Alastair S Macdonald, Mark A Chambers, Roberto La Ragione, Kayleigh Wyles, Matthieu Poyade, Andrew Wales, Naomi Klepacz, Tom R Kupfer, Fraje Watson, Shona Noble (2021)Addressing Infection Risk in Veterinary Practice through the Innovative Application of Interactive 3D Animation Methods, In: The Design Journal24(1)pp. 51-72
Antimicrobial resistance is of growing concern in human and animal health. The aim of this study was to raise awareness and perception of risk of infection-related behaviours during routine preparation for veterinary surgery. We took a multi-disciplinary and multi-method approach to 'make visible, the invisible' by illustrating how microbial contamination can be spread during the preparation process for surgical procedures. The design-led visualization approach enhanced inter-disciplinary team and workshop participant contributions during the co-development of an innovative digital tool to support training for veterinary practitioners and students. After experiencing the intervention, 92% of 51 participants agreed to change their behaviour and stated an intention to implement an infection control behaviour that aligned with training objectives. The 3D graphics enhanced the delivery of training content by making difficult and abstract contamination concepts easy to understand. A similar approach could be taken for human health applications.
Food waste is a compelling research topic due to the way in which its environmental, social, and economic impacts accumulate throughout the food supply chain. However, it is a tremendously under-researched area in the social sciences, particularly in relation to service provision. Efforts to reduce food waste, particularly at the consumption stage, are especially meaningful for people in China. This is because the country must sustain more than one-fifth of the world’s population with only limited food-related resources. Moreover, in contrast to Western countries, consumer waste in China mainly arises from restaurants as opposed to households. Therefore, to reduce food waste in service provision in China, it is worth examining the formation of food waste at the consumption stage. To overcome the theoretical dualism that exists between individualism and structuralism in the study of food consumption and waste, this research is grounded in various strands of theories of practice. It investigates both the ‘saying’ and ‘doing’ aspects of eating practices in-situ, as well as the nexuses between a collection of integrative practices through the examination of ‘practical sense’. It is also an important element established in eating practices between habitus and the field of dining-out. Ethnographic methods were employed to acquire knowledge over a four-month period in 2017 in two Chinese cities: 26 in-depth semi-structured interviews and 16 eat-along sessions. A suite of creative methods was also used to gather a range of interview data, including photographs, table-elicitation, and Play-Doh. The findings suggest that eating-out food practices are constituted of the following integrative practices: social organisation of meal occasions, judgement of aesthetic qualities, judgement of bodily capacity, and judgement of food functionality. Amongst these four practices, waste of food left on plates was attributed to its materiality, practice conventionality, and temporality. This is because it influenced participants’ perceptions regarding food edibility and waste inevitability. Key factors contributing to food waste included the perceived inevitability of social circumstances and the perceived risk of consuming leftover food, due to its perishable nature and the temporal distance to the next mealtime. Accordingly, this study indicates that food waste is associated with a set of food practices that should always be considered in the field of practice, particularly in terms of the surrounding material, social, and temporal dimensions, rather than as an isolated, discrete phenomenon.
Examining the benefits of naturalness forms an important part of environmental psychology research, with exposure to naturalness associated with restoration and positive affective quality. But the work of this thesis shows that it is not always clear what is meant by naturalness. Study A (N = 243) revealed several elements of naturalness which cannot be explained by current research, suggesting more work is needed to examine what constitutes naturalness. An in-depth literature review of the operationalisation of naturalness in 95 papers emphasised this need, demonstrating: 1) the interchangeable use of terms for naturalness; 2) a reliance on dichotomous variables; 3) a lack of explicit definitions; and 4) a lack of distinction between perceived and ecological naturalness.
Addressing these gaps in the literature, a survey was used to develop a new conceptualisation of lay perceived naturalness. Respondents (N = 846) were asked what they thought made a place natural and inductive content analysis used to develop a theme structure to represent these. A card sort study (N = 23) was used to improve this structure. Sixteen themes and 138 subthemes summarised lay perceptions; serving to broaden the conceptualisation beyond that of current research. Some of the most frequently mentioned themes/subthemes reflected those of existing literature, including the absence of humans and their influence, and vegetation. Several novel themes/subthemes were identified (e.g. smells, touch, weather); of use in future research. Humans, their influence and things also formed part of the concept of naturalness, demonstrating the difficulty associated with pitching humanness against naturalness.
Quantitative analyses showed that various subthemes of lay perceived naturalness were perceived as restorative and of positive affective quality: including elements such as sounds, plants, and water being associated with relaxing environments; and an absence of humans being associated with perceived restoration. These form the basis of recommendations for environmental design.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a profound threat to human and animal health. More research has focused on drivers of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing and usage in human medicine than in veterinary medicine. This thesis helps address this gap by exploring antimicrobial stewardship in UK livestock farming. It consists of six empirical studies and uses a mixed-method approach. Three qualitative studies explored farm vets’ and farmers’ beliefs about AMR and about antimicrobial prescribing, usage, and stewardship. Study One used qualitative interviews with farm vets (n = 13); results indicated vets understand their stewardship responsibilities but feel they cannot always prescribe in line with stewardship ideals due to contextual factors. Study Two used qualitative interviews with farmers (n = 12); results indicated farmers want to be antimicrobial stewards, but they feel constrained from making changes by external forces. Study Three used a secondary analysis of the combined datasets from Studies One and Two (n = 25) and identified that vets and farmers share a sense of ambivalence towards stewardship; they take some ownership for stewardship, but also engage in other-blaming for AMR. Three quantitative studies further explored the qualitative findings. Study Four used vignettes with farm vets (n = 16) to compare ‘ideal’ and ‘real-world’ prescribing and identify a clinical scenario for use in Study Five. Results showed antimicrobial prescribing was higher in ‘real-world’ than ‘ideal’ situations. Study Five used an experimental vignette and cross-sectional design with farm vets (n = 97) to assess the effects of context, values, and beliefs on vets’ prescribing. Results indicated context (vet-farmer relationship under pressure) and beliefs about responsibility for preventing AMR were associated with vets’ prescribing, but values and beliefs about causing AMR were not. Vets believed other groups had greater responsibility for causing and preventing AMR. Study Six used a cross-sectional survey to explore antimicrobial usage behaviours, knowledge, and beliefs about responsibility for AMR in vet students (n = 573). Results indicated vet students’ behaviours were responsible, knowledge about AMR was moderate to good, and they believed vets have less responsibility than other groups for causing or preventing AMR. Findings are discussed in terms of two key themes; ‘Psychological distancing: a barrier to stewardship’ and ‘Positive interactions: facilitating stewardship’. Findings are considered from a social ecological perspective, highlighting the need for stewardship interventions at multiple levels, and from a social identity perspective, highlighting the importance of emphasising a common goal of stewardship, to reduce psychological distancing and increase positive interactions between individuals and groups.
Marine litter, manufactured solid waste material that enters the marine environment, is a growing environmental concern (Galgani et al., 2010). Found throughout the oceans, from the poles to the equator and from the shoreline to the deep sea, impacts of this debris on the environment and wildlife is well recorded. For example, rubbish items can have lethal and sub-‐‑lethal effects on marine dwelling organisms, through processes such as ingestion, entanglement, and chemical contamination from eating those materials (Gall and Thompson, 2015). Whilst the research examining the distribution, abundance, and impacts of litter on the environment and its inhabitants is ever growing, it is important to recognise the human dimension of this problem. Humans are unquestionably the source of the problem; optimistically, we are also the solution, but an often overlooked aspect is that we too are also impacted by marine litter. Here, this short article will briefly overview the impact litter has on individuals, the psychological value of doing something about it, and why this is important when trying to address this global and growing issue.
Background: Many investigations into the determinants of hand hygiene (HH) behaviour have explored only individual predictors or were designed according to arguably overly simplistic models of behaviour. Consequently, important influences on HH behaviour, including habit and emotion, are sometimes neglected. This study is the first to employ the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour as a comprehensive model for understanding the determinants of HH behaviour. Method: A self-report questionnaire was conducted with staff from two large UK veterinary referral practices. Participants (n = 75) reported their HH behaviour and responded to statements rating the importance of social norms, self-protection, patient protection, time pressures, access to equipment, habit and disgust, to their HH behaviour. Results: Regression analysis showed that, overall, determinants explained 46% of variance (p < .001) in self-reported HH behaviour, with time constraints being the strongest predictor (β = −.47, p < .001) followed by difficulty finding equipment (β = −.21, p = .05). Discussion: Time constraints may be the most important influence on HH adherence among the determinants investigated. Future researchers should consider employing theoretical models to aid a more comprehensive understanding of the psychology underlying HH adherence and HH interventions.
Despite its remoteness, marine plastic pollution is a significant environmental problem in the Arctic. In Svalbard, for example, plastics are found on the shorelines, in the water column, on the ocean floor and in the ice. Organisms have been observed to be entangled in nets and ingestion of plastics has been documented in a range of organisms. Notably almost all Arctic bird species have been found to have ingested plastic, with Northern fulmars being particularly affected, with 89% of samples recorded as having ingested plastic. Identification and valuation of ecosystem services affected by marine plastic pollution can provide input for decision makers in evaluating and comparing management policies concerning this unique environment. This study employs the contingent valuation method (CVM) for eliciting the willingness to pay (WTP) of Norwegian households for reducing marine plastic pollution around the archipelago of Svalbard. An Integrated Choice and Latent Variable model (ICLV) is employed to explore attitudinal determinants of WTP. We find an average WTP for an initiative to reduce marine plastics of NOK 5,485 (USD 642) per household per year. The ICLV results reveal that people who are relatively more concerned about marine plastic pollution and who deem the proposed initiative effective are willing to pay more (up to 85 % and 50 %, respectively). The use of ICLV models in CVM and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Alistair Macdonald, Mark Chambers, Roberto La Ragione, Kayleigh Wyles, Matthieu Poyade, Andrew Wales, Naomi Klepacz, Tom Kupfer, Fraje Watson, Shona Noble (2020)Using novel visualisation methods to combat infection risk during clinical practices., In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Design4Health Olivia R. Rendon, Angus Garbutt, Martin Skov, Iris Moller, Meghan Alexander, Rhoda Ballinger, Kayleigh Wyles, Greg Smith, Emma McKinley, John Griffin, Merryn Thomas, Kate Davidson, Jordi Pages, Simon Read, Nicola Beaumont (2019)A framework linking ecosystem services and human well-being: operationalising the concept in Welsh saltmarsh, In: People and Nature
The ecosystem services approach is based on the interdependencies between nature and human well-being. The ecosystem services aspect of these conceptual classifications is well-developed but the well-being aspect still remains unstructured and vaguely defined. This research advances and exemplifies the linkages between ecosystem services and well-being, with important insights for environmental and health management. An integrated framework was developed by adapting and linking the UKNEA-FO framework with Smith et al.’s (2013) human well-being domains. Besides benefits, the notion of disbenefits was incorporated to recognise the potentially detrimental effects from interacting with nature. Benefits and disbenefits occur at the social-ecological interface so they are classified by the seven domains of well-being they affect. Accounting for disbenefits and benefits specifically increased understanding of the differences in magnitude of their impact on society, spatial scale, and users. The framework is applied to Welsh saltmarshes, where we see that benefits mainly accrue at larger scales with a greater magnitude affecting local to global individuals, while disbenefits tend to occur at a smaller scale and impacting in-situ individuals only. Through trialling our integrated framework on Welsh saltmarshes it is evident that, by including the disbenefits and explicit well-being domains, this approach enables the greater inclusion and understanding of human well-being from the natural environment.
Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals’ behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students (n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions.
Exposure to nature can strengthen an individual’s sense of connectedness (i.e., emotional/cognitive bonds to the natural world) and enhance psychological restoration (e.g., feeling relaxed/refreshed). To date, there have been few large studies looking at the role that type and quality of natural environments may have on these outcomes. The present study used data from a large survey in England (sample analyzed = 4,515), which asked participants to recall a recent visit to nature. After controlling for covariates, respondents recalled greater connectedness to nature and restoration following visits to rural and coastal locations compared with urban green space, and to sites of higher environmental quality (operationalized by protected/designated area status, for example, nature reserves). A series of structural equation analyses provided evidence for a bidirectional association between connectedness and restoration. Consideration of the psychological benefits associated with different types and quality of environment has implications for human health, environmental management, and conservation.
P. Ten Brink, Kayleigh Wyles, S. Pahl, S. Hong, J. Seager, V. Hidalgo-Ruz (2015)Social Economic Aspects, In: Sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment: part two of a global assessment
Food and Agriculture Organization of the U. N.
This report provides an update and further assessment of the sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment, carried out by Working Group 40 (WG40) of GESAMP (The Joint Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Protection). It follows publication of the first assessment report in this series in April 2015 (GESAMP 2015). The issue of marine plastic litter was raised during the inaugural meeting of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) in June 2014. Delegates from 160 countries adopted Resolution 1/6 on ‘Marine plastic debris and microplastics’ (Annex I). The resolution welcomed the work being undertaken by GESAMP on microplastics and requested the Executive Director of UNEP to carry out a study on marine plastics and microplastics. This was to be based on a combination of existing and new studies, including WG40. This provided the motivation for GESAMP to revise the original terms of reference to reflect both the request from UNEP to contribute to the UNEA study, and the key recommendations from the WG40 2015 report.
Microplastics enter the environment as a result of larger plastic items breaking down (‘secondary’) and from particles originally manufactured at that size (‘primary’). Personal care productsare an important contributor of secondary microplastics (typically referred to as ‘microbeads’), for example in toothpaste, facial scrubs and soaps. Consumers play an important role in influencing the demand for these products and therefore any associated environmental consequences. Hence we need to understand public perceptions in order to help reduce emissions of microplastics. This study explored awareness of plastic microbeads in personal care products in three groups: environmental activists, trainee beauticians and university students in South West England. Focus groups were run, where participants were shown the quantity of microbeads found in individual high-street personal care products. Qualitative analysis showed that while the environmentalists were originally aware of the issue, it lacked visibility and immediacy for the beauticians and students. Yet when shown the amount of plastic in a range of familiar everyday personal care products, all participants expressed considerable surprise and concern at the quantities and potential impact. Regardless of any perceived level of harm in the environment, the consensus was that their use was unnatural and unnecessary. This research could inform future communications with the public and industry as well as policy initiatives to phase out the use of microbeads.
The present paper illustrates the breadth of research methods in the Social and Behavioural Sciences and how these may be applied to the issue of environmental microplastics. Microplastics are a human-caused problem and we need to understand the human dimension in order to address it. Nine key points are emphasised in this paper and follow from the key observation that humans, through their perceptions, decisions and actions, are pivotal to the issue of primary and secondary microplastics in the environment: (1) human perception and behaviour can be subject to systematic and rigorous scientific study, using theory-based hypothesis testing, measurement and statistical analysis; (2) qualitative methods can explore new areas of research and provide novel, in-depth insights; (3) best practice and recommendations exist for measuring social data; (4) quantitative cross-sectional approaches can test how important social factors are for key outcomes (e.g., the role of perceived risk, values, social norms for behaviour); (5) experimental quantitative approaches can compare randomised groups and study cause–effect relations; (6) certain limitations and challenges are unique to research with people; (7) communications and interventions (e.g., change campaigns, new regulation, education programmes) should be developed based on scientific insights into human thought and behaviour and then evaluated systematically; (8) social researchers should work towards developing standardised tools and protocols; and (9) social research on microplastics and its determinants is in its infancy and a number of important research questions remain to be addressed.
Plastic pollution is caused exclusively by humans. It poses growing global threats to both the ocean and society, and requires urgent action. Using psychological principles can motivate and implement change by connecting symptoms and sources.
Marine environments provide a range of important ecosystem goods and services. To ensure the sustainability of this environment, we require an integrated understanding of the activities taking place in coastal environments that takes into account the benefits to human visitors but also the risks to the environment. This paper presents two studies on the perceived risks and benefits associated with recreational visits to rocky shores in the UK and internationally. Marine experts and recreational users of the coast responded to questionnaires that explored the marine awareness and wellbeing effects of different activities on the visitor and, in turn, the perceived harmfulness of these activities to the environment. Two studies found that a visit to a rocky shore was seen to improve visitors' awareness regarding the marine environment as well as their wellbeing (with some activities being calming such as sunbathing and relaxing, and others exciting such as rock pooling). However, this was perceived to be at a cost to the environment, as some activities were noted to have detrimental effects on the habitat. Marine experts and coastal users gave very similar answers, as did British (Study 1) and international respondents (Study 2). Using an integrative approach, the perceived impacts on both the environment and visitor were then explored together. Walking and rock pooling were seen to provide considerable wellbeing benefits but had high negative impacts on the environment. In contrast, resource focussed activities such as fishing, bait collecting and crabbing were perceived as less important for visitor wellbeing yet also had negative environmental impacts. Using this integrative approach, this analysis begins to suggest priorities for management that benefits both the environment and the recreational users.
The beneficial effects of blue environments have been well documented; however, we do not know how marine litter might modify these effects. Three studies adopted a picture-rating task to examine the influence of litter on preference, perceived restorative quality, and psychological impacts. Photographs varied the presence of marine litter (Study 1) and the type of litter (Studies 2 and 3). The influence of tide and the role of connectedness were also explored. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, it was shown that litter can undermine the psychological benefits that the coast ordinarily provides, thus demonstrating that, in addition to environmental costs of marine litter, there are also costs to people. Litter stemming from the public had the most negative impact. This research extends our understanding of the psychological benefits from natural coastal environments and the threats to these benefits from abundant and increasing marine litter.
The oceans are crucial for human survival, yet they are under serious threat from humans, for example through overfishing and poor waste management. We investigated two questions. First, does a leisure visit to an aquarium improve visitor attitudes and intentions towards marine sustainability, specifically regarding overfishing and pollution? Second, does an information booklet handed out in addition to the visit have additional measurable impact? Aquarium visitors (n = 104) completed a questionnaire on marine sustainability attitudes and behavioral intentions before and after their visit. Half of the visitors also were given informational materials that offered behavioral solutions to the problem of overfishing. The aquarium visit significantly improved visitors’ overall attitudes and intentions. The information booklet additionally improved intentions significantly, but not attitudes. These findings show that a visit to an aquarium can help individuals develop what we term a marine mindset, a state of readiness to address marine sustainability issues. Implications, limitations, and ideas for further research are discussed.
K Walker-Springett, R Jefferson, K Bock, A Breckwoldt, E Comby, M Cottet, G Hubner, YF Le Lay, S Shaw, KJ Wyles (2016)Ways forward for aquatic conservation: Applications of environmental psychology to support management objectives, In: Journal of Environmental Management166pp. 525-536
The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors.
Nicola J. Beaumont, Margrethe Aanesen, Melanie C. Austen, Tobias Börger, James R. Clark, Matthew Cole, Tara Hooper, Penelope K. Lindeque, Christine Pascoe, Kayleigh Wyles (2019)Global ecological, social and economic impacts of marine plastic, In: Marine Pollution Bulletin142pp. 189-195
This research takes a holistic approach to considering the consequences of marine plastic pollution. A semisystematic literature review of 1191 data points provides the basis to determine the global ecological, social and economic impacts. An ecosystem impact analysis demonstrates that there is global evidence of impact with medium to high frequency on all subjects, with a medium to high degree of irreversibility. A novel translation of these ecological impacts into ecosystem service impacts provides evidence that all ecosystem services are impacted to some extent by the presence of marine plastic, with a reduction in provision predicted for all except one. This reduction in ecosystem service provision is evidenced to have implications for human health and wellbeing, linked particularly to fisheries, heritage and charismatic species, and recreation.
Ecosystem services conceptualises the multiple interactions between ecosystems and the people and communities benefitting from their direct or indirect use, aiming to provide stakeholders and scientists with a common language. While some users appear to have adopted this language and terminology, there are concerns that the complexities associated with the concept make it inaccessible and, rather than providing stakeholders with a tool to explain complex relationships, the language and terminology itself may disengage. Through surveying UKbased coastal and marine stakeholders (n=158), this study examines stakeholders’ perceptions of the concept of ecosystem services and its role and usefulness within the marine and coastal science-policy-practice interface. Overall, stakeholders provided favourable opinions, with findings similar across respondents with the exception of industry; which used it less, was less confident with it and believed it to be less important. The results provide an evidenced argument for the benefits of the ecosystem services approach, including communication, supporting management and linking environment to humans. The analysis also details the required advancements to ensure effective future use, including improved terminology, pluralistic valuation and shared learning. Finally, the paper highlights challenges and benefits relating to the term, creating links to ongoing discussions about effective scientific communication for marine and coastal management.
People are drawn toward personally meaningful places. Seeing or remembering those places improves mood and supports wellbeing. But existing evidence relies on self-reports and comparisons with unpleasant places. Using brain imaging techniques, we examined reactions towards images of personally meaningful places, meaningful objects, neutral places and objects, and pre-validated (IAPS) images, among 19 volunteers (10 female) between 19 and 53 years old. A whole brain analysis showed that meaningful places and IAPS images elicited the largest response in the amygdala, associated with the processing of emotion. Similarly high activity was found for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC),associated with self-referential processing, emotional appraisal, and memory processing. This was not found for meaningful objects or neutral places. The parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed enhanced activity only to personally meaningful places. Personally meaningful places clearly evoke distinctive neurological responses supporting the importance of this holistic and complex concept for human wellbeing.
Marine plastic pollution is a global environmental concern. With reference to approaches in contemporary archaeology, object biographies and psychology, this article presents the application of a novel participatory (‘World Café’) methodology that aims both to understand how marine plastic pollution occurs and to demonstrate the value of the approach for encouraging behaviour change. As proof of concept, the authors present the preliminary results of fieldwork involving local people in the Galápagos archipelago to demonstrate the benefits of an archaeological approach in developing new frameworks to help mitigate this critical environmental threat.
Marine litter is a global, persistent, and increasing threat to the oceans, and numerous initiatives aim to address this challenge. Fishing For Litter (FFL) is a voluntary clean-up scheme, where litter is collected as part of routine fishing operations. We surveyed fishers (n=97) and stakeholders (n=22) in the UK to investigate perceptions of FFL, its strengths and weaknesses, and potential co-benefits of the scheme. Fishers reported being aware of and concerned about the negative impacts of litter. Overall, FFL was evaluated very positively (7.85/10). In addition, FFL fishers reported less environmentally harmful waste management behaviors both out at sea and in other contexts than did non-FFL fishers. Fishers and stakeholders listed strengths and weaknesses of the scheme and made suggestions for future changes. As well as directly helping to remove litter, this paper demonstrates that clean-up schemes can make a contribution to addressing the underlying causes of marine pollution.