Wheeler H, Meitlis R, Hanna P (2011) Singing for Life, In: Arts Partnership Surrey Report
Hanna P (2014) Foucauldian Discourse Analysis in Psychology: Reflecting on a Hybrid Reading of Foucault When Researching ?Ethical Subjects?, Qualitative Research in Psychology 11 (2)
This article attempts to address a novel dilemma the author recently faced when undertaking qualitative psychological research into sustainable tourism. The article embraces notions of reflexivity to highlight how the research process was far removed from the sanitised version often presented in research methods textbooks. The article provides a reflexive account of the struggles of analysing Internet and interview data in relation to sustainable tourism via the dominant version of Foucauldian Discourse Analysis familiar to many qualitative/critical psychologists. Turning to an account of Foucault?s later work on ethics, this article presents an alternative approach to Foucauldian Discourse Analysis that adopts a hybrid reading of Foucault?s work on power, knowledge, and ethics. Drawing on Foucault?s four precepts helps us explore the ways individuals ?cultivate the self as an ethical subject,? and interview data are presented to highlight the ways such an approach can enrich analysis. It is concluded that while presenting issues surrounding understandings of structure and agency, such an approach did offer a pragmatic solution to an ethical question and may indeed be useful in a range of other areas.
Hanna P (2013) Being Sustainable in Unsustainable Environments: the case of sustainable tourism,
Hanna P Ethical holidays or a holiday from ethics? The ethical subject in a liminal space,
Hanna P Consuming sustainable tourism ? cultivating the self as an ethical subject,
Hanna P, Johnson K Foucault and the Ethical Tourist,
Debates surrounding the human impact on climate change have, in recent years, proliferated in political, academic, and public rhetoric. Such debates have also played out in the context of tourism research (e.g. extent to which anthropogenic climate change exists; public understanding in relation to climate change and tourism). Taking these debates as its point of departure, whilst also adopting a post-structuralist position, this paper offers a Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of comments to an online BBC news article concerning climate change. Our analysis finds three key ways responsibility is mitigated through climate change talk: scepticism towards the scientific evidence surrounding climate change; placing responsibility on the ?distant other? through a nationalistic discourse; and presenting CO2 as ?plant food?. The implications of these ways of thinking about climate change are discussed with a focus on how this translates into action related to the sustainability of tourism behaviours. In doing so, it concludes that a deeper understanding of everyday climate talk is essential if the tourism sector is to move towards more sustainable forms of consumption.
Hanna P (2012) Using internet technologies as a research medium, Qualitative Research 12 (2)
Hanna P Public Places, Private Spaces: Using Skype as a Research Medium,
Hanna P, Stenner P, Greco M, Erickson M (2008) Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and psychosocial studies: the report of a small scale survey of psychosocial activity on the internet, In: HSPRC Report
Hanna P (2012) Engaging with the Environmental Crisis, The Psychologist 25 pp. 558-565 The British Psychological Society
Hanna P ?Oh I can?t be bothered today as I am on holiday?: Sustainable Tourism, Sustainable Lifestyes and the Reflexive Subject,
Walker, C, Hanna P (2012) An evaluation of The Brighton Unemployed Families Centre: 2012, In: TBUFC Report
Adams M, Hanna P (2012) Your past is not their present: Time, the other, and ethnocentrism in cross-cultural personality psychology, Theory & Psychology 22 (4)
Recent cross-cultural studies of personality traits have been ambitious in their scope, bringing together dozens of researchers to measure personality across many cultures. The key claim made in this paper is that a persistent form of ethnocentrism mars the presentation and interpretation of findings in cross-cultural studies of personality traits using evolutionary approaches. It is a form long-established as problematic and referred to in anthropology and related social science disciplines as allochronic discourse. A significant research report will be analysed to explore how allochronic discourse, conceptualizations of time, and representations of ?otherness? are utilized. The reproduction of allochronic discourse is argued to indicate a need for cross-cultural personality psychologists to engage in multi-disciplinary debate, embrace innovative methodologies, and acknowledge the cultural specificity of its own conceptual frameworks.
Hanna P, Adams M Social Practice Theory, Sustainable Development and Neo-behaviourism,
Walker C, Hanna P, Cunningham L, Ambrose P (2015) Parasitic encounters in debt: The UK mainstream credit industry, Theory and Psychology 25 (2) pp. 239-256
© The Author(s) 2015Part of making visible the complex of institutions and practices that create and make knowable experiences of debt-related distress is to focus on the classed nature of these experiences. Contemporary bureaucracies of debt and distress need to be understood as reproducing divisions of status, power, and access to resources. The imposition of precarious forms of wage labour for those trapped at the bottom of what is an increasingly polarizing class structure has been shaped by very specific sets of financial practices where a deregulated personal debt industry has integrated subordinate classes into a web of financial relations through private pensions, consumer credit, and mortgages. This article draws upon empirical research with a range of stakeholders in the UK mainstream credit industry. We contend that the institutional logics, discourses, myths, and operational processes of the variety of agencies and actors in the UK mainstream credit sector have, through the radical changes of financial liberalization, evolved into a functional industry. This industry serves to enable, support, and enact social relational and economic practices that can best be understood through the metaphor of parasitism. This paper explores the specific organizational and relational practices that allow the financial exploitation of a beleaguered precariat.
Walker C, Hanna P, Hart A (2015) Psychology Without Psy Professionals: Exploring an
Unemployed Centre Families Project as a Mental
Health Resource, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology
The activities and technologies of the psychology (Psy) disciplines, in the process of privileging
professional understandings of distress, could be seen to be potentially facilitating corrosion in the
capacity of the lay public to understand and ameliorate their distress. This paper draws on the experiences
of people who use an Unemployed Centre Families Project in the South of England to provide
an example of community mental health work that does not draw on the dominant discourses, institutions
or practitioners of the Psy sciences. Through interviews with centre users, staff and volunteers, a
picture emerges of a community space that provides a variety of services, projects and opportunities
that have a very considerable positive impact on the mental well-being of the centre users. This picture
highlights non-medical intersubjective processes that offer possibilities for recoveries from mental
distress but that are often neglected and subordinated in the professional worlds of Psy and psychiatry.
Such centres facilitate social networks and practical help, and transitions in identity can be beneficial
for those experiencing mental distress. In so doing, they make prominent some of the key limitations
of biomedical approaches to recovery.
Hanna P (2011) The mental health project for lesbians, gay men, bisexual and transgender people in Brighton & Hove and beyond. 12 years on&:an independent evaluation of Mindout,
Walker C, Hanna P, Cunningham L (2013) Responsible Individuals and Irresponsible Institutions? A report into mental health and the UK credit industry,
Hanna P (2014) Using Internet Technologies (Such As Skype) as a Research Medium: A Research Note, In: Hillyard S (eds.), Approaches to Fieldwork 2
Hanna P Sustainable Tourism Research ? A Psychosocial Approach,
Hanna P (2013) Reconceptualizing subjectivity in critical social psychology: Turning to Foucault, Theory & Psychology
This article focuses on a reading of Foucault which draws on ?technologies of the self,? as opposed to ?technologies of subjectivity,? and examines the relevance of this work for critical psychology. The article draws on consumerism to highlight the ways in which contemporary individuals understand, and are understood, through a desire to ?know oneself.? Attention then turns to Foucault?s understanding of the precept ?care for the self? to explore the ways in which this enables a reconceptualization of contemporary consumers as both positioned and capable of agency. The article argues that psychology could usefully benefit from an understanding of subjectivity that acknowledges existing power knowledge structures, whilst also looking for moments of resistance via individual techniques such as critical self-reflection, reciprocal relationships, and ultimately a ?care of the self.? This article attempts to advance the interpretation of Foucault within critical psychology and suggest an alternative for theorizing subjectivity.
Hanna P (2009) Conceptualising sustainable tourism ? ethics, inequalities and colonialism, ENQUIRE 2 (1)
Stapleton L, Hanna P, Ravenscroft N (2013) Review of existing practices and trends in relation to the social economy in North West Europe.,
Hanna P Trials and Tribulations of life as an Early Career Researcher,
Hanna P, Meikle S Developing Your Research Career Action Plan,
Hanna P (2012) Answering the call? A multidisciplinary approach to selves and persons, Theory and Psychology 22 (1)
Hanna P (2013) A break from ?reality?: An investigation into the ?experiments with subjectivity?on offer within the promotion of sustainable tourism in the UK, Journal of Consumer Culture 13 (3)
In recent years concerns surrounding the impact of humans on the environment and other humans have been increasingly voiced in the West, particularly in relation to the production?consumption chain. This article aims to explore the trajectories of these social and environmental concerns via the promotion of an explicitly ethical product: sustainable tourism. What follows shall presents a brief account of the ways in which consumer goods are increasingly suggested to offer a means to the ?external? promotional of an ?internal? self. With this in mind it will then be suggested that such a vision of the self is too simplistic and Foucault?s understanding of power, knowledge and ethics briefly presented. This article shall then move on to explore the methodology adopted in the present research, offering an account of the use of the internet in data collection and the framework for analysis employed. Following this the article will turn to explore, via the promotion of sustainable tourism on the internet, the ways in which potential sustainable tourists are being invited to understand themselves as ?ethical? and ?experiment with subjectivity?. Finally, some brief thoughts will be offered regarding the implication of such understandings of ethics and sustainability for both the potential tourist and host community.
Stapleton L, Hanna P, Ravenscroft N, Church A (2014) A flexible ecosystem services proto-typology based on public opinion, Ecological Economics 106 pp. 83-90
Hanna P, Johnson K, Stenner P, Adams M (2014) Foucault, sustainable tourism, and relationships with the environment (human and nonhuman), GeoJournal
Drawing on contemporary research into ethical consumption and sustainable tourism this article starts by outlining the ways in which sustainable tourism (and other forms of ethical consumption) has been understood as a means to perform class based distinctions. At this stage, it is suggested that whilst class may be one factor in understanding such a complex phenomena there might also be a need to examine the practices of sustainable tourist in a manner that takes seriously individual attempts to ?be ethical?. Foucault?s understanding of ethics is then offered as a means through which this can be achieved. A brief account of the method used to read individuals accounts of sustainable tourism through an ethical Foucauldian lens is then presented. Following this the paper presents the analysis of interviews with sustainable tourists focusing on two key elements. Firstly, the analysis presents the emotional and reciprocal elements of interactions between sustainable tourists and the human ?other?. Secondly the analysis examines the relationship between the sustainable tourist and non-human environments to further develop the understanding of the emotional and reciprocal elements in light of a Foucauldian ethics. In conclusion it is suggested that rather than merely representing a mode of class distinction, sustainable tourism can be understood through an appreciation of the emotional and reciprocal relationship with the other, thus taking seriously individuals attempts to engage with ethical practices.
Hanna P Sustainable Tourism ? A humanistic approach? Tourism practices and inequality,
Walker C, Hanna P, Cunningham L, Ambrose P (2014) ?A Kind of mental warfare?: An economy of affect in the UK debt collection
industry, The Australian Community Psychologist 26 (2) pp. 54-67
The ?securitization? of personal debt has increased the supply of credit and transformed
lending patterns to focus on already indebted individuals. This paper draws upon
empirical research with a range of stakeholders in the UK mainstream credit industry in
the South of England to interrogate the impact that recent changes to the industry have
had on the growing number of revolving debtors. It seeks to contribute to the development
of a Critical Community Psychology of debt by providing an account of the ways in which
subjectivities and distress are impacted by engagements with financial institutions. Our
findings suggest that a series of social, political and economic transformations have laid
the grounds for the development of an industry where affective relations are central to the
management of the conduct of a growing number of people. We discuss these findings in
terms of the growing literature which explores the complexity of the intersections between
markets and actions, which stem from and are mediated by the body and which posit
distress as distributed across a range of sociotechnical apparatuses, sites and markets.
Sdei A, Gloriant F, Tittelein P, Lassue S, Hanna P, Beslay C, Gournet R, McEvoy M (2015) Social housing retrofit strategies in England and France: A parametric and behavioural analysis, Energy Research and Social Science 10 pp. 62-71
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.IFORE (Innovation for Renewal) is an EU Interreg funded partnership including two large housing associations, one in England, one in France, and a university from each country. The project is an exemplar large-scale retrofit, 100 houses have been retrofitted at Rushenden, on the Isle of Sheppey (Kent, England), and a similar number at Outreau, a suburb of Boulogne (Pas-de-Calais, France). This paper offers an overview of the methods used by the project team to find common solutions and to identify similarities between retrofit measures and occupant's behaviour in both countries. The cross-border nature of IFORE makes the project also original in relation to other similar national retrofit projects that have been developed prior to it. Dynamic thermal simulation was used to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the buildings refurbished. It is a valuable decision-making tool when assessing alternative retrofit measures. Initial surveys were carried out to make a classification of the housing stock which formed the context for the computer simulations. Some results from the simulations, carried out with ESP-r in England and Pleiade + Comfie in France, are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results from the two simulation tools shows great similarity between the two methods, which gave confidence for their use in evaluating alternative specifications for the works that have now been adopted for retrofit. At the same time sociological studies have characterised the populations in order to bring the most advantageous results from the retrofit works in reducing carbon emissions but also reducing fuel poverty whilst improving comfort standards.
Hanna P Recognising Early Career Research at Brighton University,
There is an evolving tourism literature around psychological wellbeing, social exclusion and disability. This paper advances tourism knowledge into the terrain of psychological health and developmental complexities, and psychological distress. It draws on a phenomenological position to understand the lived experiences of mothers of children with developmental difficulties, in this case diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It discusses the emotional and everyday challenges of caring for a child diagnosed with ASD on holiday, discusses the perceived benefits holidays offer and outlines care-giving strategies adopted by mothers to manage their children?s tourism experiences. The paper discusses the uniqueness of the context of autism and problematizes popular discourses, which predominantly frame tourism as pleasurable settings of escape, stimulation, novelty and relaxation.
Individual aspirations of associating with role models are routinely harnessed by marketers, who for instance, use celebrity endorsement in selling brands and products. It appears there has been no research to date, however, on the potential for celebrity activism, or role model advocacy beyond celebrities, such as from politicians, to form effective interventions for encouraging sustainable transport behaviour. This is despite studies suggesting that celebrity endorsement is a potential gateway for transforming public opinion on carbon intensive transport modes. The present paper consequently offers a critical review of the literature on role model advocacy and celebrity activism, and how these concepts have been harnessed to address environmental issues, in order to conceptually assess the potential for extending these intervention techniques to the context of sustainable transport. The scope of the paper includes the potential that high profile politicians/celebrities might play as role models in exercising referent power to influence social norms surrounding sustainable transport, given that the success of social marketing interventions are closely tied to the need for changes in the policy landscape. Key dimensions of role model endorsement in transport are identified and applied to a series of examples of how celebrity and political role models have influenced transport cultures. In addition to offering an original application of a theoretical framework to a new context, in order to help address the increasingly important societal issue of transport?s growing contribution to climate change, the paper discusses the challenges associated with the neoliberal framing of this approach.
This paper provides an empirical application of some recent developments in the social science of sustainability to understanding sustainable transport behaviour. We analyse talk about holidaymaking taken from interviews with self-defined ?eco? or ?sustainable? tourists. The focus of this paper explores the ways in which participants understand and reconcile the potential conflict of air transport and the notion of sustainable holidays. We identify a number of discursive strategies participants used to project and maintain positive self-representations in the context of complex, often incompatible constructions of sustainability derived from this particular dilemma. Such strategies are considered as concrete examples of the psychosocial organisation of denial and thus offer discursive barriers to sustainable transport futures. However, the analysis also demonstrates the ways in which some individuals were able to resist or challenge such forms of socially organised denial. The potential implications of these discursive barriers and strategies for sustainable transport futures and the tourism sector are discussed.
This book provides a much-needed account of informal community-based approaches to working with mental distress. It starts from the premise that contemporary mainstream psychiatry and psychology struggle to capture how distress results from complex embodied arrays of social experiences that are embedded within specific historical, cultural, political and economic settings. The authors challenge mainstream understandings of mental health that position a naive public in need of mental health literacy. Instead it is clear that a considerable amount of invaluable mental distress work is undertaken in spaces in our communities that are not understood as mental health treatments. This book represents one of the first attempts to position these kinds of spaces at the center of how we understand and address problems of mental distress and suffering. The chapters draw on case studies from the UK and abroad to point toward an exciting new paradigm based on informal community and socially oriented approaches to mental health. Written in an unusually accessible and engaging style, this book will appeal to social science students, academics, practitioners and policy makers interested in community and social approaches to mental health.
Holidaying is an important leisure pursuit and, for a growing minority, air travel is the default mode for holiday mobility. However, the current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. Efforts to motivate reductions in consumption of holiday air travel must contend with the embeddedness of flying as a social practice and should be informed by an understanding of how people prioritize air travel for holidays relative to other forms of consumption. Using data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults, this exploratory study uses a novel method to assess the willingness of individuals to sacrifice holiday air travel relative to their willingness to make changes to their daily consumption patterns. We find a greater readiness to undertake additional expense (of time, effort, or money) than to retrench incumbent consumption patterns in order to fly for holidays. Reluctance to sacrifice for the sake of flying was greatest with regards to those items that are most associated with the basic infrastructure of modern life (e.g., mobile phones). Examining product-specific pro-environmental sacrifice in relative terms, our findings suggest that voluntary reductions in flying is more plausible than other modes of pro-environmental sacrifice.
The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation?s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.
The publication of ?A darker side of hypermobility? (Cohen & Gössling, 2015), which reviewed the personal and social consequences of frequent travel, led to considerable media coverage and sparking of the public imagination, particularly with regards to the impacts of business travel. It featured in more than 85 news outlets across 17 countries, engendering over 150,000 social media shares and 433 media comments from readers, with the latter a source of insight into how the public reacts online when faced with an overview of the negative sides of frequent business travel. The present paper is theoretically framed by the role of discourse in social change and utilises discursive analysis as a method to evaluate this body of media comments. Our analysis finds two key identities are performed through public responses to the explicit health and social warnings concerned with frequent business travel: the ?flourishing hypermobile? and the ?floundering hypermobile?. The former either deny the health implications of frequent business travel, or present strategies to actively overcome them, while the latter seek solace in the public dissemination of the health warnings: they highlight their passivity in the construction of their identity as hypermobile and its associated health implications. The findings reveal a segment of business travellers who wish to reduce travel, but perceive this as beyond their locus of control. Business travel reductions are thus unlikely to happen through the agency of individual travellers, but rather by changes in the structural factors that influence human resource and corporate travel management policies.
This study explores the way in which consumers interpret and process the marketing and communication of sustainable forms of tourism in destinations, in order to inform policy makers about the appropriateness of different types of sustainability messages. Through a thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore the ways in which consumers engage with, and respond to, explicit discourses of sustainability in marketing a tourist destination. We find that overt discourses of sustainability are often rejected by consumers, thus suggesting that messages concerned with sustainability should place greater priority upon consumer experience and opportunities afforded by the purchase and consumption of the travel experience (that happens to be sustainable) they can expect at their chosen destination. As such, commitments to sustainability manifest within organisational philosophy and practice should not drive the principle, overt discourse communicated to consumers. Rather, as embedded within product and practice, such messages would have greater power and effect if they occupied a more subliminal position in destination marketing materials.
This thesis uses a lifestyle migration lens to explore the second-generation Turkish-Germans? ?return? migration to their ancestral homeland. Disappointed with the post-return lives in their parents? towns of origin and/or in big cities like Istanbul, the research?s sample group consciously made the decision to remobilise themselves and resettle in Antalya, a tourism hub in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The narratives reflect that the second generation?s ?return? imaginings and further life choices such as places of settlement are motivated by their goals of ?living a fulfilling life? and have a ?coherent sense of self?. The qualitative study coins a new term, ?lifestyle return migration? which offers a hybrid conceptual framework, alternative to conventional migration theories that evaluate ?return? as an ?income-maximising act?, ?anomaly? and ?homecoming?. Based on the thematic and narrative analysis of 44 semi-structured, in-depth life-story interviews, the findings illustrate that ?lifestyle returnees? perceive Antalya as a place wherein their multiple identities, ?alternative? lifestyles and translocal ties can co-exist. Thus, Antalya?s cosmopolitan setting with many foreign, especially German, tourists and residents are particularly valued. Moreover, they can mobilise their human capital of educational qualifications, bilingual skills and ?transcultural capital? to set up or get jobs in the tourism sector, combining work with leisure in ?tourism spaces? wherein they can sustain a persistent holiday feeling. In addition, the narratives reveal more existential themes of (re-)discovering their ?true? selves and (re-)inventing the meaning of ?home? in this international niche. Subsequently, the thesis aims to highlight the relevance of lifestyle migration approaches to explore complex ?return? decisions through an agency-oriented approach and with a focus on social fields embedded in specific locales.
This paper focuses on establishing a conceptual grounding for the value of dignity in tourism employment for achieving decent work as part of the sustainable development agenda. Dignity is widely acknowledged as a key driver for ?good? work, but little conceptual grounding on the value of dignity in tourism employment has been established. This paper will contribute to the theoretical debate on sustainable tourism by providing a critical review of frameworks for decent work, workplace dignity (or its absence), and understandings of identity. We will explore how the context and conditions of tourism employment are conducive (or not) for offering dignified and sustainable employment. This paper makes two original contributions to knowledge. First, it introduces a psychosocial understanding of dignity in tourism employment, reflecting its deeply rooted individual, organisational, societal and policy aspects, and recognising the actors involved. Second, the critical importance of dignity in tourism employment for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is discussed, with future research directions identified.
This article draws on the conflicting arguments surrounding outdoor adventure tourism activities to determine if such activities might usefully be considered beneficial for humans and nature, and how they might offer avenues for sustainable tourism practice. Research in the field has often examined outdoor adventure activities through a lens that either highlights their negative environmental impacts or has sought to conceptualise motivations and/or experiences. In this article, we argue that through practices that are often seen as destructive, there is the possibility to think differently about human-nature relationships and pro-environmentalism. To explore these issues, we draw on data collected from a series of semi-structured interviews with outdoor adventure tourists. Our analysis highlights how outdoor adventure tourism facilitates reconnections to nature, offering potential wellbeing impacts and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. We conclude that outdoor adventure activities as a form of sustainable tourism have potential implications for our understanding of, and engagement with, sustainability, mental health and wellbeing.
Despite increasing geographic mobility among academic staff, gendered patterns of involvement in academic mobility have largely escaped scrutiny. Positioned within literatures on internationalisation, physical proximity, gender and parenthood in academic mobility and understandings of gender as a process enacted through both discursive and embodied practices, we use discourse analysis based on interviews with academics in New Zealand to examine differences in language that create differing realities with regards to gender and obligations of care in academic mobility decisions. The findings reveal how academic mobility is discursively formulated as ?essential? to successful academic careers, with the need for frequent travel justified despite advances in virtual communication technologies. Heteronormative discourses are shown to disrupt and fragment the opportunities female academics have to engage in academic mobility. However, we also uncover ways in which these discourses are resisted, wherein fathers articulate emotional strain associated with academic mobility. The paper shows how discourse works to constitute the essentialisation of academic mobility, and the uneven gendered practices associated with it, whilst also giving voice to gender inequities in academic mobility from the southern hemisphere.
Air travel is often justified as ?necessary? or ?unavoidable?, in the sense that trips have purpose and value. Yet it is evident that people travel for reasons that may include forced and voluntary movement, with motives ranging from visiting friends and family, to leisure, or business. In light of the challenge to decarbonise transport, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this paper discusses the perceived necessity of flight from individual and societal perspectives, while considering moral and economic viewpoints. It suggests that travel motives have different degrees of ?urgency?, and that the ?necessity of flight? cannot be generalised. To empirically test this hypothesis in an exploratory survey, we used mixed methods to examine the perspectives of 29 international students at Lund University, Sweden on the perceived importance of their flights (n/=/587) over a six-year period (2012?2017). Results show that the value associated with individual flights depends on flight motive, experience, life stage, or situational factors. Notably, almost half of the leisure flights made lack importance. Implications are discussed in the context of climate policy and the future development of the aviation system.