University roles and responsibilities

  • Research Director in Clinical Psychology
  • Senior Lecturer in Clinical Psychology

    My qualifications

    PhD Social Psychology
    University of Brighton
    MSc Applied Social Psychology
    University of Sussex
    BA (Hons) Applied Social Science
    University of Brighton

    Business, industry and community links


    Research interests


    Postgraduate research supervision

    Completed postgraduate research projects I have supervised

    My publications


    Anke Winchenbach, Paul Hanna, Graham Miller (2019)Rethinking decent work: the value of dignity in tourism employment, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism27(7)pp. pp 1026-1043 Taylor and Francis

    This paper focuses on establishing a conceptual grounding for the value of dignity in tourism employment for achieving decent work as part of the sustainable development agenda. Dignity is widely acknowledged as a key driver for ‘good’ work, but little conceptual grounding on the value of dignity in tourism employment has been established. This paper will contribute to the theoretical debate on sustainable tourism by providing a critical review of frameworks for decent work, workplace dignity (or its absence), and understandings of identity. We will explore how the context and conditions of tourism employment are conducive (or not) for offering dignified and sustainable employment. This paper makes two original contributions to knowledge. First, it introduces a psychosocial understanding of dignity in tourism employment, reflecting its deeply rooted individual, organisational, societal and policy aspects, and recognising the actors involved. Second, the critical importance of dignity in tourism employment for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is discussed, with future research directions identified.

    The paper explores how second-generation Turkish-German ‘returnees’ benefit from their “inbetweenness” in their ancestral homeland and initiate a process of re-inventing themselves as ‘transcultural mediators’. A thematic-narrative analysis was undertaken on 43 in-depth interviews with second-generation Turkish-German ‘return’ migrants to Antalya who had acquired jobs in the tourism sector. The paper unpacks how this tourism hub provides “third spaces” distanced from prominent national and diasporic identities, and the ways in which these liberating spaces encourage the lifestyle-style oriented, cosmopolitan second-generation ‘returnees’ to re-position themselves in their translocal social fields. The findings illustrate how the second generation, who formerly endured “being twice a stranger” in Germany and Turkey, undertake a process of transculturation in Antalya, and utilise their “transcultural capital” (i.e., bilingual skills, bi- multilingualism, translocal habitus) to perform different aspects of their multiple and hybrid identities, gain economic independence and build social relations.

    James Higham, PAUL HANNA, Debbie Hopkins, SCOTT ALLEN COHEN, Stefan Gössling, Nicole Cocolas (2021)Reconfiguring Aviation for a Climate-Safe Future: Are Airlines Sending the Wrong Message?, In: Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications

    Aviation remains a problematic sector of the global economy in times of climate emergency. Grounded in the ideology of reconfiguration, we adopt a system transitions perspective to address high emissions leisure travel. Our focus falls on the marketing communications of airlines as a critical component in the prevailing sociotechnical regime. Thematic analysis of the e-mail marketing communications of selected airlines revealed three prominent tropes: adventure and discovery; privilege; and urgency. These communications bring air travel into the everyday lives of consumers and accelerate the turnover time of tourist consumption. Time is mobilized to create a sense of resource scarcity and urgency to consume, paradoxically in a situation characterized by oversupply. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a unique opportunity for structural reform of the airline industry. Component substitution to address airline marketing is required as an important step toward overcoming consumer moral disengagement and reconfiguring the airline industry.

    D Sedgley, A Pritchard, N Morgan, Paul Hanna (2017)Tourism and autism: journeys of mixed emotions, In: Annals of Tourism Research66pp. 14-25 Elsevier

    There is an evolving tourism literature around psychological wellbeing, social exclusion and disability. This paper advances tourism knowledge into the terrain of psychological health and developmental complexities, and psychological distress. It draws on a phenomenological position to understand the lived experiences of mothers of children with developmental difficulties, in this case diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It discusses the emotional and everyday challenges of caring for a child diagnosed with ASD on holiday, discusses the perceived benefits holidays offer and outlines care-giving strategies adopted by mothers to manage their children’s tourism experiences. The paper discusses the uniqueness of the context of autism and problematizes popular discourses, which predominantly frame tourism as pleasurable settings of escape, stimulation, novelty and relaxation.

    Nick Francis, Paul Hanna (2020)Informal carer experiences of UK dementia services-A systematic review, In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
    Sophie Andrews, Paul Hanna (2020)Investigating the psychological mechanisms underlying the relationship between nightmares, suicide and self-harm, In: Sleep Medicine Reviews101352 Elsevier

    Evidence suggests that nightmares increase the risk of suicide and self-harm, independently of insomnia, PTSD, anxiety and depression. A better understanding of this relationship is vital for the development of effective suicide and self-harm interventions. A systematic review of the research investigating the mechanisms underlying the nightmare and suicide/self-harm relationship was therefore conducted. Findings from twelve studies were critically appraised and synthesised under the headings of affect/emotion regulation, cognitive appraisals, psychosocial factors, acquired capability and depression. Despite clear variability in the methodology employed by the studies, the initial evidence suggests cognitive appraisals and affect/emotion regulation play a key role in the nightmare and suicide/self-harm relationship. Consideration is given for the first time to the differences in the mechanisms underlying the relationship between nightmares and suicide. In order to further elucidate and support these findings however, future research utilising longitudinal designs, objective measures of sleep disturbance and investigating the emotional content of nightmares is vital. There is also a call for studies investigating the impact of nightmare interventions on subsequent suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and self-harm. This is especially so given that individuals might find it easier to seek help for nightmares than for suicidality or self-harm.

    Scott Cohen, Hongbo Liu, Paul Hanna, Debbie Hopkins, James Higham, Stefan Gössling (2021)The Rich Kids of Instagram: Luxury Travel, Transport Modes, and Desire, In: Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications

    The Rich Kids of Instagram (RKOI) portray luxury lifestyles on social media. The potential roles of travel and transport within these online displays of affluence have not yet been examined. This paper’s purpose is to analyse how transport modes and luxury travel are depicted and interrelated through RKOI images. Co-occurrence analyses were conducted using a data set of Instagram posts with RKOI as a hashtag (2012–2018) to visualize the roles of transport modes and luxury travel in RKOI image construction. The findings demonstrate that both energy-intensive transport modes and luxury travel, whether through air/watercraft or luxury cars, play a vital role in signaling RKOI’s self-image on Instagram, with gendered differences. The article contributes an original conceptual model of how RKOI construct their image using transport modes and luxury travel. Implications for the social normalization of carbon-intensive transport choices, coupled with luxury destinations as a backdrop, are discussed.

    Hannah Meechan, Mary John, Paul Hanna (2021)Understandings of mental health and support for Black male adolescents living in the UK, In: Children and Youth Services Review129106192 Elsevier

    Black males within Western society, who navigate recurrent racism and discrimination, have frequently been constructed as “high risk” for mental health difficulties. Research, particularly in the USA, has identified the barriers that Black males face in relation to seeking help, with research outlining the underutilisation of mental health services and overrepresentation of acute mental health diagnoses such as psychosis. Research within the UK has explored barriers to help-seeking amongst males in general, or adult Black males who are within the mental health or prison systems, yet to date little is known about the ways in which Black male adolescent youth outside of formal services understand mental health. Therefore, this paper offers a contribution to knowledge by examining the way in which young Black males in the UK make sense of mental health and associated systems of support. Data from ten interviews with males aged 16–18 from a South London school was collected and analysed using thematic analysis (TA). The young Black males’ understandings of mental health were embedded with notions of masculinity, being in control and strong, and they understood mental health as something that is experienced by other people. Formal support for mental health difficulties was constructed as an unfamiliar and unapproachable system, that is often unkind and discriminatory towards Black males. Speaking to family and friends about mental health difficulties felt more accessible for these young males, however their construct of mental health and constructs within the community provided further silencing on using this support. This study suggests important implications for understanding the experiences of mental health and seeking support amongst Black male adolescents in the UK.

    This article attempts to address a novel dilemma the author recently faced when undertaking qualitative psychological research into sustainable tourism. The article embraces notions of reflexivity to highlight how the research process was far removed from the sanitised version often presented in research methods textbooks. The article provides a reflexive account of the struggles of analysing Internet and interview data in relation to sustainable tourism via the dominant version of Foucauldian Discourse Analysis familiar to many qualitative/critical psychologists. Turning to an account of Foucault’s later work on ethics, this article presents an alternative approach to Foucauldian Discourse Analysis that adopts a hybrid reading of Foucault’s work on power, knowledge, and ethics. Drawing on Foucault’s four precepts helps us explore the ways individuals “cultivate the self as an ethical subject,” and interview data are presented to highlight the ways such an approach can enrich analysis. It is concluded that while presenting issues surrounding understandings of structure and agency, such an approach did offer a pragmatic solution to an ethical question and may indeed be useful in a range of other areas.

    P Hanna, K Johnson (2017)Foucault and the Ethical Tourist
    P Hanna, C Scarles, SA Cohen, M Adams (2016)Everyday climate discourses and sustainable tourism, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor & Francis

    Debates surrounding the human impact on climate change have, in recent years, proliferated in political, academic, and public rhetoric. Such debates have also played out in the context of tourism research (e.g. extent to which anthropogenic climate change exists; public understanding in relation to climate change and tourism). Taking these debates as its point of departure, whilst also adopting a post-structuralist position, this paper offers a Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of comments to an online BBC news article concerning climate change. Our analysis finds three key ways responsibility is mitigated through climate change talk: scepticism towards the scientific evidence surrounding climate change; placing responsibility on the ‘distant other’ through a nationalistic discourse; and presenting CO2 as ‘plant food’. The implications of these ways of thinking about climate change are discussed with a focus on how this translates into action related to the sustainability of tourism behaviours. In doing so, it concludes that a deeper understanding of everyday climate talk is essential if the tourism sector is to move towards more sustainable forms of consumption.

    Paul Hanna, Carl Walker (2020)The UK Higher Education Senior Management Survey: a statactivist response to managerialist governance, In: Studies in Higher Education Taylor and Francis

    In this paper we present results from an extensive survey of United Kingdom (UK) university academics investigating satisfaction with senior managers and university governance: the Senior Management Survey (SMS). 5,888 academic staff across the United Kingdom Higher Education (HE) sector completed the survey, and results were used to construct a league table of staff satisfaction with management. This table is a stark indictment of the current state of the UK HE sector, showing a mean satisfaction score of 10.54%. The SMS also collected qualitative data, and we extend the league table’s insights using this data. Thematic analysis revealed seven major themes: the dominance and brutality of metrics; excessive workload; governance and accountability; perpetual change; vanity projects; the silenced academic; work and mental health. We conclude with a discussion of how this statactivist research can be used to bring about change in management and governance of UK HE.

    Paul Hanna, Xavier Font, Caroline Scarles, Clare Weeden, Charlotte Harrison (2017)Tourist destination marketing: From sustainability myopia to memorable experiences, In: Journal of Destination Marketing & Management9pp. 36-43 Elsevier

    This study explores the way in which consumers interpret and process the marketing and communication of sustainable forms of tourism in destinations, in order to inform policy makers about the appropriateness of different types of sustainability messages. Through a thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore the ways in which consumers engage with, and respond to, explicit discourses of sustainability in marketing a tourist destination. We find that overt discourses of sustainability are often rejected by consumers, thus suggesting that messages concerned with sustainability should place greater priority upon consumer experience and opportunities afforded by the purchase and consumption of the travel experience (that happens to be sustainable) they can expect at their chosen destination. As such, commitments to sustainability manifest within organisational philosophy and practice should not drive the principle, overt discourse communicated to consumers. Rather, as embedded within product and practice, such messages would have greater power and effect if they occupied a more subliminal position in destination marketing materials.

    Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity a nd other variants on disciplinarity are now thriving topics of academic and policy interest. There is much talk of the need for novel institutional arrangements and a new knowledge „culture‟ which might better support modes of communication, thinking and p ractice that foster and sustain collaborative work between, across and beyond disciplines. Transdisciplinarity in particular is often presented in terms of a vital transformation in the nature of knowledge production and in the relations between „science‟ and „society‟, although different accounts emphasize different aspects. In this study, entitled “Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and psychosocial studies”, we focus on inter and transdisciplinary research that goes under the label of psychosocial studies. In principle, such work cuts across the boundaries between the various psy - sciences and practices and the various social sciences, especially sociology, but work operating under this label may also draw more broadly upon influences from the natur al sciences and the humantitiess. This topic was of particular interest since Psychosocial Studies has become a core research theme in SASS. The findings will thus prove of use to the further development of this group, and to the articulation of specific r esearch programmes.

    S. Simpson, C. Jones, PAUL HANNA (2021)A systematic review of parents’ experiences of raising a child with type 1 diabetes, In: British Journal of Diabetes ABCD

    Background: There are currently 1.1 million young people estimated to have type 1 diabetes (T1D) across the world. A diagnosis of T1D impacts not only the children’s lives but also the parent’s. Aim: To understand the experiences of parents raising a child with T1D. Methods: For inclusion, studies had to report qualitative data on parents' experiences of raising a child with a diagnosis of T1D. Parents included mothers, fathers or any other primary caregivers. Eleven databases were systematically searched for relevant articles. Studies were quality assessed and study characteristics extracted. The data was thematically synthesised. Results: Thirty two studies met inclusion. Thematic synthesis yielded, two analytic themes; ‘adjusting to a new reality’ and ‘navigating appropriate T1D support’. The five descriptive themes that contributed to these were ‘distressing diagnostic experience’, ‘change of life routine’, ‘enablers and barriers to support from others’, ‘reconstruction of family dynamics’ and ‘psychological impact over time’. Conclusions: Difficulties parents encounter in support received from school and healthcare professionals are highlighted. Parents’ mental health needs should be attended to throughout T1D clinic appointments. Future research should explore fathers' experiences, as well as characteristics (such as employment status, education, relationship status and underlying mental health issues) which may effect parental experience.

    P Hanna (2014)Using Internet Technologies (Such As Skype) as a Research Medium: A Research Note, In: S Hillyard (eds.), Approaches to Fieldwork2
    Joseph Kantenbacher, Paul Hanna, Scott Cohen, Graham Miller, Caroline Scarles (2017)Public Attitudes about Policy Options for Aviation. Environmental Science and Policy, In: Environmental Science and Policy81pp. 46-53 Elsevier

    The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation’s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.

    C Walker, P Hanna, A Hart (2015)Psychology Without Psy Professionals: Exploring an Unemployed Centre Families Project as a Mental Health Resource, In: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology

    The activities and technologies of the psychology (Psy) disciplines, in the process of privileging professional understandings of distress, could be seen to be potentially facilitating corrosion in the capacity of the lay public to understand and ameliorate their distress. This paper draws on the experiences of people who use an Unemployed Centre Families Project in the South of England to provide an example of community mental health work that does not draw on the dominant discourses, institutions or practitioners of the Psy sciences. Through interviews with centre users, staff and volunteers, a picture emerges of a community space that provides a variety of services, projects and opportunities that have a very considerable positive impact on the mental well-being of the centre users. This picture highlights non-medical intersubjective processes that offer possibilities for recoveries from mental distress but that are often neglected and subordinated in the professional worlds of Psy and psychiatry. Such centres facilitate social networks and practical help, and transitions in identity can be beneficial for those experiencing mental distress. In so doing, they make prominent some of the key limitations of biomedical approaches to recovery.

    Lucy Watson, Paul Hanna, Christina J Jones (2021)A systematic review of the experience of being a sibling of a child with an autism spectrum disorder, In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Sage

    Difficulties associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders can cause considerable impact on personal, familial, social, educational and occupational functioning. Living with a child who has an Autism Spectrum Disorder can therefore pose a challenge to family members, including typically developing siblings. However, it is only in recent years that the experience of typically developing siblings has become a focal point. A systematic review using keywords across six databases was undertaken to summarise qualitative studies that focused on the experience of being a sibling of a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria and a thematic synthesis was completed. The synthesis found that having a sibling who has an Autism Spectrum Disorder can impact typically developing sibling's self-identity and personal development in a number of ways. Similarly, interactions with the sibling who has Autism Spectrum Disorders and with other individuals can evoke a myriad of experiences that can both benefit and challenge typically developing siblings. The ability of typically developing siblings to cope with adverse experiences needs to remain a focus. This synthesis concludes that further research is needed to identify which methods are the most effective in supporting typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Aarni Tuomi, Iis P Tussyadiah, Paul Hanna (2021)Spicing up hospitality service encounters: the case of Pepper, In: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Emerald

    Purpose This paper aims to explore the implications of integrating humanoid service robots into hospitality service encounters by evaluating two service prototypes using Softbank Robotics’ popular service robot Pepper™: to provide information (akin to a receptionist) and to facilitate order-taking (akin to a server). Drawing both studies together, the paper puts forward novel, theory-informed yet context-rooted design principles for humanoid robot adoption in hospitality service encounters. Design/methodology/approach Adopting a multiple method qualitative approach, two service prototypes are evaluated with hospitality and tourism experts (N = 30, Prototype 1) and frontline hospitality employees (N = 18, Prototype 2) using participant observation, in situ feedback, semi-structured interviews and photo-elicitation. Findings The adoption of humanoid service robots in hospitality is influenced by the following four layers of determinants: contextual, social, interactional and psychological factors, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic drivers of adoption. These empirical findings both confirm and extend previous conceptualizations of human-robot interaction (HRI) in hospitality service. Research limitations/implications Despite using photo-elicitation to evoke insight regarding the use of different types of service robots in hospitality, the paper mostly focuses on anthropomorphized service robots such as Pepper™. Practical implications Adopting humanoid service robots will transform hospitality operations, whereby the most routine, unpleasant tasks such as taking repeat orders or dealing with complaints may be delegated to service robots or human-robot teams. Social implications Working with and receiving service from Pepper™ changes the service encounter from direct practical, technical considerations to more nuanced social and psychological implications, particularly around feelings of self-esteem, social pressure and social judgment. Originality/value This paper presents one of the first empirical studies on HRI in hospitality service encounters using Softbank Robotics’ Pepper™. In doing so, the paper presents a novel framework for service robot adoption rooted in first-hand user interaction as opposed to previous, theory-driven conceptualizations of behavior or empirical studies exploring behavioral intention.

    P Hanna, K Johnson, P Stenner, M Adams (2014)Foucault, sustainable tourism, and relationships with the environment (human and nonhuman), In: GeoJournal

    Drawing on contemporary research into ethical consumption and sustainable tourism this article starts by outlining the ways in which sustainable tourism (and other forms of ethical consumption) has been understood as a means to perform class based distinctions. At this stage, it is suggested that whilst class may be one factor in understanding such a complex phenomena there might also be a need to examine the practices of sustainable tourist in a manner that takes seriously individual attempts to ‘be ethical’. Foucault’s understanding of ethics is then offered as a means through which this can be achieved. A brief account of the method used to read individuals accounts of sustainable tourism through an ethical Foucauldian lens is then presented. Following this the paper presents the analysis of interviews with sustainable tourists focusing on two key elements. Firstly, the analysis presents the emotional and reciprocal elements of interactions between sustainable tourists and the human ‘other’. Secondly the analysis examines the relationship between the sustainable tourist and non-human environments to further develop the understanding of the emotional and reciprocal elements in light of a Foucauldian ethics. In conclusion it is suggested that rather than merely representing a mode of class distinction, sustainable tourism can be understood through an appreciation of the emotional and reciprocal relationship with the other, thus taking seriously individuals attempts to engage with ethical practices.

    Joseph Kantenbacher, Paul Hanna, Graham Miller, Caroline Scarles, Jingjing Yang (2017)Consumer priorities: What would people sacrifice in order to fly on holidays?, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Taylor & Francis

    Holidaying is an important leisure pursuit and, for a growing minority, air travel is the default mode for holiday mobility. However, the current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. Efforts to motivate reductions in consumption of holiday air travel must contend with the embeddedness of flying as a social practice and should be informed by an understanding of how people prioritize air travel for holidays relative to other forms of consumption. Using data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults, this exploratory study uses a novel method to assess the willingness of individuals to sacrifice holiday air travel relative to their willingness to make changes to their daily consumption patterns. We find a greater readiness to undertake additional expense (of time, effort, or money) than to retrench incumbent consumption patterns in order to fly for holidays. Reluctance to sacrifice for the sake of flying was greatest with regards to those items that are most associated with the basic infrastructure of modern life (e.g., mobile phones). Examining product-specific pro-environmental sacrifice in relative terms, our findings suggest that voluntary reductions in flying is more plausible than other modes of pro-environmental sacrifice.

    A Sdei, F Gloriant, P Tittelein, S Lassue, P Hanna, C Beslay, R Gournet, M McEvoy (2015)Social housing retrofit strategies in England and France: A parametric and behavioural analysis, In: Energy Research and Social Science10pp. 62-71

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.IFORE (Innovation for Renewal) is an EU Interreg funded partnership including two large housing associations, one in England, one in France, and a university from each country. The project is an exemplar large-scale retrofit, 100 houses have been retrofitted at Rushenden, on the Isle of Sheppey (Kent, England), and a similar number at Outreau, a suburb of Boulogne (Pas-de-Calais, France). This paper offers an overview of the methods used by the project team to find common solutions and to identify similarities between retrofit measures and occupant's behaviour in both countries. The cross-border nature of IFORE makes the project also original in relation to other similar national retrofit projects that have been developed prior to it. Dynamic thermal simulation was used to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the buildings refurbished. It is a valuable decision-making tool when assessing alternative retrofit measures. Initial surveys were carried out to make a classification of the housing stock which formed the context for the computer simulations. Some results from the simulations, carried out with ESP-r in England and Pleiade + Comfie in France, are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results from the two simulation tools shows great similarity between the two methods, which gave confidence for their use in evaluating alternative specifications for the works that have now been adopted for retrofit. At the same time sociological studies have characterised the populations in order to bring the most advantageous results from the retrofit works in reducing carbon emissions but also reducing fuel poverty whilst improving comfort standards.

    This article focuses on a reading of Foucault which draws on “technologies of the self,” as opposed to “technologies of subjectivity,” and examines the relevance of this work for critical psychology. The article draws on consumerism to highlight the ways in which contemporary individuals understand, and are understood, through a desire to “know oneself.” Attention then turns to Foucault’s understanding of the precept “care for the self” to explore the ways in which this enables a reconceptualization of contemporary consumers as both positioned and capable of agency. The article argues that psychology could usefully benefit from an understanding of subjectivity that acknowledges existing power knowledge structures, whilst also looking for moments of resistance via individual techniques such as critical self-reflection, reciprocal relationships, and ultimately a “care of the self.” This article attempts to advance the interpretation of Foucault within critical psychology and suggest an alternative for theorizing subjectivity.

    Scott Cohen, Jason Stienmetz, Paul Hanna, Michael Humbracht, Debbie Hopkins (2020)Shadowcasting tourism knowledge through media: Self-driving sex cars?, In: Annals of tourism research85103061 Elsevier Ltd

    Tourism is central to late-modern life, and tourism research that threatens this centrality is prone to media attention. Framed by sociotechnical transitions theory, we introduce the concept of ‘shadowcasting’ to show how tourism knowledge disseminated through the media, combined with public comments on its reporting, cast shadows that co-constitute imagined futures. We illustrate shadowcasting through a mixed method approach that demonstrates how media reporting and public comments on a recent paper on autonomous vehicles in tourism emerged and diverged from the original paper. Our findings reveal that issues around sex and terrorism were sensationalised, generating diverse public discourses that challenge linear visions of future transport efficiency. Our concluding discussion indicates other tourism research contexts that are most inclined to shadowcasting. •Reveals how tourism research is bound up in future-making through media reporting.•Introduces and develops the concept of ‘shadowcasting’.•Shows this process through a recent paper on autonomous vehicles in tourism.•Finds that issues around sex and terrorism were sensationalised.•Indicates other tourism research contexts inclined to shadowcasting.

    Paul Hanna, Joseph Kantenbacher, Scott Cohen, S Gössling (2017)Role model advocacy for sustainable transport, In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment61pp. 373-382 Elsevier

    Individual aspirations of associating with role models are routinely harnessed by marketers, who for instance, use celebrity endorsement in selling brands and products. It appears there has been no research to date, however, on the potential for celebrity activism, or role model advocacy beyond celebrities, such as from politicians, to form effective interventions for encouraging sustainable transport behaviour. This is despite studies suggesting that celebrity endorsement is a potential gateway for transforming public opinion on carbon intensive transport modes. The present paper consequently offers a critical review of the literature on role model advocacy and celebrity activism, and how these concepts have been harnessed to address environmental issues, in order to conceptually assess the potential for extending these intervention techniques to the context of sustainable transport. The scope of the paper includes the potential that high profile politicians/celebrities might play as role models in exercising referent power to influence social norms surrounding sustainable transport, given that the success of social marketing interventions are closely tied to the need for changes in the policy landscape. Key dimensions of role model endorsement in transport are identified and applied to a series of examples of how celebrity and political role models have influenced transport cultures. In addition to offering an original application of a theoretical framework to a new context, in order to help address the increasingly important societal issue of transport’s growing contribution to climate change, the paper discusses the challenges associated with the neoliberal framing of this approach.

    C Walker, P Hanna, L Cunningham, P Ambrose (2015)Parasitic encounters in debt: The UK mainstream credit industry, In: THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY25(2)pp. 239-256 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
    Xiongbin Gao, Scott Cohen, Paul Hanna (2020)Hitchhiking travel in China: Gender, agency and vulnerability, In: Annals of Tourism Research84103002 Annals of Tourism Research

    Despite its recent emergence as an alternative way of travel, hitchhiking in China remains significantly understudied, with its gender aspects unexplored. Investigating the (re)constitution of gendered Chinese hitchhiking subjects in contemporary China, this paper rethinks the paradox of agency largely unexamined in tourism gender research. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted on the South Sichuan – Tibet Route. The findings demonstrate that gendered subjectivities of the vulnerable female and the invulnerable male in hitchhiking are produced by normative heterosexuality and the principle of reciprocity as interrelated discursive regimes. The paper contributes an understanding of resistance as a contested site that accommodates ongoing political debates and ethical reflections, which requires agency to be continuously posed as a question rather than a solution.

    S.A. Cohen, P. Hanna, J. Higham, D. Hopkins, C. Orchiston (2019)Gender discourses in academic mobility, In: Gender, Work and Organization(27)pp. 149-165 Wiley

    Despite increasing geographic mobility among academic staff, gendered patterns of involvement in academic mobility have largely escaped scrutiny. Positioned within literatures on internationalisation, physical proximity, gender and parenthood in academic mobility and understandings of gender as a process enacted through both discursive and embodied practices, we use discourse analysis based on interviews with academics in New Zealand to examine differences in language that create differing realities with regards to gender and obligations of care in academic mobility decisions. The findings reveal how academic mobility is discursively formulated as ‘essential’ to successful academic careers, with the need for frequent travel justified despite advances in virtual communication technologies. Heteronormative discourses are shown to disrupt and fragment the opportunities female academics have to engage in academic mobility. However, we also uncover ways in which these discourses are resisted, wherein fathers articulate emotional strain associated with academic mobility. The paper shows how discourse works to constitute the essentialisation of academic mobility, and the uneven gendered practices associated with it, whilst also giving voice to gender inequities in academic mobility from the southern hemisphere.

    Stefan Gössling, Paul Hanna, James Higham, Scott Cohen, Debbie Hopkins (2019)Can we fly less? Evaluating the ‘necessity’ of air travel, In: Journal of Air Transport Management81 Elsevier

    Air travel is often justified as ‘necessary’ or ‘unavoidable’, in the sense that trips have purpose and value. Yet it is evident that people travel for reasons that may include forced and voluntary movement, with motives ranging from visiting friends and family, to leisure, or business. In light of the challenge to decarbonise transport, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this paper discusses the perceived necessity of flight from individual and societal perspectives, while considering moral and economic viewpoints. It suggests that travel motives have different degrees of ‘urgency’, and that the ‘necessity of flight’ cannot be generalised. To empirically test this hypothesis in an exploratory survey, we used mixed methods to examine the perspectives of 29 international students at Lund University, Sweden on the perceived importance of their flights (n = 587) over a six-year period (2012–2017). Results show that the value associated with individual flights depends on flight motive, experience, life stage, or situational factors. Notably, almost half of the leisure flights made lack importance. Implications are discussed in the context of climate policy and the future development of the aviation system.

    In recent years concerns surrounding the impact of humans on the environment and other humans have been increasingly voiced in the West, particularly in relation to the production–consumption chain. This article aims to explore the trajectories of these social and environmental concerns via the promotion of an explicitly ethical product: sustainable tourism. What follows shall presents a brief account of the ways in which consumer goods are increasingly suggested to offer a means to the ‘external’ promotional of an ‘internal’ self. With this in mind it will then be suggested that such a vision of the self is too simplistic and Foucault’s understanding of power, knowledge and ethics briefly presented. This article shall then move on to explore the methodology adopted in the present research, offering an account of the use of the internet in data collection and the framework for analysis employed. Following this the article will turn to explore, via the promotion of sustainable tourism on the internet, the ways in which potential sustainable tourists are being invited to understand themselves as ‘ethical’ and ‘experiment with subjectivity’. Finally, some brief thoughts will be offered regarding the implication of such understandings of ethics and sustainability for both the potential tourist and host community.

    Recent cross-cultural studies of personality traits have been ambitious in their scope, bringing together dozens of researchers to measure personality across many cultures. The key claim made in this paper is that a persistent form of ethnocentrism mars the presentation and interpretation of findings in cross-cultural studies of personality traits using evolutionary approaches. It is a form long-established as problematic and referred to in anthropology and related social science disciplines as allochronic discourse. A significant research report will be analysed to explore how allochronic discourse, conceptualizations of time, and representations of “otherness” are utilized. The reproduction of allochronic discourse is argued to indicate a need for cross-cultural personality psychologists to engage in multi-disciplinary debate, embrace innovative methodologies, and acknowledge the cultural specificity of its own conceptual frameworks.

    Paul Hanna, Sarah Wijesinghe, Ilias Paliatsos, Carl Walker, Matthew Adams, Albert Kimbu (2019)Active engagement with nature: outdoor adventure tourism, sustainability and wellbeing, In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism27(9)pp. 1355-1373 Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

    This article draws on the conflicting arguments surrounding outdoor adventure tourism activities to determine if such activities might usefully be considered beneficial for humans and nature, and how they might offer avenues for sustainable tourism practice. Research in the field has often examined outdoor adventure activities through a lens that either highlights their negative environmental impacts or has sought to conceptualise motivations and/or experiences. In this article, we argue that through practices that are often seen as destructive, there is the possibility to think differently about human-nature relationships and pro-environmentalism. To explore these issues, we draw on data collected from a series of semi-structured interviews with outdoor adventure tourists. Our analysis highlights how outdoor adventure tourism facilitates reconnections to nature, offering potential wellbeing impacts and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. We conclude that outdoor adventure activities as a form of sustainable tourism have potential implications for our understanding of, and engagement with, sustainability, mental health and wellbeing.

    This paper provides an empirical application of some recent developments in the social science of sustainability to understanding sustainable transport behaviour. We analyse talk about holidaymaking taken from interviews with self-defined “eco” or “sustainable” tourists. The focus of this paper explores the ways in which participants understand and reconcile the potential conflict of air transport and the notion of sustainable holidays. We identify a number of discursive strategies participants used to project and maintain positive self-representations in the context of complex, often incompatible constructions of sustainability derived from this particular dilemma. Such strategies are considered as concrete examples of the psychosocial organisation of denial and thus offer discursive barriers to sustainable transport futures. However, the analysis also demonstrates the ways in which some individuals were able to resist or challenge such forms of socially organised denial. The potential implications of these discursive barriers and strategies for sustainable transport futures and the tourism sector are discussed.

    C Walker, P Hanna, L Cunningham, P Ambrose (2014)‘A Kind of mental warfare’: An economy of affect in the UK debt collection industry, In: The Australian Community Psychologist26(2)pp. 54-67

    The ‘securitization’ of personal debt has increased the supply of credit and transformed lending patterns to focus on already indebted individuals. This paper draws upon empirical research with a range of stakeholders in the UK mainstream credit industry in the South of England to interrogate the impact that recent changes to the industry have had on the growing number of revolving debtors. It seeks to contribute to the development of a Critical Community Psychology of debt by providing an account of the ways in which subjectivities and distress are impacted by engagements with financial institutions. Our findings suggest that a series of social, political and economic transformations have laid the grounds for the development of an industry where affective relations are central to the management of the conduct of a growing number of people. We discuss these findings in terms of the growing literature which explores the complexity of the intersections between markets and actions, which stem from and are mediated by the body and which posit distress as distributed across a range of sociotechnical apparatuses, sites and markets.

    Joseph Kantenbacher, P Hanna, Scott Cohen, Graham Miller, Caroline Scarles (2017)Public attitudes about climate policy options for aviation, In: Environmental Science & Policy81pp. 46-53 Elsevier

    The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation’s environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch public opinion of environmental aviation policies, this work uses data drawn from a survey of 2066 British adults to make a quantitative assessment of the acceptability of a broad range of aviation climate policy options. The findings indicate that there is significant support across demographic groups for a large number of policies, particularly those that place financial or regulatory burdens on industry rather than on individuals directly. Support for aviation policies strengthens with pro-environmental attitudes and is weaker among people who are aeromobile. Though self-interested considerations appeared to dominate policy option preferences, concern for fairness may also shape policy acceptability. Overall, this paper provides to policymakers a quantitative evidence base of what types of policies for addressing aviation climate emissions are most publically palatable.

    C. Walker, Paul Hanna, J. Raisborough (2020)Representations of the National Health Service (NHS) in UK print media, In: Health Promotion International Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Generating negative news coverage of state welfare provision has been identified as a strategy designed to create public support for radical policies aimed to reduce such provision. To date, research of this kind has focused on scandals and crises. However, little is known about the complex relationship between media representations of specific events, and those of media representations in the lead up to these events, what we refer to as periphery representations. Employing a content and frame analysis, this paper analyses the frequency and intensity of peripheral representations of the National Health Service (NHS) in the British print media for one week a month before and for one week during three key events in recent NHS history: the official consultation period for the Health and Social Care Act (2012); the publication of Five-Year Forward View, and the first Junior Doctor Strike. This article finds that negative NHS representations in articles that are peripheral to particular topical issues of controversy evidence fluctuations, amplifications and intensities across time periods, depending on the particular context. The paper concludes by arguing that repetition of negative themes in news helps to build a sensibility of ‘inadequacy’ of vital services. We hope that this focus on the ways in which amplifications and de-amplifications in negative intensity of peripheral NHS representations across time and content, helps to contribute to debate about the complex interplay between public health services, media representation and policy consent.

    This book provides a much-needed account of informal community-based approaches to working with mental distress. It starts from the premise that contemporary mainstream psychiatry and psychology struggle to capture how distress results from complex embodied arrays of social experiences that are embedded within specific historical, cultural, political and economic settings. The authors challenge mainstream understandings of mental health that position a naive public in need of mental health literacy. Instead it is clear that a considerable amount of invaluable mental distress work is undertaken in spaces in our communities that are not understood as mental health treatments. This book represents one of the first attempts to position these kinds of spaces at the center of how we understand and address problems of mental distress and suffering. The chapters draw on case studies from the UK and abroad to point toward an exciting new paradigm based on informal community and socially oriented approaches to mental health. Written in an unusually accessible and engaging style, this book will appeal to social science students, academics, practitioners and policy makers interested in community and social approaches to mental health.

    Stefanie C Vreeken‐Ross, Sam Cartwright‐Hatton, Sally A Harris, Paul Hanna, Christina J Jones (2021)Feasibility of an online CBT group intervention for parents of children with food allergy, In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy Wiley

    Food allergy (FA) is a source of anxiety which affects the quality of life (QoL) of individuals and their caregivers (1). Furthermore, parental anxiety is a risk factor for anxiety development in children with offspring of anxious parents being seven times more likely to meet the criteria for an anxiety disorder (2). Recommendations have been made to address parental anxiety and its associated restrictive behaviours specifically for children with FA (3). Anxiety in general clinical practice is often addressed using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) of which there is some evidence in mothers of children with FA (1,4).

    Scott Cohen, Paul Hanna, S Gössling (2017)The dark side of business travel: A media comments analysis, In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment61pp. 406-419 Elsevier

    The publication of ‘A darker side of hypermobility’ (Cohen & Gössling, 2015), which reviewed the personal and social consequences of frequent travel, led to considerable media coverage and sparking of the public imagination, particularly with regards to the impacts of business travel. It featured in more than 85 news outlets across 17 countries, engendering over 150,000 social media shares and 433 media comments from readers, with the latter a source of insight into how the public reacts online when faced with an overview of the negative sides of frequent business travel. The present paper is theoretically framed by the role of discourse in social change and utilises discursive analysis as a method to evaluate this body of media comments. Our analysis finds two key identities are performed through public responses to the explicit health and social warnings concerned with frequent business travel: the ‘flourishing hypermobile’ and the ‘floundering hypermobile’. The former either deny the health implications of frequent business travel, or present strategies to actively overcome them, while the latter seek solace in the public dissemination of the health warnings: they highlight their passivity in the construction of their identity as hypermobile and its associated health implications. The findings reveal a segment of business travellers who wish to reduce travel, but perceive this as beyond their locus of control. Business travel reductions are thus unlikely to happen through the agency of individual travellers, but rather by changes in the structural factors that influence human resource and corporate travel management policies.