My research project
Development Minerals as a catalyst for poverty alleviation and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa
Matondo Estrela Garcia Cardoso is a Postgraduate Researcher at the Department of Business Transformation, Surrey Business School, UK. She holds an MSc in Financial Services. Management and MBA, both from the University of Surrey. She carries out research that explores the impact of development minerals in Sub-Saharan Africa, exploring specifically how, if properly harnessed, they can catalyse growth and development in the region. Ms Cardoso is currently investigating how revenue from development minerals assist vulnerable groups in Angola, particularly households headed by women.
Sustainable Development Goals, economic growth, Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining, Good Governance, Trade, Policy Development, Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola
This chapter reflects critically on the impacts of moves made to date in sub-Saharan Africa to encourage people engaged in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) – low-tech, labour-intensive mineral extraction and processing – to form cooperatives. Whilst the pressures applied by host governments, international NGOs and industry bodies on the region’s ASM operators to organize themselves have been purposeful, pursued with a view to establishing more visible, monitorable structures at sites (points of production), compliance with newly-introduced standards and guidelines for cooperatives has proved burdensome for most. The moves made have complicated further what are already costly and bureaucratic procedures that prospective licensees must follow to formalize their activities. Most have targeted gold, diamonds, coloured gemstones and the 3Ts (tin, tungsten and tantalum), for which stringent criteria around responsible sourcing and transparency are now enshrined in a host of regulations and codes of practice across the OECD. The view here is that in sub-Saharan Africa, individuals engaged in ASM should be encouraged to form cooperatives but that such a strategy is best suited for ‘development minerals’, for which there is considerable local demand and established markets. Prioritizing ‘development minerals’ in this work would go a long way toward rewriting an ASM cooperative narrative in sub-Saharan Africa which is ineffective and no longer inspires.