We present a novel method to quantify the ecophysiological effects of changes in CO2 concentration during the reconstruction of climate changes from fossil pollen assemblages. The method does not depend on any particular vegetation model. Instead, it makes use of general equations from ecophysiology and hydrology that link moisture index (MI) to transpiration and the ratio of leaf-internal to ambient CO2 (χ). Statistically reconstructed MI values are corrected post facto for effects of CO2 concentration. The correction is based on the principle that e, the rate of water loss per unit carbon gain, should be inversely related to effective moisture availability as sensed by plants. The method involves solving a non-linear equation that relates e to MI, temperature and CO2 concentration via the Fu-Zhang relation between evapotranspiration and MI, Monteith’s empirical relationship between vapour pressure deficit and evapotranspiration, and recently developed theory that predicts the response of χ to vapour pressure deficit and temperature. The solution to this equation provides a correction term for MI. The numerical value of the correction depends on the reconstructed MI. It is slightly sensitive to temperature, but primarily sensitive to CO2 concentration. Under low LGM CO2 concentration the correction is always positive, implying that LGM climate was wetter than it would seem from vegetation composition. A statistical reconstruction of last glacial maximum (LGM, 21±1kyr BP) palaeoclimates, based on a new compilation of modern and LGM pollen assemblage data from Australia, is used to illustrate the method in practice. Applying the correction brings pollen-reconstructed LGM moisture availability in southeastern Australia better into line with palaeohydrological estimates of LGM climate.
Advances in monitoring technology allow blood pressure waveforms to be collected at sampling frequencies of 250-1000Hz for long time periods. However, much of the raw data are under analysed. Heart rate variability (HRV) methods, in which beat-to-beat interval lengths are extracted and analysed, have been extensively studied, However, this approach discards the majority of the raw data. Objective: Our aim is to detect changes in the shape of the waveform in long streams of blood pressure data. Approach: Our approach involves extracting key features from large complex datasets by generating a reconstructed attractor in a three-dimensional phase space using delay coordinates from a window of the entire raw waveform data. The naturally occurring baseline variation is removed by projecting the attractor onto a plane from which new quantitative measures are obtained. The time window is moved through the data to give a collection of signals which relate to various aspects of the waveform shape. Main results: This approach enables visualisation and quantification of changes in the waveform shape and has been applied to blood pressure data collected from conscious unrestrained mice and to human blood pressure data. The interpretation of the attractor measures is aided by the analysis of simple artificial waveforms. Significance: We have developed and analysed a new method for analysing blood pressure data that uses all of the waveform data and hence can detect changes in the waveform shape that HRV methods cannot, which is confirmed with an example, and hence our method goes "beyond HRV".
There is a need to understand the water dynamics of alkaline membrane fuel cells undervarious operating conditions to create electrodes that enable high performance and stable,long-term operation. Here we show, via operando neutron imaging and operando micro X-raycomputed tomography, visualizations of the spatial and temporal distribution of liquid waterin operating cells. We provide direct evidence for liquid water accumulation at the anode,which causes severe ionomer swelling and performance loss, as well as cell dryoutfrom undesirably low water content in the cathode. We observe that the operating conditionsleading to the highest power density during polarization are not generally the conditions thatallow for long-term stable operation. This observation leads to new catalyst layer designs andgas diffusion layers. This study reports alkaline membrane fuel cells that can be operatedcontinuously for over 1000 h at 600 mA cm−2with voltage decay rate of only 32-μVh−1–the best-reported durability to date.
A variational principle is derived for two-dimensional incompressible rotational fluid flow with a free surface in a moving vessel when both the vessel and fluid motion are to be determined. The fluid is represented by a stream function and the vessel motion is represented by a path in the planar Euclidean group. Novelties in the formulation include how the pressure boundary condition is treated, the introduction of a stream function into the Euler- Poincaré variations, the derivation of free surface variations, and how the equations for the vessel path in the Euclidean group, coupled to the fluid motion, are generated automatically.
Many methods have been proposed for analysing high frequency blood pressure or ECG data. We review a recently proposed new approach for analysing such data based on attractor reconstruction and compare it to heart rate variability that analyses the beat-to-beat intervals. Our new approach uses all the available data and so can detect changes in the shape of the waveform.
This paper investigates the coupled motion between the dynamics of N vessels coupled together in a one-dimensional array by springs, and the motion of the inviscid fluid sloshing within each vessel. We develop a fully-nonlinear model for the system relative to a moving frame such that the fluid in each vessel is governed by the Euler equations and the motion of each vessel is modelled by a forced spring equation. By considering a linearization of the model, the characteristic equation for the natural frequencies of the system is derived, and analysed for a variety of non-dimensional parameter regimes. It is found that the problem can exhibit a variety of resonance situations from the 1 : 1 resonance to (N + 1)-fold 1 : · · · : 1 resonance, as well as more general r : s : · · · : t resonances for natural numbers r, s, t. This paper focuses in particular on determining the existence of regions of parameter space where the (N + 1)-fold 1 : · · · : 1 resonance can be found.