-centric products/services. It was identified that social media, in which consumers are increasingly participating in the knowledge exchange processes, is an important avenue for tourism organizations to nurture relationships with consumers that drive participation and integration. Social media strategy is shown to have a positive effect on capacity for co-creation, specifically the capability to process consumer knowledge into valuable assets. Finally, it was also identified that capacity for co-creation among tourism organizations has a positive impact on their performance.
    Tussyadiah IP, Kausar D, Soesilo P (2015) The Effect of Engagement in Online Social Network on Susceptibility to Influence,Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research Sage
    The effect of consumer participation in online social networking activities on their susceptibility to influence is investigated in a context of restaurant consumption. This research identified a positive relationship between consumers engagement in social networking sites (SNS) on their susceptibility to global consumption influence, which is a multidimensional factor consisting of conformity to trend, social prestige, and quality perception. Furthermore, consumer engagement in SNS and susceptibility to global consumption influence positively affect social influence on SNS. That is, consumers with higher participation in SNS are more prone to global consumer convergence and peer influence on SNS. As implications for tourism and hospitality businesses, strategies to manage consumer-to-consumer communication on social media are suggested.
    Tussyadiah IP (2013) When Cell Phones Become Travel Buddies: Social Attribution to Mobile Phones in Travel,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2013: Proceedings of the International Conference in Innsbruck, Austria, January 22-25, 2013 pp. 82-93 Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
    Applying the computing technology continuum of perspective model into mobile technology, this study investigates tourists? social attribution to mobile phones while travelling. The tendency to place social attribution to and interact socially with mobile phones in the context of travel is influenced by tourists? perception of the positive social characteristics of mobile phones (i.e., object attribution) and the intensity of mobile phone use for travel-related purposes at tourism destinations (i.e., circumstance attribution). It was found that tourists? core selfevaluation did not exert an influence in the process of social attribution to mobile phones. This supports the importance of anthropomorphism in the designing of mobile technology for tourists, in that more intelligent and social phones are potentially more persuasive to influence tourists? behaviour regardless of their personality.
    Park S, Tussyadiah IP, Zhang Y (2016) Assessment of Perceived Risk in Mobile Travel Booking,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2016: Proceedings of the International Conference in Bilbao, Spain, February 2-5, 2016 pp. 467-480 Springer, Cham
    Considering the increasing prevalence of smartphones in travel experiences, a relatively low level of mobile booking for travel products suggests the importance of understanding the perceived risk that inhibits mobile consumption behaviours among travellers. Based on responses from an online panel, this study identified the multidimensional facets of perceived risk associated with mobile travel booking, which include time risk, financial risk, performance risk, security risk, psychological risk, physical risk, and device risk. Further, it was identified that there are antecedents that contribute positively (i.e., collection of personal information) and negatively (i.e., consumer innovativeness, trust, and visibility) to perceived risk. Finally, this research estimated the effects of perceived risk on behavioural outcomes, including perceived usefulness, attitudes, and booking intentions. Implications to alleviate or reduce perceived risks are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP, Inversini A (2016) Editorial: Special issue on ENTER2015,Journal of Information Technology and Tourism 15 (4) pp. 287-290
    Tussyadiah IP (2012) An Assessment of Contagion on Social Networking Sites,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2012: Proceedings of the International Conference in Helsingborg, Sweden, January 25?27, 2012 pp. 25-35 Springer, Vienna
    Social network influence has been recognized as an important determinant for consumer behaviour. Through a web-based survey using restaurant consumption as a research context, this study explores social influence resulting from two distinct social reference processes: communication and comparison. The relationship between social interactions and social influence is moderated by opinion leadership and attitude towards status consumption, which are conceptualized to represent consumers? competitiveness. Consumers? status consumption contributes negatively to recommendation-based consumption, but positively to competitionbased consumption. In other words, the more competitive the consumers are, the less they tend to follow others? recommendation, the more they consume products and services to establish or maintain their status in the social network. Several managerial implications are provided.
    Tussyadiah IP (2013) Toward a Theoretical Foundation for Experience Design in Tourism,Journal of Travel Research 53 (5) pp. 543-564 Sage Publications
    This article aims at providing a theoretical framework for the practice of experience design in tourism drawing from a comprehensive review of literature from different disciplines relevant to tourism as a design context. Three fundamentals in tourism experience design are suggested: human-centeredness, iterative designing process, and a holistic experience concept as an outcome of designing. These call for four approaches to experience design in tourism: naturalistic inquiries and empathic design to target experience narratives, participatory design involving tourists at every stage of designing, integrative design research that include explorative, generative, and evaluative research as essential parts of designing, and the orientation of concepts and theories from multiple disciplines as applied to tourism contexts. Finally, tourism experience concept is elaborated into meta-concept, representing the value propositions of tourism destinations, and operational concept that allows for the orchestration of design elements within tourism destinations to allow for and facilitate desired experiences.
    Tussyadiah IP, Pesonen J (2016) Drivers and Barriers of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Stay: An Exploratory Study with American and Finnish Travellers,Current Issues in Tourism pp. 1-18 Taylor & Francis
    The explosive growth of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation service presents a potential transformation in the competitive landscape of accommodation sector. This research explores the market characteristics and the factors that drive and hinder the use of P2P accommodation to better explain the phenomenon of collaborative consumption in the tourism and hospitality marketplace. Using responses from travellers residing in the United States and Finland, exploratory factor analyses revealed two factors that drive the use of P2P accommodation: social appeal (desire for community and sustainability) and economic appeal (cost savings). The barriers include issues of trust, efficacy and familiarity with the system, and cost. The empirical evidence from this study suggests several managerial implications for tourism and hospitality businesses and directions for future research.
    Tjostheim I, Tussyadiah IP, Hoem S (2007) Combination of Information Sources in Travel Planning A Cross-national Study,Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2007: Proceedings of the International Conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007 pp. 153-162 Springer, Vienna
    This paper presents results from a study about the Internet as an information source for travel planning based on interviews with travelers in 13 countries in 2005. In 1997, a similar large scale survey was carried out in 15 European countries. The study shows a dramatic but well known change in information sources used by travelers since 1997. The Internet has become the most preferred information source by approximately 50% of the travelers. Travelers using the Internet as their primary source of information mostly combine it with other sources such as friends and relatives, brochures, guidebooks, and travel agents. A logistic regression analysis was performed in order to study the significance of demographics and countries on the preference of Internet as the first information source.
    Tussyadiah IP, Fesenmaier D, Yoo Y (2008) Designing Interactions in Tourism Mediascape ? Identification of Patterns for Mobile 2.0 Platform,In: O?Connor P, Höpken W, Gretzel U (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2008 pp. 395-406 Springer
    This study uses pattern language theory in order to identify patterns of tourists? interactions within their social networks while they are experiencing tourism destinations. The patterns were conceptualized from sequences of tourists? stories and observers? field notes through narrative analysis. The identified patterns were then organized into a typical scenario of tourism experiences. The Mobile 2.0 platform is then characterized as an interactive mediascape that mediates tourists in situ.
    Tussyadiah IP (2016) Technology and Behavioral Design in Tourism,In: Fesenmaier D, Zheng X (eds.), Design Science in Tourism: Foundations of Destination Management pp. 173-191 Springer, Cham
    As information and communication technologies (ICTs) become an integral part of the tourism environments, tourism technologies are designed to generate impacts on tourists? behavior and transform tourism experiences. Drawing from behaviorism, philosophy of computing, design science and persuasive technology, this chapter provides a theoretical reflection for technology and tourism design by theorizing behavioral design and technological mediation in tourism experiences. It also provides guiding principles to bridge the theories into design practices in for tourism destinations to solve design problems by facilitating behavior change through ICTs. The ultimate goal is for tourism destinations to offer meaningful and memorable tourism experiences for tourists that are advantageous for all stakeholders.
    Tussyadiah I (2012) A Concept of Location-Based Social Network Marketing,Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 29 (3) pp. 205-220 Taylor & Francis
    A stimulus-response model of location-based social network marketing is conceptualized based on an exploratory investigation. Location-based social network applications are capable of generating marketing stimuli from merchant, competition-based, and connection-based rewards resulted from relevance and connectivity. Depending on consumption situations, consumer characteristics, and social network structure, these rewards lead to actual behavior that manifests in variety behavior (i.e., patronage to new places) and loyalty behavior (i.e., increased frequency of patronage to familiar places). This behavior implies changes in patterns of mobility, making this marketing approach particularly relevant for tourism and hospitality businesses. Managerial implications and recommendations for further studies are provided.
    Tussyadiah I, Zach F (2011) The role of geo-based technology in place experiences,Annals of Tourism Research 39 (2) pp. 780-800 Elsevier
    Today, as various context-aware technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous, tourists have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about tourism destinations. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in gaining meaningful experiences with places. This study identifies how the use of geo-based technology plays a role in the acquisition of geographic knowledge and behavior. It is identified that the use of geo-based technology while traveling contributes to the different components that frame the structure of tourism experience. Further, this study also confirms that tourism experience can be seen as a part of the everyday experience as geographic behavior exhibited on a day-to-day basis is found to have an effect on tourism experience.
    Tussyadiah I (2013) Social actor attribution to mobile phones: the case of tourists,Information Technology and Tourism 14 (1) pp. 21-47 Springer Verlag
    This study examines social actor attribution to mobile phones in general settings and travel context. Informed by attribution theory and computing technology continuum of perspective model, the hypothesized relationships between social characteristics of mobile phones, users? core self-evaluation, and social actor attribution to mobile phones were tested to determine the locus of causality of people?s social responses to mobile technology. Further, the influence of mobile phones use for travel-related purposes was investigated to examine the situation attribution explaining the perceived social roles of mobile phones in travel. The results demonstrate that perceived positive and negative social characters of mobile phones as well as self-efficacy, locus of control and self-esteem of users significantly influence social actor attribution to mobile phones. In a travel setting, the significant influence of situational factor on the social roles of mobile technology emphasizes the importance of anthropomorphism in the designing of mobile technology for travel. As a managerial implication, features of mobile technology should suggest the roles of mobile devices as personal travel companions and/or assistants to increase the persuasive power of mobile phones for tourists.
    Ye H, Tussyadiah I (2011) Destination Visual Image and Expectation of Experiences,Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 28 (2) pp. 129-144 Taylor & Francis
    A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found different contents and notions of images inspired them to visit a destination. Several managerial implications are discussed.
    Kim J, Tussyadiah I (2013) Social Networking and Social Support in Tourism Experience: The Moderating Role of Online Self-Presentation Strategies,Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 30 (1-2) pp. 78-92 Taylor & Francis
    The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of how tourists' self-presentation is managed on social networking sites (SNS). Specifically, the study investigated the effects of SNS use on social support and tourism experience and the moderating role of the different tourists' self-presentation strategies. The results emphasize the importance of SNS use for tourists to seek support from their social network while traveling. The study clarifies the importance of SNS use for tourism experience, in that the more tourists are engaged in social activities through SNS while traveling, the more social support they will get, which will contribute positively to their tourism experience. Also, it is argued that social support does not always directly result from the intense SNS use, but rather moderated by tourists' self-presentation strategies.
    Lee G, Tussyadiah I (2011) Exploring Familiarity and Destination Choice in International Tourism,Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 17 (2) pp. 133-145 Taylor & Francis
    The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of prospective and experienced tourists to international tourism destinations. More specifically, this study examines how the differences in the level of familiarity with the host country (i.e., informational familiarity and experiential familiarity) influence sub-destination choice in terms of its scale and popularity. A survey was conducted with Korean nationals as potential visitors to tourism destinations in Japan. Six one-way ANOVA tests and six chi-square tests were performed to identify the relationships and differences between tourists' characteristics and the destination choices. The results indicate that (1) teens and people in their 50s and above were interested in visiting more popular places, (2) tourists who are more familiar with Japan tended to visit less popular destinations, and (3) tourists with more travel experiences to the country tended to visit destinations with bigger scale and less popularity. Managerial implications for each destination with different scales and popularities will be suggested to customize service for prospective first-time and experienced visitors.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Park Sangwon, Fesenmaier DR (2010) Assessing the Effectiveness of Consumer Narratives for Destination Marketing,Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 35 (1) pp. 64-78 SAGE Publications
    Using tourists? stories to promote destinations is believed to be an innovative approach in destination marketing. This study conceptualizes and investigates the effectiveness of such an approach. This study supports the underlying premise of introducing narrative in marketing, that is, the narrative reasoning that human beings possess with which they can retrieve information better through a story. Furthermore, it is argued that the increased knowledge of a destination will have a stronger effect on the intention to visit a destination if the audiences can identify themselves with the story characters. Several managerial implications are also discussed.
    Lee G, Tussyadiah I (2010) Textual and Visual Information in eWOM: A Gap Between Preferences in Information Search and Diffusion,Information Technology & Tourism 12 (4) pp. 351-361 Cognizant Communication Corporation
    This article examines the gap between travel-related information search and diffusion by online users in order to better understand the important role of visual information in electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Several analyses were conducted to investigate differences in travelers' preferences for particular forms of information. The results suggest that textual?visual information formats (i.e., photos and/or videos combined with text) have a greater influence on motivation to travel than text-only information. On the other hand, experienced travelers tend to contribute text-only information when spreading eWOM. This study discusses the reasons for this gap and the individual differences in travelers' information format preferences when retrieving and diffusing travel-related information online. Managerial implications for destination marketers and user-generated content platform managers are suggested.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Wang Dan, Jung Timothy H, tom Dieck M. Claudia (2017) Virtual Reality, Presence, and Attitude Change: Empirical Evidence from Tourism,Tourism Management 66 pp. 140-154 Elsevier
    The rapid development of virtual reality (VR) technology offers opportunities for a widespread consumption of VR tourism content. It also presents challenges to better understand the effectiveness of VR experience in inducing more favorable attitude toward tourism destinations and shaping visitation intention. Based on two studies, one conducted in Hong Kong with 202 participants and another in the United Kingdom with 724 participants, this research identified several positive consequences of the sense of presence in VR experiences. First, the feeling of being in the virtual environment increases enjoyment of VR experiences. Second, the heightened feeling of being there results in stronger liking and preference in the destination. Third, positive attitude change leads to a higher level of visitation intention. Therefore, this study provides empirical evidence to confirm the effectiveness of VR in shaping consumers? attitude and behavior.
    Tussyadiah I, Park S (2017) Consumer Evaluation of Hotel Service Robots,In: Stangl B, Pesonen J (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2018 pp. 308-320 Springer
    In light of the trend in integrating artificial intelligence and robotics into tourism and hospitality operations, it is important to understand consumer responses to hotel service robots. Two studies were conducted to achieve this objective: an online survey and a laboratory experiment using measurements of automatic emotional reactions via biosensors. Responses to two types of robots, NAO for check-in and Relay for room delivery, were tested. Study 1 demonstrates that consumer intention to adopt hotel service robots is influenced by human-robot interaction dimensions of anthropomorphism, perceived intelligence, and perceived security. Differences were found between NAO and Relay: NAO?s adoption depends on anthropomorphism and perceived security, while Relay?s on perceived intelligence and importance of service operation in hotel experiences. Study 2 revealed support for the importance of anthropomorphism and perceived security in NAO, as reflected in Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) peaks during sequences of interactions and fixation on NAO?s face. Support for perceived intelligence in Relay was also identified. Implications for the hospitality industry are provided.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Sigala M (2017) Shareable tourism: tourism marketing in the
    sharing economy
    ,
    Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 35 (1) pp. 1-4 Taylor & Francis
    Organised by the International Federation for Information Technology and Travel & Tourism (IFITT), the ENTER2018 PhD Workshop is a pre-conference event to provide a forum for doctoral students undertaking research related to Information and Communication Technology in Travel and Tourism to interactively discuss their research with peers, colleagues, and leading scholars in the field. This volume consists of 19 research proposals, including two recipients of the 2018 IFITT ICT4D Scholarship, awarded to young talents who work on the applications of ICT for development through tourism.
    Zach F, Wallace S, Tussyadiah Iis, Priya Narayana S (2017) Developing and Testing a Domain-Specific Lexical
    Dictionary for Travel Talk on Twitter (#ttot)1
    ,
    In: Stangl B, Pesonen J (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2018 pp. 528-539 Springer
    The wealth of electronically generated communication combined with increased computing power and sophisticated algorithms provides the opportunity for destination managers to listen to travellers. Identification of sentiment with a domain-oriented lexicon is beneficial for natural language processing to analyse public opinion. Indeed, in the context of travel, sentiment analysis enables tourism decision makers to devise marketing and development strategies that address the information learned. This study presents a lexical dictionary approach for sentiment extraction and opinion mining of travel related messages posted using the Twitter microblogging service. In this study, we propose a human coded sentiment dictionary specific to the travel context. Terms were identified from a pool of more than 1.38 million travel related tweets collected over a nine-month period. Human coders assigned sentiment scores to these terms and the travelMT 1.0 dictionary was produced to enhance the existing labMT 1.0 dictionary. The quality of the travelMT 1.0 dictionary was tested against the original labMT 1.0 dictionary and human judges. We found that, with a larger number of travel terms in a tweet, the enhanced dictionary, travelMT 1.0, produces a more accurate sentiment score than the labMT 1.0 dictionary.
    Benckendorff P, Tussyadiah Iis, Scarles Caroline (2017) The Role of Digital Technologies in Facilitating Intergenerational Learning in Heritage Tourism,In: Stangl B, Pesonen J (eds.), The Role of Digital Technologies in Facilitating Intergenerational Learning in Heritage Tourism 2018 pp. 463-472 Springer
    This research proposes a framework of intergenerational learning (IGL) that supports child-to-parent influence in the context of heritage learning using augmented reality (AR) and serious game applications. Positioning children as the behavioural catalysts in the learning process, the framework is developed based on several considerations and requirements. First, the technologies are designed to play a role in attracting and engaging children in learning and providing an intergenerational participation structure to allow children to influence parents? attitudes and behaviour. Second, using the mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics framework of game design, the game elements are designed to provide realistic context for experiential learning, informative guiding and player interactions to increase engagement, as well as clear and measurable success indicators to increase motivation. The outcome of this framework is attitude and behaviour change in children and parents with regards to heritage preservation and appreciation, which is one of the main goals of heritage tourism managers.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Park Sangwon (2018) When Guests Trust Hosts for Their Words: Host Description and Trust in Sharing Economy,Tourism Management 67 pp. 261-272 Elsevier
    In order to better understand the dynamics of user behavior in the sharing economy platform, a multi-stage study was conducted on how Airbnb hosts articulate themselves online and how consumers respond to different host self-presentation patterns. First, using text mining techniques on a large dataset consisting descriptions of Airbnb hosts in 14 major cities in the United States, two patterns of host self-presentation were identified. Hosts generally present themselves online as (1) a well-traveled individual, eager to meet new people or (2) an individual of a certain profession. This contributes to the conceptualization of profile as promise framework for online self-presentation in mixed-mode interactions involving peer-to-peer accommodation platform. Second, consumers respond to the two host self-presentation strategies differently, demonstrating higher levels of perceived trustworthiness in and intention to book from well-traveled hosts. This has direct strategic implications for effective self-marketing of ?amateur? tourism players as well as for the role of residents as resources in tourism destinations.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Tian Stella, Lockwood Andrew (2017) Byteing into the eating out market: A report on the impact of technology on the UK eating out sector. ISBN: 978-1-84469-035-0,In: Byteing into the eating out market University of Surrey
    Tussyadiah Iis, Li Shujun, Miller Graham (2019) Privacy protection in tourism: Where we are and where we should be heading for,In: Pesonen J., Neidhardt J. (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism pp. 278-290 Springer Verlag
    The link between information privacy concerns and privacy behaviours has been a focus of extensive investigation in various disciplines. However, little attention has been devoted to this issue in the tourism literature. Spurred by technological development and shaped by tourism-related environments, emerging privacy issues call for comprehensive yet context-specific studies to ensure tourists are making beneficial privacy choices. This paper first presents a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art research on privacy concerns and behaviours. Then, it suggests a list of overarching research priorities, merging social and technical aspects of privacy protection approaches as they apply to tourism. The priorities include research to measure tourists? privacy concerns, explore specific biases in tourists? privacy decisions, experiment with privacy nudges, and explore how to integrate privacy nudges in system design. Thus, this paper contributes to guiding the direction of future research on privacy protection in tourism.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Li Shujun, Miller Graham (2019) Privacy protection in tourism: Where we are and where we should be heading for,Proceedings of The 26th Annual eTourism Conference, 30 Jan - 01 Feb, 2019. Nicosia, Cyprus Springer Verlag
    The link between information privacy concerns and privacy behaviours has been a focus of extensive investigation in various disciplines. However, little attention has been devoted to this issue in the tourism literature. Spurred by technological development and shaped by tourism-related environments, emerging privacy issues call for comprehensive yet context-specific studies to ensure tourists are making beneficial privacy choices. This paper first presents a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art research on privacy concerns and behaviours. Then, it suggests a list of overarching research priorities, merging social and technical aspects of privacy protection approaches as they apply to tourism. The priorities include research to measure tourists? privacy concerns, explore specific biases in tourists? privacy decisions, experiment with privacy nudges, and explore how to integrate privacy nudges in system design. Thus, this paper contributes to guiding the direction of future research on privacy protection in tourism.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Perceived impacts of artificial intelligence and responses to positive behaviour change intervention,In: Pesonen J., Neidhardt J. (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism pp. 359-370 Springer Verlag
    Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have a great potential to aid not only in promoting tourism products and services, but also in influencing responsible travel behaviour to support sustainability. The effectiveness of using AI for positive behaviour change interventions depends on consumers? attitudes toward AI. This study found three underlying views of AI impacts: Beneficial AI, Destructive AI, and Risky AI. Based on these, three consumer segments were identified: The Laggards, The Aficionados, and The Realists. The first two segments hold opposing views: the former averaging higher in negative impacts, while the latter in positive impacts of AI. The Realists are aware of both benefits and risks of AI. These segments differ in their intention to follow recommendations from AI. It is suggested that mainstream consumers, those belonging to The Realists, are likely to respond positively to AI systems recommending responsible behaviour, signifying the positive role of AI in sustainable tourism.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Perceived impacts of artificial intelligence and responses to positive behaviour change intervention,Proceedings of The 26th Annual eTourism Conference, 30 Jan - 01 Feb, 2019. Nicosia, Cyprus Springer Verlag
    Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have a great potential to aid not only in promoting tourism products and services, but also in influencing responsible travel behaviour to support sustainability. The effectiveness of using AI for positive behaviour change interventions depends on consumers? attitudes toward AI. This study found three underlying views of AI impacts: Beneficial AI, Destructive AI, and Risky AI. Based on these, three consumer segments were identified: The Laggards, The Aficionados, and The Realists. The first two segments hold opposing views: the former averaging higher in negative impacts, while the latter in positive impacts of AI. The Realists are aware of both benefits and risks of AI. These segments differ in their intention to follow recommendations from AI. It is suggested that mainstream consumers, those belonging to The Realists, are likely to respond positively to AI systems recommending responsible behaviour, signifying the positive role of AI in sustainable tourism.
    Tussyadiah Iis P., Zach Florian J., Wang Jianxi (2021) Do Travelers Trust Intelligent Service Robots?,Annals of Tourism Research 81 102886 Elsevier
    This research investigates travelers' trust in intelligent autonomous technologies based on two studies involving self-driving transportation and robot bartenders. Targeting travelers residing in the United States, online questionnaire was distributed to test the relationships between trusting beliefs in intelligent robots, its antecedents, and its outcomes. The results demonstrate that the cognitive trust formation process holds in situations involving intelligent robots as objects of trust. Trust in intelligent machines is influenced by negative attitude toward technology and propensity to trust technology. Surprisingly, the physical form of robots does not affect trust. Finally, trust leads to adoption intention in both studies. The contribution of this research is in elucidating consumer trust in intelligent robots designed for socially-driven interactions in travel settings.
    Chen Yujia, Tussyadiah Iis, Gkritzali Alkmini (2019) Service Failure in Peer-to-Peer Accommodation: Mining Evidence of Negative Experience,Proceedings of the 24th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism University of Houston
    Advances in technology have brought back the concept of home sharing and transformed it into a global phenomenon that is peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation. Yet, the vast growth of P2P accommodation also pairs with increasing customers? dissatisfaction. There is an increasing evidence of guests experiencing service failures during their stay with P2P accommodation, resulting from various service encounters, such as guest-host relations, technological challenges, customer service interactions, etc. Though the concept of service failure has received considerable attention in the past, most studies have been limited to investigating its patterns and impacts from a dyadic customer ? provider relationship perspective, where the provider is solely responsible for service failure. Through P2P platforms, how service is delivered and experienced is fundamentally changed as more entities are involved in service system. In P2P accommodation system, service is delivered through different service encounters within the triadic relationship: customer ? service provider encounter and customer ? platform provider encounter. This new form of service delivery has been neglected in current service failure research. Therefore, in order to fill the research gap and provide managerial implications, this study explores the major forms of service failure in P2P accommodation and provides effective recovery strategies accordingly.
    Stienmetz Jason, Liu Anyu, Tussyadiah Iis (2019) UK Residents? Opinions of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Impact on Quality of Life,ENTER2019 eTourism conference
    The aim of this study was to explore UK residents? opinions of how peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation listings within their communities impact upon their quality of life (QoL). Seven hundred and eighty open-ended questions were collected across the UK and content analysis was conducted to investigate the textual data. It is found that 13% of UK residents held positive opinion on P2P accommodation whereas another 13% expressed negative attitude and the rest kept neutral opinions. More people believed P2P accommodation brought positive economic and negative environmental impacts on the QoL, while the social influence was neutral. Opinions of London residents on P2P accommodation are different from those of non-London residents. Practical implications are provided to policymakers based on the empirical findings.
    Chen Yujia, Liu Shasha, Tussyadiah Iis, Zainal Abidin Husna, Zarezadeh Zara (2019) Inferences and Decision Heuristics in Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Booking,e-Review of Tourism Research 16 (2/3) Texas Digital Library
    This paper presents a preliminary result of a study on the roles of inference making in decision heuristics involving P2P accommodation booking. The goals of the study are to identify the influence of cues from similar listings on a decision to book a target listing when reviews are not available (i.e., missing information) as well as the effects of decision-making styles on actual choice and decision confidence. Preliminary results showed that the inclusion of a similar listing (comparison) did not make a significant difference in decision confidence, which may indicate insignificant roles of external cues in booking decisions. Due to a limited number of participants in the pilot study, the main study with a larger number of participants may explicate the phenomenon more significantly. Should the results hold, they suggest P2P accommodation hosts pay more attention to the listing characteristics instead of relying on information from similar listings.
    The Department of Hospitality in collaboration with the Centre for Research and Enterprise (CRE) within the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at University of Surrey kick started Hack Hospitality, a series of collaborative workshops to discuss the applications and implications of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics in hospitality. The inaugural workshops were held in Central London on 12 February 2019 and in Guildford on 19 February 2019.

    Hack Hospitality brought together Surrey?s research team with experts in AI and robotics, as well as thought leaders in the hospitality and travel industry to envision the future of hospitality. Workshop participants engaged in creative thinking and collaborative exercises facilitated by LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® method to think about how to best implement AI and robots in hospitality and how the roles of employees will be transformed as a result of increasing automation.

    Ling Erin Chao, Tussyadiah Iis (2019) Designing Travel Bots, University of Surrey
    Hack Hospitality brought together Surrey?s research team with experts in AI and
    robotics, as well as thought leaders in the hospitality and travel industry to envision
    how to best implement chatbots for hospitality. Workshop participants engaged in
    insightful discussion and collaborative exercises using Personas and Scripts to codesign human-chatbot conversations and think about the benefits and challenges of
    implementing chatbots in the travel and hospitality industry.
    Tuomi Aarni, Tussyadiah Iis P., Stienmetz Jason (2019) Leveraging LEGO® Serious Play® to embrace AI and robots in tourism,Annals of Tourism Research Elsevier

    Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics have begun to challenge conventional notions of consumption, production, and management of tourism service offerings. For example, intelligent machines are increasingly being used to handle routine customer enquiries, prepare and serve drinks and food, and monitor and report faults and security breaches (Ivanov, Webster, & Berezina, 2017). However, Murphy, Gretzel, and Pesonen (2019) observe that many tourism businesses still fail to make the most of the available technology. Faced with a plethora of possibilities, tourism operators may find it difficult to decide which technologies to adopt and which to ignore. Equally challenging might be deciding where, when, and how a new technology should be introduced, as well as understanding what its impacts might be for the individual, organisation, and the industry. The situation calls for research methods suitable for addressing forward-looking research questions with complex practical, ethical, and socio-economic implications, including the impacts of automation on customer experience, management, and regulation.

    Following in the footsteps of Wengel, McIntosh, and Cockburn-Wootten (2016), it can be suggested that serious gaming, in particular a method known as LEGO® Serious Play®, will help tourism researchers and practitioners better navigate and harness the dynamic landscape of emerging technology. As discussed by Peabody and Noyes (2017), LEGO® Serious Play® is a brainstorming method that makes use of LEGO® bricks to facilitate communication, expression, and problem-solving. Through a series of building activities and peer discussions, LEGO® bricks are used to create stories about the intangible world. The purpose is to break free from the constraints of habitual thinking ? the focus is not on the actual bricks themselves, but on the stories they tell and the metaphors they convey (Kristiansen & Rasmussen, 2014).

    Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Nudged by a Robot: Responses to Agency and Feedback,Annals of Tourism Research 78 102752 Elsevier Masson
    The availability of always-on digital agents in hotel rooms, providing agency and surveillance cues, presents opportunities for behavioral interventions. This study tested the effectiveness of agency and social feedback on pro-environmental behavior intention of hotel consumers. A survey with scenario-based experimental design was distributed to US and UK travelers (N=621). Results suggest that no one type of agent was more effective than the other in influencing pro-environmental behavior intention. Social feedback was found effective when given by a virtual assistant. Perception of another agent being ?present? in the room, even when invisible, is sufficient to induce normative behavior. This enriches literature on surveillance cues and behavior change and contributes to finding new ways of leveraging emerging technologies to foster sustainability.
    Park Sangwon, Tussyadiah Iis (2019) How guests develop trust in hosts: An investigation of trust formation in P2P accommodation,Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications
    As peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation service often involves multi-stage interactions between hosts and guests in online and offline settings, trust between the parties involved is of the utmost importance. In particular, the possibility of interacting offline in P2P service delivery highlights the significance of interpersonal trust between hosts and guests. Accordingly, this study examines the formation of trusting beliefs in hosts, comprising prospective guests? perception of the ability, benevolence, and integrity of the hosts. This study estimated the effects of two antecedents?propensity to trust and trust in P2P platform?on trusting beliefs, as well as the consequence of trusting beliefs, i.e., behavioral intention to book from the host. Important implications for trust formation in a P2P accommodation marketplace are provided.
    Chen Penny, Tussyadiah Iis, Liu Anyu (2019) Will Guests Use Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Again after a Service Failure?,e-Review of Tourism Research
    This study applies 3x2 between-subjects design to examine the effects of service failure dimensions and recovery strategies on satisfaction and customer repurchase intention in peer-to-peer accommodation. The preliminary results, which is based on an online survey with 107 respondents, revealed that the three different dimensions of service failure did not yield significant differences in satisfaction and repurchase intention. However, a significant difference was found between ?compensation? and ?no compensation? recovery strategies in satisfaction and repurchase intention. The types of service failure only affect the relationship between customer satisfaction and repurchase intention when a compensation is provided. This may be due to the limited response in each scenario. Therefore, in future studies, a larger sample is needed to confirm these preliminary results.
    Siegel Lauren, Tussyadiah Iis, Scarles Caroline (2019) Does Social Media Help or Hurt Destinations? A Qualitative Case Study,e-Review of Tourism Research
    Smartphone technology has changed the scope of onsite travel behaviors and photographing practices. This paper explores the destination response of the Tourist Board of Vienna with their ?anti-hashtag? marketing campaign, aimed at encouraging visitors to go offline while traveling in the city. Through a series of interviews, the motivations for the campaign, along with the initial approaches and outcomes for the campaign are studied using narrative analysis. The results indicate a positive response to the campaign, and potential models for similar destinations to manage similar visitor social networking and photographic behaviors are considered. Additionally, there are both academic and industry implications discussed.
    Tuomi Aarni, Tussyadiah Iis, Stienmetz Jason (2019) Service Robots and the Changing Roles of Employees in Restaurants: A Cross Cultural Study,e-Review of Tourism Research
    The advent of increasingly pervasive automation of front-of-house restaurant service processes calls for a cross-cultural examination of employee roles in robotised service encounters. Through an ethnographic approach this study explores robotised service encounters in two culturally distinct contexts: the US and Japan. Five roles service employees may assume are observed to varying degrees of importance depending on cultural context: enabler, coordinator, differentiator, educator, and innovator. The roles of enabler and coordinator seem the most dominant in Japan, while in the US the future of work in restaurants seems more skewed towards the roles of educator and innovator. Implications for hospitality management are discussed, and an agenda for future research is presented.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Imagining the Future of Travel: Technology and Sustainability Transitions,e-Review of Tourism Research
    Employing narrative futuring through ?letters from the future? technique, this study captures travelers? imagination of how travel will be in 20 years as they position themselves to pre-experience it. Key themes extracted from the letters include the (desired) future states of technology, reflecting expectation of technical feasibility of artificial intelligence (AI), and the world around them, echoing concerns towards environmental and social sustainability. Especially critical is the link between advancements in technology and sustainability, provoking relevant stakeholders to start taking responsibilities to prepare for what might come and steer the development of AI to benefit society at large.
    Driven by the advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its related technologies, the application of intelligent automation in travel and tourism is expected to increase in the future. This paper unpacks the need to shape an automated future of tourism as a social phenomenon and an economic activity, hence contributes to theory and practice by providing directions for future research in this area. Four research priorities are suggested: designing beneficial AI, facilitating adoption, assessing the impacts of intelligent automation, and creating a sustainable future with artificial intelligence. Research in these areas will allow for a systematic knowledge production that reflects a concerted effort from the scientific community to ensuring the beneficial applications of intelligent automation in tourism.
    Kim Hye Rhim, Tussyadiah Iis P., Jago Leo (2019) Framing effective cause-related marketing message online.,e-Review of Tourism Research 17 (3) pp. 452-459 Texas Digital Library
    The purpose of this study is to examine the interaction effect between online Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) advertisements and brand reputation on consumers? brand evaluation in the hotel industry. Two experimental studies were conducted: (1) a survey-based experiment that demonstrates the moderating role of brand reputation, and (2) a laboratory experiment using psychophysiological measurements of emotional reactions that additionally examines the impact of consumers? emotional responses to CRM advertisements on hotel?s pro-social initiatives, thereby complementing Study I?s findings.
    Lu Yang, Ioannou Athina, Tussyadiah Iis, Li Shujun (2019) Segmenting Travelers Based on Responses to Nudging for Information Disclosure.,e-Review of Tourism Research 17 (3) pp. 394-406 Texas Digital Library
    Digital technologies shape travel environments. Noticing online privacy issues, consumers can hold distinct attitudes towards disclosing personal information to service providers. We conducted a panel survey to gauge travelers? willingness to share personal information with service providers, provided with different types of nudges. Based on the results of clustering analysis, two segments were identified: travelers who are reasonably willing to share (Privacy Rationalists) and those who are reluctant to share (Privacy Pessimists). This study provides empirical evidence of privacy segmentations in the travel context, which has not been reported
    Tuomi Aarni, Tussyadiah Iis, Ling Erin, Miller Graham, Lee Geunhee (2020) x=(tourism_work) y=(sdg8) while y=true: automate(x),Annals of Tourism Research Elsevier
    Increasing implementation of automation has brought global concerns over the future of jobs in various sectors. To ensure that the transition to automation in travel and tourism will be made in a responsible and accountable manner, this study conceptualizes how automation, found to be driven largely by labor shortage, can be used to promote decent work. Utilizing Grounded Theory to analyze data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with industry practitioners, this study provides rich descriptions of the transformation brought by automation to companies, employees, and wider society and develops a theoretical model to explain ?Decent Work through Automation? (DW?A). In doing so, this study opens a pathway for further research on technology and decent work in tourism, including second- and third-order impacts of emerging technology. The paper offers practitioners and policymakers guidelines for responsible adoption of automation.
    Tuomi Aarni, Tussyadiah Iis (2020) Building the sociomateriality of food service,International Journal of Hospitality Management 89 102553 Elsevier
    Global megatrends such as urbanization, climate change and resource scarcity, shift in political and economic power, demographic change, and increasingly disruptive technological breakthroughs are transforming the conventional socio-technical system of food service. This study identifies and discusses key changes already impacting the service concept of food service, with particular focus on service interaction, its structure, and setting. Adopting a LEGO® Serious Play® approach, this study brings together diverse stakeholders to construct and discuss the current state of and future vision for the sector. Findings illustrate how the relative importance of social (i.e., customers, employees) and material (i.e., technology) actors in food service production and delivery is shifting, and will continue to shift, in the coming decades. The study proposes a framework of the new-formed sociomateriality of food service, discusses its theoretical and managerial implications, and finally puts forward a rich agenda for future research.
    Tuomi Aarni, Tussyadiah Iis P., Stienmetz Jason (2020) Applications and Implications of Service Robots in Hospitality,Cornell Hospitality Quarterly pp. 1-16 SAGE Publications
    Service robots continue to permeate and automate the hospitality sector. In doing so, these technological innovations pose to radically change current service production and delivery practices and, consequently, service management and marketing strategies. This study explores the various impacts of robotization in the sector by offering one of the first empirical accounts on the current state-of-the-art of service robotics as deployed in hospitality service encounters. The results suggest that service robots either support or substitute employees in service encounters. They also offer hospitality businesses a novel point of differentiation, but only if properly integrated as part of wider marketing efforts. Finally, the automation of tasks, processes, and, ultimately, jobs has serious socioeconomic implications both at the microlevel and macrolevel. Consequently, hospitality executives need to consider where and how to apply robotization to strike a balance between operational efficiency and customer expectations. Displaying ethical leadership is key to reaping the benefits of the robot revolution.
    Ioannou Athina, Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2020) That?s private! Understanding travelers? privacy concerns and online data disclosure,Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications
    Against the backdrop of advancements in technology and its deployment by companies and governments to collect sensitive personal information, information privacy has become an issue of great interest for academics, practitioners, and the general public. The travel and tourism industry has been pioneering the collection and use of biometric data for identity verification. Yet, privacy research focusing on the travel context is scarce. This study developed a valid measurement of Travelers? Online Privacy Concerns (TOPC) through a series of empirical studies: pilot (N=277) and cross-validation (N=287). TOPC was then assessed for its predictive validity in its relationships with trust, risk, and intention to disclose four types of personal data: biometric, identifiers, biographic, and behavioral data (N=685). Results highlight the role of trust in mitigating the relationship between travelers? privacy concerns and data disclosure. This study provides valuable contribution to research and practice on data privacy in travel.
    Tussyadiah Iis, Liu Anyu, Steinmetz Jason L. (2020) Impact of Perceived Peer to Peer Accommodation Development on Community Residents? Well-being,Current Issues in Tourism Routledge
    A survey of 780 UK residents was conducted to identify the extent to which perceived peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation development is associated with changes in community members? well-being from economic, social and environmental perspectives, and to understand in which circumstances P2P listings have positive and negative effects on 7 community members? well-being. Partial least squares analysis demonstrates that the 8 perceived positive community impacts of P2P accommodation are more pronounced than the 9 perceived negative impacts. Additionally, weak but statistically significant effects of 10 perceived P2P accommodation prevalence on residents? social and environmental well-being 11 are observed. Based on these findings and in accordance with social exchange theory, both 12 policy makers and the P2P accommodation sector should develop strategies to enhance the 13 perceived positive impacts on residents? well-being and mitigate the perceived negative 14 impacts.
    With increasing competition in hospitality and tourism companies, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been suggested as a strategy for generating goodwill and enhancing reputation among customers. As one of the marketing tools for implementing CSR, Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) ? which directly links product sales to the support of a charity ? has also become an important focus of attention in the hotel industry. Although CRM can generate positive impacts on business (e.g., financial benefit, improved brand evaluation), it can also backfire when consumers perceive that the hotel is using it mainly for its own benefit (i.e., profit motivation). Furthermore, if the hotel has a poor reputation, consumers would become more suspicious of a hotel?s involvement in social causes. That is, consumers will attribute more strongly a hotel?s self-serving motives (vs. public-serving) to CRM campaigns of less reputable hotels, suspecting that the hotels use the initiatives largely as a tactic to improve their reputation. In this sense, hotels have to consider strategies to introduce their CRM messages properly, and how to convey the hotel?s social motivation in order for the CRM to be effective in eliciting positive responses. In spite of the evidence that the potential risks of consumers? scepticism could lead to negative outcomes, there is a paucity of research explaining how to communicate CRM effectively with a consideration of perceived brand reputation. Therefore, this study aims to examine the interaction effect between advertising message framing (promotion-framed vs. prevention-framed) strategy and brand reputation (high vs. low) on consumers? brand evaluation (brand attitude, word-of-mouth, purchase intention) in the context of CRM in the hotel industry.

    Employing a multiple quantitative methods approach with two experimental studies, data were collected through a survey-based experiment (Study I: self-reported measures) and a laboratory experiment (Study II: psychophysiological measures). Study I examined the moderating role of brand reputation as well as consumer-related factors (processing fluency, social cause attitude, perceived fit) to illustrate how the relationship between message framing and brand reputation can be explained. The experiment was executed online with 248 UK-based participants. As emotional arousal or engagement with advertisements has been proven to be an effective tool for social initiatives, Study II examined the impact of consumers? emotional responses during an exposure to CRM advertisements, thereby complementing Study I?s findings. Using physiological measurements of automatic emotional reactions through biosensors (eye-tracking, facial expression, skin conductance), the data collection and analysis were facilitated by the iMotions software platform. A total 67 UK-based respondents were involved.

    This study found evidence that consumers prefer more prevention-framed messages (vs. promotion-framed) in CRM from hotels with a less reputable brand. That is, hotels with low reputation should point out the importance of avoiding a threat or danger in their charitable advertisements. This study extends prior research on the relative persuasiveness of message framing, revealing that the two types of CRM message strategies evoked by advertising lead to different attitude and behavioural changes. Additionally, focusing on the role of brand reputation and emotions, the current study contributes to knowledge on how hotels can mitigate the potential negative implications of CRM by choosing the right communication content.

    Benitez-Aurioles Beatriz, Tussyadiah Iis (2020) WHAT AIRBNB DOES TO THE HOUSING MARKET,Annals of Tourism Research Elsevier
    Based on a microeconometic model, this paper examines the effect of Airbnb in rents and house prices. Using borough-level data from the city of London between 2016 and 2019, we estimate System GMM regression models that indicate that Airbnb presence has an upward effect on the prices of both house purchases and of rentals, even disaggregating by categories; but the effect is stronger on house prices than rents, as theorized by the model. This evidence confirms that Airbnb affects the housing market by increasing the value of real estate properties.