Graham Miller

Professor Graham Miller


Executive Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Professor of Sustainability in Business
FRSA, BSc (Hons), MSc (Distinction), PhD, PGCE HE
+44 (0)1483 683095
68 AP 02
Executive Assistant: Abigail Sharpe
+44 (0)1483 686335

Biography

Areas of specialism

Data-driven approaches to sustainability; indicators of sustainability; sustainable tourism; business ethics; corporate social responsibility; accessible tourism.

University roles and responsibilities

  • Executive Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Professor of Sustainability in Business
  • Member of Executive Board

Previous roles

Head of the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management
University of Surrey

News

In the media

New Research Project on Accessible Tourism Won By Surrey University Team
European Network for Accessible Tourism

Research

Research interests

Research projects

Indicators of esteem

  • Co-editor, Journal of Sustainable Tourism

  • Vice-chair, Research Ethics Committee, Hammersmith Hospital, London

My teaching

Supervision

Postgraduate research supervision

Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

My publications

Publications

Power S, Di Domenico MariaLaura, Miller Graham (2017) The nature of ethical entrepreneurship in tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 65 pp. 36-48 Elsevier
This article examines ethical entrepreneurship in tourism by developing a Weberian Ideal-Type Construct for an ethical tourism entrepreneur, and thereby deeper understanding of ethical tourism entrepreneurship. This research contributes to the extremely scarce literature at the academic juncture of ethics, tourism and entrepreneurship, which is significant as tourism is characterised by entrepreneurial idiosyncrasies with ethical challenges. The study is methodologically rooted in Personal Construct Theory. The qualitative findings from 15 semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs, who have been commended for their ethical business conduct, show that ethical entrepreneurship in tourism is based on intuitionism, care and relationships, future-orientation, humility and benevolence as key virtues. These findings challenge the more traditional views of entrepreneurial attributes, such as egoism, risk-taking and opportunism.
Minnaert L, Maitland R, Miller Graham (2011) What is social tourism?, Current Issues in Tourism 14 (5) pp. 403-415
This article examines the definitions and implementations of the concept ?social tourism? that are in use in Europe today. Examples show that the concept has been implemented in many different ways to suit national contexts and that the justifications and goals of social tourism can differ greatly. The question arises how one can define the boundaries of this versatile and complex concept. This article proposes a model to clarify the interrelationships between the different interpretations: it highlights where common ground exists, but also where contradictions are apparent. The model consists of four main categories: the participation model, the inclusion model, the adaptation model and the stimulation model. The model draws on the historical development of social tourism and the ethical foundations for provision, and it is supported by a range of examples of European practice. Through this sub-categorisation of the concept, it is argued that a ?scientification? of the concept of social tourism can take place, so that the term does not lose its academic and political value. This article concludes by proposing a definition for social tourism that can effectively set the concept apart from other forms of tourism with attached social benefits.
Stevenson N, Airey David, Miller Graham (2008) Tourism Policy Making:The Policymakers? Perspectives, Annals of Tourism Research 35 (3) pp. 732-750 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Benckendorff P, Edwards D, Jurowski C, Liburd JJ, Miller Graham, Moscardo G (2009) Exploring the future of tourism and quality of life, Tourism and Hospitality Research 9 (2) pp. 171-183 Sage
Hadjikakou M, Chenoweth Jonathan, Miller Graham, Druckman Angela, Li Gang (2014) Rethinking the Economic Contribution of Tourism: Case Study from a Mediterranean Island, Journal of Travel Research 53 (5) pp. 610-624 SAGE
The article introduces an integrated market-segmentation and tourism yield estimation framework for inbound tourism. Conventional approaches to yield estimation based on country of origin segmentation and total expenditure comparisons do not provide sufficient detail, especially for mature destinations dominated by large single-country source markets. By employing different segmentation approaches along with Tourism Satellite Accounts and various yield estimates, this article estimates direct economic contribution for subsegments of the UK market on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Overall expenditure across segments varies greatly, as do the spending ratios in different categories. In the case of Cyprus, the most potential for improving economic contribution currently lies in increasing spending on ?food and beverages? and ?culture and recreation.? Mass tourism therefore appears to offer the best return per monetary unit spent. Conducting similar studies in other destinations could identify priority spending sectors and enable different segments to be targeted appropriately.
Turner R, Miller Graham, Gilbert David (2001) The role of UK charities and the tourism industry, Tourism Management 22 (5) pp. 463-472 ELSEVIER SCI LTD
This article presents three different ways in which the involvement of charities in tourism in the UK can be considered and what implications this may have for the industry. Those charities involved outside the industry seek to engage in tourism purely because of the fund-raising potential that it offers. These charities can achieve high profits from these activities yet are not directly concerned with the tourism industry. The second level of involvement with tourism concerns charities that can be seen to operate within the industry and offer travel to sites of concern for their members. Finally, charities that operate above the industry seek to influence the industry through tactics similar to those of pressure groups. The way that this final group raise funds to support their activities differs from the first two groups, however they are tied more closely to the tourism industry in that it represents their reason to exist. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Ail rights reserved.
Miller G, Kler BK, Tribe J (2006) Discover SCUBA. Experiencing Dive Destinations,
Miller G, Hudson S, Hodrien J (2006) Cause Related Marketing in Tourism, In: Cause Related Marketing pp. 141-150 ICFAI University Press
Miller G, Hudson S, Turner R (2005) Applying the Mystery Shopping Technique: The Case of Lunn Pol, In: Ritchie BW, Burns PM, Palmer CA, Palmer C (eds.), Tourism Research Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice pp. 119-130 CABI
This book aims to address this divide by integrating theory with practice through the inclusion of specific tourism research case studies alongside research.
Miller Graham, Akinci C, Walsh PR (2008) Changing Gears and Shifting Lanes: The Case of Duncton Plc, ECCH
Budeanu A, Moscardo G, Miller G, Ooi C-S (2013) Call for papers for a special volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production on tourism and sustainability, Journal of cleaner production 54 pp. 1-2 Elsevier
As an integral part of individual lives and one of the strongest inputs to global economies, tourism is affected by such social tensions and can play an important role in reducing them; therefore it offers an interesting challenge for serious discussions regarding tourism and regional sustainability. Tourism is traditionally associated with pleasure, leisure and escape from the ordinary world and is often contrasted with other, more serious economic activities such as manufacturing and extraction. As a result governments and planners often ignore tourism; furthermore, outside of the field of tourism academic research, the relationship between tourism and sustainability received too little attention considering that tourism can play an increasingly integral role in regional sustainable development processes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Miller G, Twining-Ward L (2005) Monitoring as an Approach to Sustainable Tourism, In: Buhalis D, Costa C (eds.), Tourism Dynamics, challenges and Tools: Present and Future Issues pp. 51-57 Butterworth-Heinemann
Miller G, Hudson S, Snaith T, Hudson P (2001) Travel Retailing: Switch- selling in the UK, In: Buhalis D, Laws E (eds.), Tourism Distribution Channels: Practices, Issues and Transformations pp. 172-184 Cengage Learning
As the first book to cover this key tourism subject, Tourism Distribution Channelsbrings together a range of contemporary case-study material, providing the
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism Torquay,
Bramwell B, Higham J, Lane B, Miller G (2016) Advocacy or neutrality? Disseminating research findings and driving change toward sustainable tourism in a fast changing world, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 24 (1) pp. 1-7 Channel View Publications
Miller G, Bennett O (2008) Challenges and Solutions for Commonwealth Tourism, In: Challenges and Solutions for Commonwealth Tourism
Miller G (2008) Sustainable Tourism,
Miller G, Twining-Ward L (2005) Monitoring for a sustainable tourism transition, CABI
This book considers how monitoring using indicators can assist tourism to make such a sustainability transition.
This paper presents the results of a two round Delphi survey conducted into expert opinion on the development of indicators to measure the movement of the tourism product at a company/resort level towards a position of greater or lesser sustainability. This research forms part of a wider project to develop indicators that consumers can use in the selection of their holidays and promote a more sustainable form of tourism. The results of this expert survey show considerable disagreement over ?sustainability? and where the borders of the concept exist. In addition, the research identified contrasting views over the use of qualitative versus quantitative indicators and the role that consumer pressure can play. The use of the Delphi technique to address complex and uncertain issues is also explored.
Miller Graham, Ritchie B, Dorrell H, Miller D (2003) Crisis Communication and Recovery for the Tourism Industry: Lessons from the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak in the UK, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 15 (3) pp. 199-216
Miller G, Di Domenico M (2004) From Pigs to Tourists: Farm Diversification,
This article examines the business choices made by independent farming families, when confronting the need to diversify away from traditional agricultural activities by starting farm-based tourism businesses. Based on interviews with farm family members who have set up tourism attractions on their farms, and drawing upon the concept of experiential authenticity, the article explores their self-conceptions of their family identities. In so doing, it addresses the choices and dilemmas facing farm families who attempt diversification through the tourism attraction route, and considers how this affects their attitudes towards more traditional farming activities. Using qualitative case study data, an empirically grounded framework is proposed that expresses the choices and challenges facing tourism entrepreneurial family farm members in the UK, through the conceptual lens of experiential authenticity.
Miller G, Hudson S, Getz D, Brown G (2004) The Future Role of Sporting Events: Evaluating the Impacts on Tourism, In: Weiermair K, Mathies C (eds.), The Tourism and Leisure Industry: Shaping the Future pp. 237-252 Routledge
Designed as essential reading for all leisure and tourism experts, this educational book analyzes and explains demographics, global supply and demand.
Miller G (2003) Consumerism in Sustainable Tourism: A Survey of UK Consumers, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 11 (1) pp. 17-39 Routledge
This article presents the results of a survey of tourism consumers from the Destinations Travel Show in the UK in 2000. Four hundred and eleven tourism consumers were interviewed over four days at the show on the type of information that they used in the selection of their holiday destination. This article posits that the power of the consumer can be a major force for progress towards greater sustainability by the tourism industry, acting as a rationale for change, which is often missing from more traditional planning, management or regulatory techniques. The research shows consumers are already making decisions based on environmental, social and economic quality for day-to-day products and are keen to transfer these habits to the purchase of tourism products. Recommendations are made, highlighting the need for the tourism industry to capitalise on this demand for a wider range of product information and so promote moves towards greater levels of sustainability in the industry.
Bramwell B, Higham JES, Lane B, Miller Graham (2016) Twenty-five years of sustainable tourism and the Journal of Sustainable Tourism: Looking back and moving forward, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 25 (1)
This editorial reviews sustainable tourism research as reflected in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism over the past twenty-five years, followed by specific consideration of more recent trends. It looks back in order to consider how sustainable tourism research, and its coverage in the Journal, has changed and developed, and is continuing to do so. It also uses the review to suggest ways in which the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, and research in this field, might usefully continue to move forward in the future to further increase its relevance, innovation and impact.
Hudson S, Miller Graham (2005) Ethical orientation and awareness of tourism students, JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS 62 (4) pp. 383-396 SPRINGER
Eichhorn VM, Buhalis D, Michopoulou E, Miller G (2005) Accessibility Market and Stakeholder Analysis, In: One-Stop-Shop for Accessible Tourism in Europe (OSSATE) Project Report
Scarles CE, Holmes K, Miller G, Tribe J (2008) Towards a conceptualisation of sustainable leisure,
Miller G, Hudson S, Hudson P (2006) The Role Of Research In Improving Tourism And Hospitality Services: Measuring Service Quality, In: Prideaux B, Moscardo G, Laws E (eds.), Managing tourism and hospitality services CABI
Printbegrænsninger: Der kan printes 10 sider ad gangen og max. 40 sider pr. session.
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Hadjikakou M, Chenoweth J, Miller G (2012) Estimating the direct and indirect water use of tourism in the eastern Mediterranean, Journal of Environmental Management
The impact of tourism activities on local water resources remains a largely understudied issue in environmental and sustainable tourism management. The aim of the paper is to present a simple methodology that allows an estimate of direct and indirect local water use associated with different holiday packages and to then discuss relevant management implications. This is explored through the creation of five illustrative examples of holidays to semi-arid eastern Mediterranean destinations: Cyprus (2), Turkey, Greece and Syria. Using available data on water use associated with different forms of travel, accommodation and tourist activities, indicative water footprints are calculated for each of the illustrative examples. Food consumption by tourists appears to have by far the most significant impact on the overall water footprint and this aspect of water use is explored in detail in the paper. The paper also suggests a way of employing the water footprint methodology along with import/export balance sheets of main food commodities to distinguish between the global and local pressure of tourism demand on water resources. Water resource use is likely to become an increasingly important issue in tourism management and must be considered alongside more established environmental concerns such as energy use, using methodologies that can capture direct as well as supply chain impacts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller Graham, Rathouse K, Scarles C, Holmes K, Tribe John (2010) Public understanding of sustainable tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 37 (3) pp. 627-645 Elsevier
If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism?s impact relative to day-to-day behaviour, feelings of disempowerment and an unwillingness to make significant changes to current tourism behaviour.
Miller G, Hudson S (2003) Best refereed paper award: How Should we Measure Service Quality in Tour Operating?, Proceedings of the International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators Conference
Miller G, Berno T (2006) Towards Sustainable Tourism: Moving Beyond Eco-tourism, In: Mebratu D, Mudacumura G, Haque MS (eds.), Sustainable Development Policy and Administration Marcel Dekker
Miller G, Ritchie B (2002) When Disaster Strikes: The Effect of Relying on Events for Rural Economies,
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2008) Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism,
Miller G, Hudson S (2006) Knowing the difference between right and wrong: The Response of Tourism Students to Ethical Dilemmas, Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism 6 (2) pp. 41-59
Hadjikakou M, Chenoweth Jonathan, Miller Graham (2013) Estimating the direct and indirect water use of tourism in the eastern Mediterranean, Journal of Environmental Management 114 pp. 548-556
The impact of tourism activities on local water resources remains a largely understudied issue in environmental and sustainable tourism management. The aim of the paper is to present a simple methodology that allows an estimate of direct and indirect local water use associated with different holiday packages and to then discuss relevant management implications. This is explored through the creation of five illustrative examples of holidays to semi-arid eastern Mediterranean destinations: Cyprus (2), Turkey, Greece and Syria. Using available data on water use associated with different forms of travel, accommodation and tourist activities, indicative water footprints are calculated for each of the illustrative examples. Food consumption by tourists appears to have by far the most significant impact on the overall water footprint and this aspect of water use is explored in detail in the paper. The paper also suggests a way of employing the water footprint methodology along with import/export balance sheets of main food commodities to distinguish between the global and local pressure of tourism demand on water resources. Water resource use is likely to become an increasingly important issue in tourism management and must be considered alongside more established environmental concerns such as energy use, using methodologies that can capture direct as well as supply chain impacts.
Eichhorn V, Miller Graham, Tribe John (2013) Tourism: a site of resistance strategies of individuals with a disability, Annals of Tourism Research 43 pp. 578-600 Elsevier
This research investigates resistance strategies employed by individuals with a disability, which remain unexplored at a theoretical and practical level. This lacuna is addressed by identifying and examining different strategies either enabling or preventing resistance. Linking resistance to identity positions, the study further juxtaposes individual and collective forms of resistance related to contextual differences between the everyday life and tourism. Findings highlight that a clear-cut dichotomy of strategies enabling or contrarily preventing resistance does not exist. Yet, while the everyday life leads to transformation by relying on a collective identity, tourism offers greater possibilities to develop a sense of self-identity, as highlighted by the strong denial to make use of specialised operators. This provides a locus for the industry to act upon.
Miller Graham, Bowen A (2006) Case Study: Hop Farm Country Park, ECCH UK ECCH UK
Haley AJ, Snaith T, Miller Graham (2005) Social impacts of tourism - A case study of Bath, UK, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH 32 (3) pp. 647-668 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Miller G, DiDomenico M (2007) Are Plastic Cows the Future for Farming? Implications of an Alternative Diversification Model, In: Tribe J, Airey D (eds.), Developments in tourism research pp. 21-32 Elsevier Science Ltd
Tourism research has come a long way since the first developments in the identification and delineation of a tourism subject area in the mid 1960s.
Miller Graham (2009) Tourism and Social Policy: Value of Social Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 36 (2) pp. 316-334 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Eichhorn VM, Buhalis D, Miller G, Michopoulou E (2006) Truly Inclusive? Accessibility Information Schemes for Disabled Tourists,
Miller G (2002) Keynote presentation: Sustainable Tourism and Consumer Demand from the UK Perspective,
Hudson S, Hudson P, Miller Graham (2004) The measurement of service quality in the tour operating sector: A methodological comparison, Journal of Travel Research 42 (3) pp. 305-312 Sage
Service quality in the tourism industry receives increasing attention in the literature, yet confusion still exists as to which measure offers the greatest validity. The two main research instruments are Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) and SERVQUAL. However, both measures have been questioned and research has introduced measures that multiply SERVQUAL by Importance, as well as a measure of just Performance (SERVPERF). This article assesses these four main methods of measuring customer service quality. The data were obtained in cooperation with a major U.K. tour operator. Of the respondents, 220 completed a questionnaire before departure on what elements were important to them and what their expectations were for these elements. Toward the end of their holiday, respondents were issued a second questionnaire measuring performance on the same elements. The research found that although there was variety in the rankings of the 13 different elements, there was no statistical difference between the four methodologies. The final section of this article considers the implications of this finding for tourism managers and future research in the area of service quality.
Buhalis D, Eichhorn VM, Michopoulou E, Miller G (2005) Strategy for Commercial Exploitation, Branding and Promotion (?eService Exploitation Plan?), In: One-Stop-Shop for Accessible Tourism in Europe (OSSATE) Project Report
Miller Graham (2001) Corporate Responsibility in the UK Tourism Industry, Tourism Management 22 (6) pp. 589-598 Elsevier
This paper represents part of a programme of research into the development of indicators that can be used to monitor movement of the tourism industry with reference to more sustainable positions. In order to determine the potential for implementing such indicators this paper asked senior representatives of the UK tourism industry what factors influenced the degree of responsibility shown by their organisation. The research also asked what factors respondents felt would trigger any change in the actions of tour operators in the future. The research reveals that while many in the industry see industry structure as the constraining force, the potential for market advantage or the fear of negative PR also determines company actions. The research utilised elite interviewing for 35 senior representatives of the UK tourism industry.
Hudson S, Miller Graham (2005) The responsible marketing of tourism: The case of Canadian Mountain Holidays, Tourism Management 26 (2) pp. 133-142 Elsevier
Heli-tourism represents one of the great dilemmas and conflicts between recreational enjoyment of the wilderness and the conservation of the fragile alpine and mountain areas where the activity takes place. The question of responsibility towards the environment is one, which tourism operators generally seem reluctant to accept but one operator that appears to have taken a proactive approach to environmental issues in mountain regions is heli-operator Canadian Mountain Holidays (CMH). This paper expands on the limited amount of research that exists on the complex relationship between tourism and the environment by applying a responsible marketing model to CMH. This model is grounded on previous literature in marketing, and strategic and environmental management. Interviews with key stakeholders, observational research, and content analysis of communication materials, were used to identify how near CMH is to finding a balance between responsible action and the communication of these activities.
Budeanu A, Miller G, Moscardo G, Ooi C-S (2016) Sustainable tourism, progress, challenges and opportunities: an introduction, Journal of cleaner production 111 pp. 285-294 Elsevier Sci. LTD
Miller G, Twining-Ward L (2003) Indicators of Sustainable Tourism,
Miller G, Hudson S, Getz D (2001) The Sponsorship of Major Events by Destinations: Evaluating the Impact on the Decision-Making Process of the Consumer, Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science World Marketing Congress on Global Marketing Issues at the Turn of the Millennium Volume X
Miller G, Holmes K, Scarles C, Tribe J (2009) Barriers to sustainable leisure, In: Caudwell J (eds.), Tourism and Leisure: Local communities and local cultures in the UK pp. 143-158 Leisure Studies Association
Miller G, Hudson S, Peloza J (2006) Approaches to Cause Related Marketing, In: Cause Related Marketing pp. 41-51 ICFAI University Press
Minnaert L, Maitland R, Miller Graham (2006) Social tourism and its ethical foundations, Tourism, Culture and Communication 7 (1) pp. 7-17
Although social tourism has been seen in a number of countries as having potential to counter social exclusion, formulating a definition for the term is difficult. "Social tourism" is used to describe a variety of initiatives for a variety of different social groups. These range from holidays for children from low-income backgrounds, through improving accessibility in hotels, to offering ecological holidays. This article discusses the definitions of "social tourism," distinguishing host-related and visitor-related forms, and aims to clarify its potential value in combating social exclusion. It does so by examining the ethical values underlying the way social tourism is defined and suggesting a theoretical framework for the effects of social tourism. Some ethical views of society place an a priori moral duty on the stronger strata to support the weaker. Others do not judge the support of the weaker strata as an a priori dominant ethical principle, and judge the welfare of the state by the opportunity of all its strata. Ethical positions that see stronger strata as having a moral duty to support the weaker are more likely to be supportive toward both host-related and visitor-related social tourism. Those that do not will probably support host-related social tourism, but will support visitor-related social tourism, if publicly funded, only if it can demonstrate benefits for the whole of society. In Western liberal democracies where this is a prevailing view, visitor-related social tourism might justify public expenditure as a potential tool to combat social exclusion. It can be seen as a merit good if it improves excluded peoples' handicapping characteristics, through, for example, beneficial effects in health, self-esteem, and improvement of family relationships. However, there is little research to test its effectiveness in achieving these outcomes. Further research is required to evaluate whether social tourism can have a significant role in combating social exclusion, and thus justify support from public expenditure. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Miller Graham, Kirk E (2002) The Disability Discrimination Act: Time for the Stick?, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 10 (1) pp. 82-88
Miller Graham (2008) Perceptions of the Ethical Climate in the Korean Tourism Industry, Journal of Busines Ethics 82 (4) pp. 941-954 SPRINGER
Scarles CE, Miller G, Rathouse K, Holmes K, Tribe J (2007) Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism, In: Public Understanding of Sustainable Leisure and Tourism Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Stevenson N, Airey David, Miller Graham (2009) Complexity Theory and Tourism Policy Research, International Journal of Tourism Policy 2 (3) pp. 206-220 Inderscience
Miller G, Hudson S (1995) Ethical Considerations in Sustainable Tourism, In: Theobald WF (eds.), Global Tourism: The Next Decade pp. 248-266 Butterworth-Heinemann
This text draws together current thinking and practice in the tourism industry and allows readers to examine critical issues and problems.
Miller G, Ritchie B (2004) Sports Tourism in Crisis: Exploring the Impact of the Foot and Mouth Crisis on Sports Tourism in the UK, In: Ritchie B (eds.), Sports Tourism pp. 206-225 Channel View Publications
Miller G, Hudson S, Snaith T, Hudson P (2000) Directional Selling and the Distribution of Travel Products: An Investigation into Travel Agency Recommendations, In: Robinson M, Long P, Sharpely R, Swarbroke J (eds.), Management, marketing and the political economy of travel and tourism pp. 229-240
Adcroft Andrew, Dhaliwal S, Miller Graham, Walsh P (2007) "Guest editorial", Management Decision Special Issue:
Theory and practice, strategy and sustainability.,
Management Decision 45 (1) pp. 5-9 EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED
The concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and employee engagement are growing in importance, both in academia and in practise. Research suggests that there is a strong correlation between the two with CSR linked to organisational advantages, including recruitment, retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifically to employees. Furthermore, with employee engagement a well-established antecedent to obtaining objectives, employees are an integral stakeholder group in CSR adoption and dissemination. However, despite specific benefits of CSR relating to employees and their importance as stakeholders, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organisational level. Within research and practise of CSR, the organisation is often treated as a ?black box?, failing to account for individual differences and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is a theoretical challenge shared by stakeholder theory, which often suggests internal homogeneity within stakeholder groups despite diversity of objectives and stakes in the organisation.
The primary objective of the study is to determine why employees engage and disengage from CSR interventions within the context of multinational hospitality and tourism organisations. In order to fully examine the subjective experience of employees engaging in organisational CSR, a qualitative methodology is employed. Data was drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality case study organisations and involved extensive interview data collected from CSR leaders, engaged and disengaged employees, and industry professionals. This exploratory research subsequently contributes to the understanding of employee engagement in CSR by identifying opportunities and barriers for individual employee engagement in corporate responsibility policy and initiatives.
This research also contributes to emerging evidence within the literature that suggests disengagement is not the counterpart of engagement. Having studied individual differences in CSR engagement, findings suggests that the engagement and disengagement are not opposites and unique antecedents to both engagement and disengagement are identified as arising at the personal, activity, and organisational level. A multilevel analysis subsequently contributes to the advancement of employee CSR engagement understanding.
Critically, it is proposed that employees are situated along a spectrum of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged, with a key contribution of this research being a model that addresses variation in individual engagement and disengagement. Recognising that employees accept, interpret and operationalise corporate responsibility differently, this study draws on social identity theory to account for individual differences amongst employees. While there are some common drivers of engagement across the entire spectrum of employees, differences also exist depending on the degree to which employees support CSR within their organisations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary depending on employees? existing level of broader engagement include: observed benefits of participation, CSR intervention design, organisational culture, employee CSR perceptions, and CSR leadership. Employee CSR engagement is also identified as being driven by the type of CSR intervention, communication, individual values, and person-organisation fit.
Kantenbacher Joseph, Hanna Paul, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline, Yang Jingjing (2017) Consumer priorities: What would people sacrifice in order to fly on holidays?, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor & Francis
Holidaying is an important leisure pursuit and, for a growing minority, air travel is the default mode for holiday mobility. However, the current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. Efforts to motivate reductions in consumption of holiday air travel must contend with the embeddedness of flying as a social practice and should be informed by an understanding of how people prioritize air travel for holidays relative to other forms of consumption. Using data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults, this exploratory study uses a novel method to assess the willingness of individuals to sacrifice holiday air travel relative to their willingness to make changes to their daily consumption patterns. We find a greater readiness to undertake additional expense (of time, effort, or money) than to retrench incumbent consumption patterns in order to fly for holidays. Reluctance to sacrifice for the sake of flying was greatest with regards to those items that are most associated with the basic infrastructure of modern life (e.g., mobile phones). Examining product-specific pro-environmental sacrifice in relative terms, our findings suggest that voluntary reductions in flying is more plausible than other modes of pro-environmental sacrifice.
Ethical entrepreneurship and by extension wider best practice are noble goals for the future of tourism. However, questions arise which concepts, such as values motivations, actions and challenges underpin these goals. This thesis seeks to answers these questions and in so doing develop an applied ethics analysis for best practice entrepreneurs in tourism. The research is situated in sustainable tourism, which is ethically very complex and has thus far been dominated by the economic, social and environmental triple bottom line thinking. This research takes a different approach by applying a value-behavioural lens to best practice entrepreneurship. In so doing, the focus shifts from impacts and consequences towards those values and actions that determine best practice entrepreneurship.

The originality of the research is grounded in a two-pronged research strategy, combining archival research and methods from Personal Construct Theory through the process of iteration. Both strategies are currently underused in tourism research. This constitutes an important methodological contribution. Furthermore, a unique set of archival data in the form of Tourism for Tomorrow Awards applications and judges? reports enhances the originality of the findings. Archival data was complemented by semi-structured interviews with so-called ethical tourism entrepreneurs. A mix of source and method triangulation has added significant rigour to this research.

The key findings are that best practice in tourism is ethically very complex, which suggests a form of ethical pragmatism. Second, a dissonance exists between motivations for best practice, which are value-pluralistic, and ethical judgement making, which is more principle-based. Third, a further dissonance was identified between admittance/awareness and action for issues of misrepresentation, whereas no dissonance was found for relationship or distribution dilemmas. This thesis has combined three strands of research: business ethics, entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism. This original approach lays ground for change towards a more ethically-bound entrepreneurial practice in tourism.

Higham J, Miller Graham (2017) Transforming societies and transforming tourism:
Sustainable tourism in times of change,
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 26 (1) pp. 1-8 Taylor & Francis
Kantenbacher Joseph, Hanna P, Cohen Scott, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2017) Public attitudes about climate policy options for aviation, Environmental Science & Policy 81 pp. 46-53 Elsevier
The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation?s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.
Hejjas Kelsy, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2018) "It's Like Hating Puppies!" Employee Disengagement and Corporate
Social Responsibility,
Journal of Business Ethics Springer Verlag
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been linked with numerous organizational advantages, including recruitment,
retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifcally to employees. However, despite specifc benefts of CSR
relating to employees and their importance as a stakeholder group, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has been paid to
the individual level of analysis with CSR primarily being studied at the organizational level. Both research and practice of
CSR have largely treated the individual organization as a ?black box,? failing to account for individual diferences amongst
employees and the resulting variations in antecedents to CSR engagement or disengagement. This is further exacerbated by
the tendency in stakeholder theory to homogenize priorities within a single stakeholder group. In response, utilizing case
study data drawn from three multinational tourism and hospitality organizations, combined with extensive interview data
collected from CSR leaders, industry professionals, engaged, and disengaged employees, this exploratory research produces
a fner-grained understanding of employees as a stakeholder group, identifying a number of opportunities and barriers for
individual employee engagement in CSR interventions. This research proposes that employees are situated along a spectrum
of engagement from actively engaged to actively disengaged. While there are some common drivers of engagement across
the entire spectrum of employees, diferences also exist depending on the degree to which employees, rather than senior
management, support corporate responsibility within their organizations. Key antecedents to CSR engagement that vary
depending on employees? existing level of broader engagement include organizational culture, CSR intervention design,
employee CSR perceptions, and the observed benefts of participation.
Atzori R, Fyall A, Miller Graham (2018) Tourist responses to climate change: Potential impacts and adaptation in Florida's coastal destinations, Tourism Management 69 pp. 12-22 Elsevier
Florida, one of the world's most visited tourist destinations, holds one of the most vulnerable positions as a result of climate change. Through a quantitative survey, this study gathered the responses of 432 tourists who had previously visited Florida, with a hypothetical scenario of changed climatic conditions. The examination of the tourist perspective showed the presence of ample sunshine and factors related to beach comfort as the reasons for choosing the destination. In a scenario were beaches disappear and tropical diseases become more widespread, the majority of respondents stated they would choose a different destination. However, respondents would reconsider their intentions if adaptation measures such as reduced prices, coastal habitat conservation and measures to protect beaches from erosion and coastal areas from inundation were in place. The findings suggest that seasonal and geographic shifts in tourism demand could be mitigated by the implementation of adaptation measures at the destination level.
Eger C, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2018) Gender and capacity building: A multi-layered study of empowerment, World Development 106 pp. 207-219 Elsevier
This study shifts the focus from building individual capacities to understanding the relational acts
through which empowerment and education acquire their value and meaning. Conceptually, the paper
employs social cognitive theory to explore the interplay between social learning, relational agency,
and culture. This interplay builds the foundation for the development of an empowerment model of
capacity building that proposes an interlinked system of community capacity and empowerment dimensions.
The model is explored in the context of the Education for All project in the High Atlas Mountains of
Morocco. The research combines participant observation, qualitative interviews and visual methods to
provide rich insights to situated knowledges of learning and empowerment. Findings reveal that the
meaning of education equates to the capacity to aspire to a different life. This problematizes the way gender
and gender relations are understood in the rural Berber villages. The girls? education unsettles the
repeating cycle of female educational deprivation, and leads them to become role models within their
communities. This instills the image of educated women in community consciousness, leading to an
incipient change in perceptions of what girls and women can be and do
Tussyadiah Iis, Li Shujun, Miller Graham (2019) Privacy protection in tourism: Where we are and where we should be heading for, In: Pesonen J., Neidhardt J. (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism pp. 278-290 Springer Verlag
The link between information privacy concerns and privacy behaviours has been a focus of extensive investigation in various disciplines. However, little attention has been devoted to this issue in the tourism literature. Spurred by technological development and shaped by tourism-related environments, emerging privacy issues call for comprehensive yet context-specific studies to ensure tourists are making beneficial privacy choices. This paper first presents a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art research on privacy concerns and behaviours. Then, it suggests a list of overarching research priorities, merging social and technical aspects of privacy protection approaches as they apply to tourism. The priorities include research to measure tourists? privacy concerns, explore specific biases in tourists? privacy decisions, experiment with privacy nudges, and explore how to integrate privacy nudges in system design. Thus, this paper contributes to guiding the direction of future research on privacy protection in tourism.
Tussyadiah Iis, Li Shujun, Miller Graham (2019) Privacy protection in tourism: Where we are and where we should be heading for, Proceedings of The 26th Annual eTourism Conference, 30 Jan - 01 Feb, 2019. Nicosia, Cyprus Springer Verlag
The link between information privacy concerns and privacy behaviours has been a focus of extensive investigation in various disciplines. However, little attention has been devoted to this issue in the tourism literature. Spurred by technological development and shaped by tourism-related environments, emerging privacy issues call for comprehensive yet context-specific studies to ensure tourists are making beneficial privacy choices. This paper first presents a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art research on privacy concerns and behaviours. Then, it suggests a list of overarching research priorities, merging social and technical aspects of privacy protection approaches as they apply to tourism. The priorities include research to measure tourists? privacy concerns, explore specific biases in tourists? privacy decisions, experiment with privacy nudges, and explore how to integrate privacy nudges in system design. Thus, this paper contributes to guiding the direction of future research on privacy protection in tourism.
Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Perceived impacts of artificial intelligence and responses to positive behaviour change intervention, In: Pesonen J., Neidhardt J. (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism pp. 359-370 Springer Verlag
Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have a great potential to aid not only in promoting tourism products and services, but also in influencing responsible travel behaviour to support sustainability. The effectiveness of using AI for positive behaviour change interventions depends on consumers? attitudes toward AI. This study found three underlying views of AI impacts: Beneficial AI, Destructive AI, and Risky AI. Based on these, three consumer segments were identified: The Laggards, The Aficionados, and The Realists. The first two segments hold opposing views: the former averaging higher in negative impacts, while the latter in positive impacts of AI. The Realists are aware of both benefits and risks of AI. These segments differ in their intention to follow recommendations from AI. It is suggested that mainstream consumers, those belonging to The Realists, are likely to respond positively to AI systems recommending responsible behaviour, signifying the positive role of AI in sustainable tourism.
Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Perceived impacts of artificial intelligence and responses to positive behaviour change intervention, Proceedings of The 26th Annual eTourism Conference, 30 Jan - 01 Feb, 2019. Nicosia, Cyprus Springer Verlag
Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have a great potential to aid not only in promoting tourism products and services, but also in influencing responsible travel behaviour to support sustainability. The effectiveness of using AI for positive behaviour change interventions depends on consumers? attitudes toward AI. This study found three underlying views of AI impacts: Beneficial AI, Destructive AI, and Risky AI. Based on these, three consumer segments were identified: The Laggards, The Aficionados, and The Realists. The first two segments hold opposing views: the former averaging higher in negative impacts, while the latter in positive impacts of AI. The Realists are aware of both benefits and risks of AI. These segments differ in their intention to follow recommendations from AI. It is suggested that mainstream consumers, those belonging to The Realists, are likely to respond positively to AI systems recommending responsible behaviour, signifying the positive role of AI in sustainable tourism.
This research critiques the relationship between tour operators and destination communities with a key focus on capacity building and gender (dis)empowerment in the context of education. Capacity building processes are studied employing social learning theory to enable an interconnected investigation of different capacity building levels and the ways in which these influence and are influenced by gender. The research critiques tour operators? selection of destination projects, analysing the intended and unintended effects of an education project for girls situated in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. A dialogue between theory, context and partial perspectives is established through the adoption of an Islamic feminist framework, challenging dominant understandings and fostering the creation of differences from within.
Using the case of the Education for All project, findings reveal that caring at a distance is a crucial element of responsible action in tourism. Tour operators? investment in destination projects emerges primarily through an ethic of care between them and destination communities, with multiple layers of shared, performed and displaced responsibility underpinning this business practise. However, with no formal frameworks in existence, tour operators? selection of projects depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional with the personal, with trust being positioned as a central driver of these informal processes.
With regard to destination communities, lived experience and informal education are identified as core components of capacity building processes. Friendship is equated to the meaning of education, with empowerment being re-negotiated as learning to be responsible for the self. This understanding challenges local interpretations of equality based on gendered notions of respect. Women?s increasing sense of responsibility, confidence and competence has the potential to problematize relations of (dis)respect and the role and position of women within society. Two recommendations to aid in this process were developed: anti-gossip campaigns and mentoring schemes.
Eger Claudia, Scarles Caroline, Miller Graham (2019) Caring at a distance: a model of business care, trust and displaced responsibility, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 27 (1) pp. pp 34-51 Taylor and Francis
This paper advances an ethic of care for sustainable tourism. The study develops an original business care model that captures the dynamic interrelationships between care, responsibility and trust in corporate philanthropy. The model provides a novel perspective on how responsible business practices are formed across distance by shedding light on the different layers of responsibility and trust that characterize business?stakeholder relationships. The model is evaluated using the example of tour operators? engagement in the Education for All project in Morocco. Findings show that tour operators? commitment to caring at a distance becomes part of shared, displaced and performed articulations of responsibility. While performed responsibility acknowledges the embodiment of care, displaced responsibility shifts the responsibility to select, perform and/or oversee acts of care to stakeholders in destinations. Shared responsibility requires attention to the ways in which meanings and practices of care are co-constructed in corporate philanthropy with trust functioning as a central driver of these processes.
Winchenbach Anke, Hanna Paul, Miller Graham (2019) Rethinking decent work: the value of dignity in tourism employment, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor and Francis
This paper focuses on establishing a conceptual grounding for the value of dignity in tourism employment for achieving decent work as part of the sustainable development agenda. Dignity is widely acknowledged as a key driver for ?good? work, but little conceptual grounding on the value of dignity in tourism employment has been established. This paper will contribute to the theoretical debate on sustainable tourism by providing a critical review of frameworks for decent work, workplace dignity (or its absence), and understandings of identity. We will explore how the context and conditions of tourism employment are conducive (or not) for offering dignified and sustainable employment. This paper makes two original contributions to knowledge. First, it introduces a psychosocial understanding of dignity in tourism employment, reflecting its deeply rooted individual, organisational, societal and policy aspects, and recognising the actors involved. Second, the critical importance of dignity in tourism employment for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is discussed, with future research directions identified.
Font Xavier, Higham James, Miller Graham, Pourkhimi Shahab (2019) Research engagement, impact and sustainable tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 27 (1) pp. 1-11 Taylor and Francis
In this editorial, we reflect on how the Journal of Sustainable Tourism can contribute towards sustainable tourism researchers achieving more impact with their research. We propose some changes that can be tested in, and introduced gradually and collaboratively with, the community of the editorial board and authors. To support impactful mind sets, we will promote research that reflects diverse academic communities. To promote impactful research topics, we will encourage authors to frame their submitted articles against the Sustainable Development Goals, while research that is time sensitive will be fast tracked so it can contribute to current debates. To promote impactful methodologies, we shall favour articles that use mixed methods and action research, and those that conduct longitudinal, experimental, and evaluative research. To promote impactful partnerships, we will favour multidisciplinary approaches and research that has been co-created with stakeholders. To promote impactful communication and dissemination, we will continue to build an online community on social media for sustainable tourism researchers, we will promote articles in social media to raise their visibility, and we will provide free access to those articles that are deemed to have the greatest potential to impact positively on society.
Tussyadiah Iis, Miller Graham (2019) Nudged by a Robot: Responses to Agency and Feedback, Annals of Tourism Research Elsevier Masson
The availability of always-on digital agents in hotel rooms, providing agency and surveillance cues, presents opportunities for behavioral interventions. This study tested the effectiveness of agency and social feedback on pro-environmental behavior intention of hotel consumers. A survey with scenario-based experimental design was distributed to US and UK travelers (N=621). Results suggest that no one type of agent was more effective than the other in influencing pro-environmental behavior intention. Social feedback was found effective when given by a virtual assistant. Perception of another agent being ?present? in the room, even when invisible, is sufficient to induce normative behavior. This enriches literature on surveillance cues and behavior change and contributes to finding new ways of leveraging emerging technologies to foster sustainability.
Eichhorn V, Miller Graham, Michopoulou E, Buhalis D (2008) Enabling Access to Tourism through Information Schemes, Annals of Tourism Research 35 (1) pp. 189-210 Elsevier
Embedded in information search theory, this paper investigates accessibility schemes as communication sources and their potential to fulfill the informational needs of tourists with disabilities. Five interrelated need components are identified: information richness and reliability, appropriate sources, communication tools, and customer-oriented services. The results show that, despite complying with the reliability function at the regional and national level, the existing schemes studied partly comply with informational requirements. Limitations originate from high fragmentation and lack of geographical reach. To achieve information satisfaction and fully enable access to tourism for people with disabilities, a more sophisticated understanding of differential needs and appropriate sources is regarded as crucial.
Eger C, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2017) Corporate Philanthropy Through the Lens of Ethical Subjectivity, Journal of Business Ethics pp. 1-13 Springer
The dynamic organisational processes in businesses dilute the boundaries between the individual, organisational, and societal drivers of corporate philanthropy. This creates a complex framework in which charitable project selection occurs. Using the example of European tour operators, this study investigates the mechanisms through which companies invest in charitable projects in overseas destinations. Inextricably linked to this is the increasing contestation by local communities as to how they are able to engage effectively with tourism in order to realise the benefits tourism development can bring. This research furthers such debates by exploring the processes through which tour operators facilitate community development through charitable giving. Findings show, with no formal frameworks in existence, project selection depends upon emergent strategies that connect the professional with the personal, with trust being positioned as a central driver of these informal processes. Discretionary responsibilities are reworked through business leaders? commitment to responsible business practises and the ethical subjectivity guiding these processes.
This article examines the business choices made by independent farming families, when confronting the need to diversify away from traditional agricultural activities by starting farm-based tourism businesses. Based on interviews with farm family members who have set up tourism attractions on their farms, and drawing upon the concept of experiential authenticity, the article explores their self-conceptions of their family identities. In so doing, it addresses the choices and dilemmas facing farm families who attempt diversification through the tourism attraction route, and considers how this affects their attitudes towards more traditional farming activities. Using qualitative case study data, an empirically grounded framework is proposed that expresses the choices and challenges facing tourism entrepreneurial family farm members in the UK, through the conceptual lens of experiential authenticity.
Power S., Di Domenico M., Miller Graham (2019) Risk-types and coping mechanisms for ethical tourism entrepreneurs: A new conceptual framework, Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications
Risk is a widely accepted entrepreneurial construct and entrepreneurship is a key feature of the tourism industry. Yet, investigating types of risks and calls for research on ethical entrepreneurship in tourism have largely been neglected. This research provides an original contribution to academia about risk-types and subsequent coping mechanisms as faced by ethical tourism entrepreneurs. Using methods from Personal Construct Theory, 15 in-depth interviews with self-defined ethical tourism entrepreneurs were conducted. An existing consumer risk-framework (monetary, functional, social and psychological risk) provided a priori themes for analysis. Through constant comparison of data, different forms of intelligence (survival, system, emotional and spiritual) have emerged as coping mechanisms. These in vivo themes have been paired with risk-types to develop an original conceptual framework for risk faced by ethical tourism entrepreneurs. The implications of this framework are significant in providing support to nascent entrepreneurs, government start-up initiatives and entrepreneurial incubator programs.
Scarles CE, Holmes K, Miller Graham (2009) Barriers to Sustainable Leisure, In: Cauldwell J (eds.), Tourism and Leisure: Local Communities and Local Cultures in the UK
Grau O, Hilton A, Kilner J, Miller Graham, Sargeant T, Starck J (2007) A free-viewpoint video system for visualization of sport scenes, SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal 116 (5-6) pp. 213-219 Soc Motion Picture TV
Di Domenico M, Miller Graham (2007) Are plastic cows the future for farming? Implications of an alternative diversification model, In: Tribe J, Airey D (eds.), Tourism Research: new directions, challenges and applications (Developments in tourism research) pp. 21-32 Elsevier Science Ltd
This book aims to be a showcase for cutting edge research offering a high-edited selection of the best paper submitted to the 2006 tourism conference at the ...
Sanders TAB, Lewis F, Slaughter S, Griffin BA, Griffin M, Davies I, Millward DJ, Cooper JA, Miller Graham (2006) Effect of varying the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids by increasing the dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, or both on fibrinogen and clotting factors VII and XII in persons aged 45-70 y: the OPTILIP Study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 84 (3) pp. 513-522 AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION
Hadjikakou M, Miller Graham, Chenoweth Jonathan, Druckman Angela, Zoumides C (2015) A comprehensive framework for comparing water use intensity across different tourist types, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23 (10) pp. 1445-1467 Taylor & Francis
© 2015 Taylor & Francis Tourism products vary in their direct and indirect (supply chain) water use, as well as in their economic contribution. Hence, water-scarce destinations require a method to estimate and compare water use intensity (water use in relation to economic output) for different kinds of tourist products in order to optimise their tourism offering. The present study develops an original framework that integrates segmentation with an environmentally extended input?output (EEIO) framework based on detailed tourism expenditure data and tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) in order to quantify the total (direct and indirect) economic impact and water use for multiple tourism segments. To demonstrate the rigour of the methodology, it is applied to the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The results show that cheaper forms of tourism tend to have a significantly lower total water use and, depending on the economic impact indicator of interest, may have above-average economic contribution per unit of expenditure. The proposed framework provides a significant step towards achieving sustainable water use through destination-specific estimates of water use intensity which take into consideration segment-specific attributes. It is envisaged that this could eventually lead to customised interventions for diverse tourism market segments.
Griffin MD, Sanders TAB, Davies IG, Morgan LM, Millward DJ, Lewis F, Slaughter S, Cooper JA, Miller Graham, Griffin BA (2006) Effects of altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids on insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein size, and postprandial lipemia in men and postmenopausal women aged 45-70 y: the OPTILIP Study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 84 (6) pp. 1290-1298 AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION
Grau O, Hilton Adrian, Kilner J, Miller Graham, Sargeant T, Starck J (2006) A Free-Viewpoint Video System for Visualisation of Sports Scenes, International Broadcast Convention Septem
Miller Graham, Stevenson N, Airey David (2009) Complexity Theory and Tourism Policy Research, International Journal of Tourism Policy Research 2 (3) pp. 206-220
Kantenbacher Joseph, Hanna Paul, Cohen Scott, Miller Graham, Scarles Caroline (2017) Public Attitudes about Policy Options for Aviation. Environmental Science and Policy, Environmental Science and Policy 81 pp. 46-53 Elsevier
The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation?s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.
Miller Graham, Hilton Adrian (2007) Safe Hulls, IET European Conference on Visual Media Production
The visual hull is widely used as a proxy for novel view synthesis in computer vision. This paper introduces the safe hull, the first visual hull reconstruction technique to produce a surface containing only foreground parts. A theoretical basis underlies this novel approach which, unlike any previous work, can also identify phantom volumes attached to real objects. Using an image-based method, the visual hull is constructed with respect to each real view and used to identify safe zones in the original silhouettes. The safe zones define volumes known to only contain surface corresponding to a real object. The zones are used in a second reconstruction step to produce a surface without phantom volumes. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for improving surface shape and scene realism, and its advantages over heuristic techniques.
Miller Graham, Twining-Ward L, Bakker M, Carbone G, Duka T, Farrell B, Font X, Jack E, Tapper R (2005) Monitoring for a sustainable tourism transition: The challenge of developing and using indicators, Monitoring for a Sustainable Tourism Transition: The Challenge of Developing and Using Indicators pp. 1-324
Sustainable tourism is not a static target, but a dynamic process of change, a transition. This book considers how monitoring using indicators can assist tourism to make such a sustainability transition. It encourages the reader to view tourism from a broad, interdisciplinary perspective and draws on material from a wide range of sources. The book explains why monitoring is important for different groups of stakeholders; public and private sector, NGOs and communities. It also examines important monitoring considerations such as what and where to measure, how much will monitoring cost and how the data can be presented. The book puts particular emphasis on indicator use and implementation. It highlights the process and techniques to develop and use indicators and then provides clear and detailed examples of monitoring in practice around the globe at different geographic scales. © G.A. Miller and L. Twining-Ward 2005. All rights reserved.
Miller Graham, Hilton Adrian, Starck J (2005) Interactive Free-viewpoint Video, IEEE European Conf. on Visual Media Production pp. 50-59
Smith RD, Kelly CNM, Fielding BA, Hauton D, Silva KDRR, Nydahl MC, Miller Graham, Williams CM (2003) Long-term monounsaturated fatty acid diets reduce platelet aggregation in healthy young subjects, BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 90 (3) pp. 597-606 C A B I PUBLISHING
Starck J, Miller Graham, Hilton Adrian (2006) Volumetric stereo with silhouette and feature constraints, British Machine Vision Conference pp. 1189-1198
This paper presents a novel volumetric reconstruction technique that combines shape-from-silhouette with stereo photo-consistency in a global optimisation that enforces feature constraints across multiple views. Human shape reconstruction is considered where extended regions of uniform appearance, complex self-occlusions and sparse feature cues represent a challenging problem for conventional reconstruction techniques. A unified approach is introduced to first reconstruct the occluding contours and left-right consistent edge contours in a scene and then incorporate these contour constraints in a global surface optimisation using graph-cuts. The proposed technique maximises photo-consistency on the surface, while satisfying silhouette constraints to provide shape in the presence of uniform surface appearance and edge feature constraints to align key image features across views.
Miller Graham, Hilton Adrian (2006) Exact View-dependent Visual-hulls, ICPR pp. 107-111
Miller Graham, Starck JR, Hilton Adrian (2006) Projective Surface Refinement for Free-Viewpoint Video, IET European Conference on Visual Media Production pp. 153-162
This paper introduces a novel method of surface refinement for free-viewpoint video of dynamic scenes. Unlike previous approaches, the method presented here uses both visual hull and silhouette contours to constrain refinement of viewdependent depth maps from wide baseline views. A technique for extracting silhouette contours as rims in 3D from the view-dependent visual hull (VDVH) is presented. A new method for improving correspondence is introduced, where refinement of the VDVH is posed as a global problem in projective ray space. Artefacts of global optimisations are reduced by incorporating rims as constraints. Real time rendering of virtual views in a free-viewpoint video system is achieved using an image+depth representation for each real view. Results illustrate the high quality of rendered views achieved through this refinement technique.