DiGMY logo

Centre for Digital Transformation in the Visitor Economy

We are dedicated to researching, endorsing, and advocating the power of information technology and digital media in the visitor economy.

Research aims

DiGMY logo

The Centre for Digital Transformation in the Visitor Economy (DIGMY) work in collaboration with leading academic, business, public and third sector partners across a broad spectrum of disciplines to provide rigorous and critical scientific foundation to deliver value to the visitor economy of tomorrow. Driven by innovation and technological advancement to create resilience and digital inclusion, we focus on four core themes: 

  1. Digital transformation in tourism, hospitality and events; including new media and consumer behaviour, new business models and disruptive innovation, transformation in business operations and performance,
  2. Smart systems in tourism, hospitality and events, including: artificial intelligence and robotics, sensors and internet-of-things,
  3. Technology for social good in tourism, hospitality and events, including: technology facilitating health and wellbeing, social isolation and loneliness, inclusion and accessibility,
  4. Data science and innovative methodologies in tourism, hospitality and events; including biometric research, data analytics and pattern recognition in big data.   
Person carrying passport at the airport

Covid-19 research in hospitality and tourism

Our research aims to understand the needs and requirements of businesses and travellers to be able to return to a new normality when it comes to travelling and the prosperity of businesses.

Research projects

Start date: September 2021

End date: September 2022

Start date: March 2021

End date: September 2021

Start date: March 2021

End date: September 2021


Principal investigator: Dr Nikolas Thomopoulos

Start date: February 2021

End date: January 2021


Chen, F., Naylor, M., Li, Y., Dai, S., & Ju, P. (2021). Festival or Sport? Chinese Motivations to a Modern Urban Hiking Event. SAGE Open, 11(1), 2158244020986155.

Chen, Y., Tussyadiah, I. (2021). Service Failure in Peer-to-Peer Accommodation. Annals of Tourism Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2021.103156 

Cohen, S., Liu, H., Hanna, P., Hopkins, D., Higham, J. & Gössling, S. (2021). The Rich Kids of Instagram: Luxury travel, transport modes and desire. Journal of Travel Research (accepted).

Duffy, M., Scarles, C., Edensor, T., Waitt, G. & Franklin, A. (2021). Twenty Years on: Reflections on the journeys travelled and future directions of Tourist Studies. Tourist Studies, 21(1), 3-8.

Femenia-Serra, F., Ioannou, A., Tussyadiah, I. (2021). Is Smart Scary? A mixed-methods study on privacy in smart tourism. Current Issues in Tourism. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1987399

Ioannou, A., Tussyadiah, I. (2021). Privacy and Surveillance Attitudes During Health Crisis: Acceptance of Surveillance and Privacy Protection Behaviours. Technology in Society. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101774

Ioannou, A., Tussyadiah, I., Marshan, A. (2021). Dispositional mindfulness as an antecedent of privacy concerns: A protection motivation theory perspective. Psychology & Marketinghttps://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21529

Ioannou, A., Tussyadiah, I., Miller, G., Li, S., Weick, M. (2021). Privacy nudges for disclosure of personal information: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 16(8): e0256822

Qiu, R. T., Liu, A., Stienmetz, J. L., & Yu, Y. (2021). Timing matters: crisis severity and occupancy rate forecasts in social unrest periods. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2020-0629

Li, S., Saayman, A., Stienmetz, J., Tussyadiah, I. (2021). Framing Effects of Messages and Images on the Willingness to Pay for Pro-Poor Tourism Products. Journal of Travel Research. doi:10.1177/00472875211042672

Ling, E.C., Tussyadiah, I., Tuomi, A., Stienmetz, J., Ioannou, A. (2021). Factors Influencing Users' Adoption and Use of Conversational Agents: A Systematic Review. Psychology & Marketinghttps://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21491

Liu, A., Kim, Y. R. and O’Connell, J. F. (2021) ‘COVID-19 and the aviation industry, Annals of Tourism Research. (Accepted).

Sharma, A., Shin, H. S., Santa-María, M. J., & Nicolau, J. L. (2021). Hotels’ COVID-19 Innovation and Performance. Annals of Tourism Research. 103180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2021.103180

Tuomi, A., Tussyadiah, I., Hanna, P. (2021). Spicing Up Hospitality Service Encounters: The Case of Pepper™. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Managementhttps://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-07-2020-0739

Tuomi A., Tussyadiah I., Ashton M. (2021) Covid-19 and Instagram: Digital Service Innovation in Top Restaurants. In: Wörndl W., Koo C., Stienmetz J.L. (eds) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2021. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65785-7_45 

Tussyadiah, I., Tuomi, A., Ling, E.C., Miller, G., Lee, G. (2021). Drivers of organzational adoption of automation. Annals of Tourism Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2021.103308

Xu, S. (2021). Will digital nature engagement positively impact our wellbeing? Blog retrieved from DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Government department) website: https://people-and-nature-survey-defra.hub.arcgis.com/pages/blog#tracy-blog

Van Nuenen, T. & Scarles, C. (2021). Advancements in technology and digital media in tourism. Tourist Studies, 21(1), 119-132.

White, E. V., Gatersleben, B., Wyles, K. J., Murrell, G., Golding, S. E., Scarles, C., & Xu, S. (2021). Gardens and wellbeing during the first UK Covid-19 lockdown (Research Report No. 1). Report retrieved from www.surrey.ac.uk/garden-report.pdf

Berridge, G. (2020) Chapter 21 Designing Event Experiences in Page, Stephen J., and Joanne Connell, eds. The Routledge handbook of events. 2nd ed. Routledge, 2020. https://www.routledge.com/The-Routledge-Handbook-of-Events/Page-Connell/p/book/9780367236489

Benítez-Aurioles, B., Tussyadiah, I. (2020). What Airbnb does to the housing market. Annals of Tourism Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.103108

Choi, A., Berridge, G. and Kim, C., 2020. The Urban Museum as a Creative Tourism Attraction: London Museum Lates Visitor Motivation. Sustainability, 12(22), p.9382.


Ioannou, A., Tussyadiah, I., Miller, G. (2020). That's private! Understanding travelers' privacy concerns and online data disclosure. Journal of Travel Research. DOI: 10.1177/0047287520951642

Ioannou, A., Tussyadiah, I., Lu, Y. (2020). Privacy concerns and disclosure of biometric and behavioral data for travel. International Journal of Information Management, 54, 102122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102122

Li, H., Liu, H., Zhang, Z. (2020). Online persuasion of review emotional intensity: A text mining analysis of restaurant reviews. International Journal of Hospitality Management (Accepted).

Loureiro, S., Guerreiro, J., Tussyadiah, I. (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Business: State of the Art and Future Research Agenda. Journal of Business Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.11.001

Park, S., & Stangl, B. (2020). Augmented reality experiences and sensation seeking. Tourism Management77, 104023.

Scarles, C., Treharne, H., Casey, M., & Zainal Abidin, H. (2020). Micro-mobilities in curated spaces: agency, autonomy and dwelling in visitor experiences of augmented reality in arts and heritage. Mobilities, 15(6), 776-791, DOI: 10.1080/17450101.2020.1816439

Shin, H. S., & Kang, J. H. (2020). Reducing perceived health risk to attract hotel customers in the COVID-19 pandemic era: Focused on technology innovation for social distancing and cleanliness. International Journal of Hospitality Management91, 102664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102664

Stangl, B., Ukpabi, D. C., & Park, S. (2020). Augmented Reality Applications: The Impact of Usability and Emotional Perceptions on Tourists’ App Experiences. In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2020 (pp. 181-191). Springer, Cham.

Stangl, B., Prayag, G., & Polster, L. (2020). Segmenting visitors’ motivation, price perceptions, willingness to pay and price sensitivity in a collaborative destination marketing effort. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(21), 2666-2682.

Stienmetz, J., Liu, A., Tussyadiah, I. (2020).  Impact of perceived peer-to-peer accommodation development on community residents’ well-being. Current Issues in Tourism. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1797644

Tuomi, A., Tussyadiah, I.P. (2020). Building the sociomateriality of food service. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 89, 102553. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102553

Tuomi, A., Tussyadiah, I.P., Stienmetz, J. (2020). Applications and implications of service robots in hospitality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965520923961

Tuomi, A., Tussyadiah, I., Ling, E.C., Miller, G., Lee, G. (2020). x=(tourism work) y=(sdg8) while y=true: automate(x). Annals of Tourism Research, 84, 102978. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102978  

Tussyadiah, I. (2020). A review of research into automation in tourism: Launching the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102883

Tussyadiah, I.P., Zach, F.J., Wang, J. (2020). Do travelers trust intelligent service robots? Annals of Tourism Research, 81. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102886

Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., & Smith, N. (2020). The effects of attractiveness, gender and self-esteem in service jobs. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32, 249-266.

Xu, S., Stienmetz, J., & Ashton, M. (Accepted). How will robots redefine leadership in hotel management? A Delphi approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality  Management. Featured in SurreyNewsScienceDailyHospitality&CateringNews,MetroGuildford DragonAzoRoboticsNewsWiseGadgetNews8Plus.

Wu, S., Li, Y., Wood, E., Senaux, B. & Dai, G. (2020) Liminality and festivals—Insights from the East. Annals of Tourism Research, 80, 102810.

Yu, Y., Xu, S., Li, G, & Kong, H. (Accepted). Systematic review of research on abusive supervision in hospitality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Zou, S., Tan K. P. S., Liu, H. & Li, X. (2020). Mobile versus PC: Does device type affect online survey response quality in tourism research? Current Issues of Tourism(Accepted).

Abidin, H.Z., Scarles, C. & Lundberg, C. (2019). Digital Collaboration: A Solution for Destinations, e-Review of Tourism Research.

Corrigan-Kavanagh, E., Scarles, C., Frohlich, D., Revill, G., Beynon, M., Van Duppen, J. (2019). Explorations on the future of the book from the Next Generation Paper Project. Publishing History.

Corrigan-Kavanagh, E., Scarles, C., Revill, G. (2019). Augmenting Travel Guides for Enriching Travel Experiences. e-Review of Tourism Research. 17, 344-348, Texas A&M Agrilife.

Frohlich, D., Corrigan-Kavanagh, E., Bober, M., Yuan, H., Sporea, R., Le Borgne, D., Scarles, C., Revill, G., van Duppen, J., Brown, A.W. & Beynon, M. (2019). The Cornwall a-book: An Augmented Travel Guide Using Next Generation Paper, Journal of Electronic Publishing, Vol.22(1), online:http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/3336451.0022.101.

Kastner, M., Stangl, B., & Schmidinger, G. (2019). Combining Data Sources and Capitalizing on Collaborations With Industry Partners to Investigate the Appropriateness of “Pay What You Want” for Heterogeneous Customer Groups. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Lund, F., Scarles, C. & Cohen, S. (2019). The brand value continuum: Countering co-destruction of destination branding in social media through storytelling. ,Journal of Travel Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0047287519887234.

Park, S., Tussyadiah, I. (2019). How guests develop trust in hosts: An investigation of trust formation in P2P accommodation. Journal of Travel Research.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287519884654.

Siegel, L., Tussyadiah, I., Scarles, C. (2019). Does Social Media Help or Hurt Destinations? A Qualitative Case Study. e-Review of Tourism Research.

Stangl, B., Prayag, G., & Polster, L. (2019). Segmenting visitors’ motivation, price perceptions, willingness to pay and price sensitivity in a collaborative destination marketing effort. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-17.

Sun, H., Wu, S., Li, Y. & Dai, G. (2019). Tourist-to-tourist interaction at festivals: A grounded theory approach. Sustainability, 11(15), 4030. doi:10.3390/su11154030

Tussyadiah, I., Miller, G. (2019). Nudged by a robot: Responses to agency and feedback, Annals of Tourism Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102752.

Tuomi, A., Tussyadiah, I.P., Stienmetz, J. (2019). Leveraging LEGO® Serious Play® to embrace AI and robots in tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.06.003.

Wong, I., Xu, S., Chan, G., & He, M. (2019). A cross-level investigation of the role of human resources practices: Does brand equity matter? Tourism Management, 75, 418-426.

Xu, S., & Cao, Z. (2019). Antecedents and outcomes of work-nonwork conflict in hospitality: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management31, 3919-3942.

Xu, S. & Wang, J. (2019). Still waters stay put: Uncovering the effects of emotional variability using experience sampling methodology. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 19, 317-332.

Lundberg, C., Ziakas, V. (2018). Fantrepreneurs in the Sharing Economy: Co-Creating Neo-Tribal Events. Event Management, 22 (2), 287-301.

Lund, F., Cohen, S. & Scarles, C. (2018). The Power of Social Media Storytelling in Destination Branding, Destination Marketing and Management, Vol.8: 271-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.05.003.

Sporea, R., Le Borgne, B.H., Yrjana, S., Nordman, S., Ritvonen, T., Seisto, A., Revill, G., Bober, M., Brown, A., Scarles, C. & Frohlich, D. (2018). Next Generation Paper: an augmented book platform, Proc. SPIE 10738, Organic and Hybrid Sensors and Bioelectronics XI, 1073811 (14 September 2018).

Tussyadiah, I.P., Park, S. (2018). When Guests Trust Hosts for Their Words: Host Description and Trust in Sharing Economy. Tourism Management, 67, 261-272. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2018.02.002.

Tussyadiah, I.P., Wang, D., Jung, T., tom Dieck, M.C. (2018). Virtual Reality, Presence and Attitude Change: Empirical Evidence from Tourism. Tourism Management, 66, 140-154. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2017.12.003.

Tussyadiah, I.P., Jung, T., tom Dieck, M.C. (2018). Embodiment of Wearable Augmented Reality Technology in Tourism Experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 57(5), 597–611. DOI: 10.1177/0047287517709090.

Gkritzali, A. (2017). Online sentiment recovery during a destination crisis. Annals of Tourism Research, 66, 183-185. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2017.05.012.

Gkritzali, A., Gkritzali, D., Stavrou, V. (2017). Is Xenios Zeus Still Alive? Destination Image of Athens in the Years of Recession. Journal of Travel Research, 57(4), 540-554. DOI: 10.1177/0047287517705225.

Li, S., Li, H., Song, H., Lundberg, C., Shen, S. (2017). The Economic Impact of On-Screen Tourism: The Case of The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. Tourism Management, 60, 77-187. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.11.023.

Lundberg, C., Ziakas, V., Morgan, N. (2017). Conceptualising on-screen tourism destination development. Tourist Studies, 18 (1).

Park, S., Tussyadiah, I.P. (2017). Multidimensional Facets of Perceived Risk in Mobile Travel Booking. Journal of Travel Research, 56(7), 854–867. DOI: 10.1177/0047287516675062.

Stangl. B., Prayag, G. (2017). Collaborative destination marketing and PWYW. Annals of Tourism Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2017.09.001.

Recent events

The future of destinations online forum

As the coronavirus pandemic continues to have devastating impacts on destinations, governments and destinations have taken action to restore and invigorate the sector. This seminar drawing upon industry and academic insights aimed to consider what the impacts of the pandemic have been and how destinations are able to reposition visitor experiences during times of continued uncertainty whilst planning for the future.

Our panel of distinguished industry speakers included:

Our panel of Surrey academic speakers included:

Find an expert


Mark Ashton profile image

Mark Ashton

Senior Teaching Fellow; Director of Teaching and Learning

Graham Berridge profile image

Dr Graham Berridge

Principal Teaching Fellow in Events

Jason Chen profile image

Dr Jason Chen

Senior Lecturer in Tourism and Events Management, Director of Postgraduate Research

Anita Eves profile image

Professor Anita Eves

Professor of Hospitality Management

Leo Jago profile image

Professor Leo Jago

Emeritus Professor

Kerstine Lawley profile image

Kerstine Lawley

Director of Learning and Teaching (SHTM) Senior Teaching Fellow

Anyu Liu profile image

Dr Anyu Liu

Senior Lecturer in Hospitality

Hongbo (Daisy) Liu profile image

Dr Daisy Liu

Lecturer in Hospitality

Brigitte Stangl profile image

Dr Brigitte Stangl

Senior Lecturer in Tourism

Iis Tussyadiah profile image

Professor Iis Tussyadiah

Head of School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Professor of Intelligent Systems in Service

Shi (Tracy) Xu profile image

Dr Tracy Xu

Senior Lecturer in Hospitality

Surrey Affiliated Members

Adrian Hilton profile image

Professor Adrian Hilton

Director of Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing

Ranjana Das profile image

Professor Ranjana Das

Professor in Media and Communication

Irina Cojuharenco profile image

Dr Irina Cojuharenco

Reader, Founding Director of the University of Surrey Business and Economic Experiments (USBEE) Laboratory

Husna Zainal Abidin profile image

Dr Husna Zainal Abidin

Researcher Wakayama University, Japan

Athina Ioannou profile image

Dr Athina Ioannou

Lecturer in Business Analytics

Postgraduate research students

Elizabeth Ashcroft profile image

Elizabeth Ashcroft

PhD Researcher

Hoyoung (Rachel) Chang profile image

Rachel Chang

Postgraduate research student

Vanessa Cumper profile image

Vanessa Cumper

Postgraduate Research Student

Christy Hehir profile image

Christy Hehir

Programme Leader and Lecturer in Events / PhD Researcher (Environmental Psychology & Travel)

Branislava Jianu profile image

Brana Jianu

Postgraduate Research Student

Wenliang (Max) Li profile image

Max Li

PhD Researcher

Gilang Maulana Majid profile image

Gilang Majid

Postgraduate Research Student

Ikram Nur Muharam profile image

Ikram Nur Muharam

Postgraduate Research Student

Placeholder image for staff profiles

Xiaoyi Xu

Postgraduate Research Student