Marcu A, Lyons E, Hegarty P (2007) Dilemmatic human-animal boundaries in Britain and Romania: post-materialist and materialist dehumanization., Br J Soc Psychol 46 (Pt 4) pp. 875-893
Theories of dehumanization generally assume a single clear-cut, value-free and non-dilemmatic boundary between the categories 'human' and 'animal'. The present study highlights the relevance of dilemmas involved in drawing that boundary. In six focus groups carried out in Romania and Britain, 42 participants were challenged to think about dilemmas pertaining to animal and human life. Four themes were identified: rational autonomy, sentience, speciesism and maintaining materialist and post-materialist values. Sentience made animals resemble humans, while humans' rational autonomy made them distinctive. Speciesism underlay the human participants' prioritization of their own interests over those of animals, and a conservative consensus that the existing social system could not change supported this speciesism when it was challenged. Romanian participants appealed to Romania's lack of modernity and British participants to Britain's modernity to justify such conservatism. The findings suggest that the human-animal boundary is not essentialized; rather it seems that such boundary is constructed in a dilemmatic and post hoc way. Implications for theories of dehumanization are discussed.
Hegarty P, Pratto F, Lemieux AF (2004) Heterosexist ambivalence and heterocentric norms: Drinking in intergroup discomfort, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 7 (2) pp. 119-130
Eighty two participants read about either a gay male target who felt discomfort in a straight bar or a straight male target who felt discomfort in a gay bar. Participants explained the discomfort, rated the target's actions, and produced counterfactuals that 'undid' his discomfort. Explanations of the targets' discomfort focused on gayness more than on straightness, suggesting that they were affected by heterocentric norms. The straight target's expressions of discomfort were perceived as more appropriate than the gay target's, particularly among participants with strong anti-gay attitudes. Counterfactuals which undid these events also suggested implicit inequities in the perceived norms for interactions between gay and straight persons. These results are explained in terms of ambivalence between support for egalitarianism and anti-gay affect and the continued operation of heterocentric norms that limit the degree to which egalitarianism translates into equal treatment of persons of all sexual orientations.
Correlational studies show that prejudiced people attribute stigmatized traits to controllable causes, and blame stigmatized groups for their own fate. Attribution theory argues that causal attributions cause prejudice, and that changes in attributional beliefs produce changes in attitudes. In contrast, the justification-suppression model describes attributions to controllable causes as justifications of pre-existing prejudices. Study participants reported their attitudes toward 1 of 4 stigmatized groups, read information that manipulated their attributional beliefs, listed their thoughts, and reported their attitudes again. Supporting the suppression-justification model, initially prejudiced participants spontaneously produced more thoughts about the controllability of stigmatized identities. Refuting attribution theory, manipulating attributional beliefs had no effect on attitudes. Implications for applications of attribution theory to reduce prejudice are discussed.
Hegarty P (2003) ?More feminine than 999 men out of 1,000:? The construction of sex roles in psychology., In: Gender nonconformity, race and sexuality: Charting the connections. (pp. 62-83). pp. 62-83 University of Wisconsin Press.
In this commentary, the author reviews methodological and conceptual shortcomings of recent articles by K. D. Drummond, S. J. Bradley, M. Peterson-Badali, and K. J. Zucker (2008) as well as G. Rieger, J. A. W. Linsenmeier, L. Gygax, and J. M. Bailey (2008), which sought to predict adult sexual identity from childhood gender identity. The author argues that such research needs to incorporate a greater awareness of how stigmatization affects identity processes. Multidimensional models of gender identity that describe variation in children?s responses to pressure to conform to gender norms are particularly useful in this regard (S. K. Egan & D. G. Perry, 2001). Experiments on the interpretation of developmental
data are reviewed to evidence how cultural assumptions about sexuality can impact theories of sexual identity development in unintended ways. The author concludes that understanding the development of children presumed most likely to grow up with sexual minority identities requires a consideration of the cultural contexts in which identities develop and in which psychologists theorize.
Hubbard K, Hegarty P (2016) BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN, JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 52 (2) pp. 146-166 WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tee N, Hegarty P (2006) Predicting opposition to the civil rights of trans persons in the United Kingdom, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 16 (1) pp. 70-80
Although there is considerable evidence that trans persons are victims of discrimination, social psychologists have rarely explored prejudice against this minority group. We extrapolated from models of heterosexism to test hypotheses about support for and opposition to trans persons' civil rights. Opposition to trans persons civil rights among 151 participants was correlated with heterosexism, authoritarianism, a belief that there are only two sexes, beliefs that gender is biologically based and several demographic variables. Linear regression showed that heterosexism, authoritarianism, contact with sexual minorities and beliefs in biological gender predicted unique variance in opposition to trans persons' civil rights. Differences and similarities between prejudice towards sexual and gender minorities are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pettit M, Hegarty P (2013) Psychology and sexuality in historical time, In: Tolman D, Diamond L (eds.), The Handbook of Sexuality and Psychology American Psychological Association
Sex and sexuality are inconceivable outside of time. Like all living things, humans are fundamentally entities that unfold over time in a unidirectional fashion. We think, feel, and behave in time. To explain human conduct, psychologists have looked to at least four different kinds of temporality. These are (1) the very slow evolutionary time which has shaped the species, (2) the considerably less slow historical time within which cultural change happens, (3) the developmental time within which individual lives are lived, and (4) the immediate situational time which can be captured by experiments and studies of interventions, lasting anywhere from milliseconds to a few weeks. These are not mutually exclusive kinds of time, as time is continuous. These temporalities are nested within each other. Historically, when it comes to sexuality, psychology?s methods and theories have tended to privilege lines of debates between evolutionary time versus developmental time or ?nature versus nurture.? Such dichotomies (and even discussions of their interaction) particularly neglect the relationship between psychology and events that unfold in Type 2 time courses that vary in length between the span of human history to a single generation. This chapter explains why psychologists ought not to let historical time (or Type 2 time) slip from their view.
This research was supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council standard research grant to Michael Pettit. Please address correspondence to Michael Pettit, Department of Psychology, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada, M3J 1P3, firstname.lastname@example.org or Peter Hegarty, Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK, email@example.com
According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Adams J, Blair KL, Borrero-Bracero NI, Espin O, Hayfield NJ, Hegarty PJ, Herrman-Green LK, Hsu MH, Maurer O, Manalastas EJ, McDermott DT, Shepperd D (2010) Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender psychology: An international conversation among researchers,Psychology and Sexuality 1 (1) pp. 75-90
Routledge, Taylor & Francis
This paper reports on a conversation between 12 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) psychologists at the first international LGBT Psychology Summer Institute at the University of Michigan in August 2009. Participants discuss how their work in LGBT psychology is affected by national policy, funding, and academic contexts and the transnational influence of the US-based stigma model of LGBT psychology. The challenges and possibilities posed by internationalism are discussed with reference to the dominance of the United States, the cultural limits of terms such as ?lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender?, intergenerational communication between researchers, and the role of events such as the Summer Institute in creating an international community of LGBT psychologists.
Hegarty P (2005) Harry Stack Sullivan and his chums: archive fever in American psychiatry?, HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES 18 (3) pp. 35-53 SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Hegarty P, Buechel C (2006) Androcentric reporting of gender differences in APA Journals: 1965-2004, Review of General Psychology 10 (4) pp. 377-389
Androcentric thinking assumes maleness to be normative and attributes gender differences to females. A content analysis of articles reporting gender differences published between 1965 and 2004 in four American Psychological Association journals examined androcentric pronouns, explanations, and tables and graphs. Few articles used generic masculine pronouns to refer to both women and men. However, explanations of gender differences within articles that mentioned such differences in their abstracts and titles referenced attributes of women significantly more often than attributes of men. Most tables and graphs depicting gender differences positioned males' data before females' data, except when gender differences among parents were concerned. Psychologists have ceased to use male-centered pronouns, but female and male psychologists continue to report, explain, and depict gender differences in androcentric ways. © 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Advances in Intergroup Communication is a timely contribution to the field. It reflects developments in older, more established intergroup settings (e.g., gender, sexual orientation, organizations) whilst introducing newer studies such as the military and political parties. It also pays attention to emerging trends in new media and social networks and considers the developing field of neuroscience of communication.
The volume brings together authors from different geographical areas (North America, Europe, and Australia) and from different disciplines (particularly communication, linguistics, and psychology). Contributions are organized around five themes, corresponding to the five sections of the book: defining features and constraints; tools of intergroup communication; social groups in their context; intergroup communication in organizations; and future directions.
Buechel C, Hegarty P (2007) Modern prejudice at work: Effects of homonegativeity and perceived erotic value of lesbians and gay men on heterosexuals' reactions to explicit and discrete couples, Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review 8 pp. 71-82
Pratto F, Korchmaros JD, Hegarty P (2007) When race and gender go without saying, Social Cognition 25 (2) pp. 221-247
We hypothesize that people fail to designate typical race and gender features because of communication pragmatics and because people assume that their category norms-their implicit sense of which features are typical or atypical of a category-are shared. In Experiment 1, participants wrote what made celebrities typical or not typical of their occupations. Participants almost never designated typical race and gender when instructed to describe how celebrities were typical, although they often designated atypical features when instructed to say how celebrities were not typical. Experiment 2 showed that verbal designation of race and gender occurs most when features are either atypical or are unshared with one's communication partner, and that designating atypical features under such circumstances facilitates communication. Experiment 3 showed that the common ground goal determines the higher rate of designating atypical than typical race and gender features. Implications for the communication of bias are discussed.
Hegarty PJ, Bartos SE (2014) Gender, race, and ethnic relations,In: Nesbitt-Larking P, Kinnvall K, Capelos T, Dekker H (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Global Political Psychology 11 pp. 187-187
Hegarty PJ (2011) ?Private Practices: Harry Stack Sullivan, the Science of Homosexuality and
American Liberalism? by Naoko Wake., Teachers College Record Teachers College, Columbia University
Hegarty PJ (2009) Queerying lesbian and gay psychology?s coming of age: Was the past just kid stuff?, In: Giffney N, O'Rourke M (eds.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Queer Theory pp. 311-328 Ashgate Pub Co
This interdisciplinary volume of thirty original essays engages with four key concerns of queer theoretical work: identity, discourse, normativity and ...
Pratto F, Glasford DE, Hegarty P (2006) Weighing the prospects of war, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 9 (2) pp. 219-233
Prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) predictions were examined in light of ethnocentrism and intergroup conflict. An experiment conducted at the outset of the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the US, UK and their allies explored American and British participants' preferences for certain versus uncertain gains and losses concerning Iraqi, American, and British lives. In four conditions, participants showed the usual loss-aversion when deciding between options that only affected Iraqi lives. Six other conditions examined choices between the lives of Americans, Britons, or Iraqis. Strong ethnocentric biases rather than risk-aversion occurred. Participants preferred policies that prioritized their own nationals' and allies' lives over Iraqi lives. War-related and other attitudes corresponded to participants'decisions. The need to expand prospect theory to address intergroup relations is discussed. Copyright © 2006 SAGE Publications.
Hegarty P, Pratto F (2001) The effects of social category norms and stereotypes on explanations for intergroup differences, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80 (5) pp. 723-735 American Psychological Association
A 2-stage model of the construction of explanations for differences between groups is presented. Category norms affect which of 2 groups becomes "the effect to be explained," and stereotypes shape attributions about that group. In 3 experiments, 288 participants wrote explanations for differences between gay and straight men. Explanations focused on gay men who were also judged to have more mutable attributes. However, these effects were not correlated. Participants focused explanations on straight men when explicitly instructed to do so (Experiment 1), Explanations focused on both groups equally when the gay men constituted the numerically larger sample, when gay men were more typical of the overarching category (i.e., people with AIDS) than straight men, or when more straight men were described as performing the behavior (Experiment 2). Stereotype-consistent information prompted more essentialist references and fewer reconstructive references to gay men than did stereotype-inconsistent information (Experiment 3). The relevance of this model for theories of norms, stereotypes, and for the conduct of social science is discussed.
Hegarty PJ (1999) ?Engendering AIDS:? Deconstructing sex, text, and epidemic? by Tamsin Wilton., Journal of Lesbian Studies 4 (3) pp. 152-156
Falomir-Pichastor JM, Hegarty P (2014) Maintaining distinctions under threat: Heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm, British Journal of Social Psychology 53 (4) pp. 731-751
© 2013 The British Psychological Society.According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed.
Pratto F, Hegarty P, Korchmairos J (2008) Who gets stereotyped? How communication practices and category norms lead people to stereotype particular people and groups., In: Y. Kashima, K. Fiedler, Freytag P (eds.), Stereotype dynamics: Language-based approaches to the formation, maintenance, and transformation of stereotypes. pp. 299-319 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Hegarty P (2003) Homosexual signs and heterosexual silences: Rorschach research on male homosexuality from 1921 to 1969, Journal of the History of Sexuality 12 (3) pp. 400-423
Kinsey?s midcentury surveys of male and female sexual behaviour are unquestionably pivots in the ?modernization of sex;? that shift from religious to psycho-medical authority over norms of human sexual conduct. A quarter century later, sex became ?postmodernized? through mass consumption in late capitalist societies. In that later moment, scholars increasingly began to think about ?sex? as a historical category, to be understood as something produced in discourse rather than a natural or psychological drive battling repression for its liberated expression. Such histories have prompted further attention to the ways that accounts of the ?naturalness? of sex have been funded, organized, written and received in earlier modern moments.
Gay men and heterosexual women may share some common interests in critiquing hetero-patriarchy. However feminism and gay liberationist politics do not always coincide and the role of individual subjectivities in recognising oppressive discourses of normativity remains debated. Interviews were conducted with seven friendship dyads of heterosexual women and gay men. Transcripts were subjected to discourse analysis, which suggested extensive management of heterosexist norms in the friends? accounts of friendship. The analysis highlighted ambiguity over the ?male? status of gay men, a concern with constructing the friendships as legitimately asexual, and the use of parody in the face of homophobia to disrupt normative assumptions. Although we primarily considered the role of heterosexist discourses, there is also evidence that other dimensions of non-normativity (for example, gender and ethnicity) are implicated in friendships constructed around shared otherness and mutual non-normativity.
Women undertake most caring responsibilities for older family members and models of family caregiving implicitly position women carers as heterosexual-by-default. This UK-based study examined the impact of eldercare responsibility on the ?outness,? socialisation, and personal relationships of seven lesbians (aged 48?62) who provided care to elderly relatives. The women were interviewed and the resulting transcripts were analysed using the method of constant comparative analysis yielding four themes: 1) duty and obligation, 2) loss of lesbian identity, 3) connections with lesbian communities, and 4) boundary setting. Lesbians incorporate elder caring into the framework of their lives in diverse ways, demonstrating ?normative creativity? (Brown, 1989) in the absence of clear models of lesbian familial caregiving. These lesbians highlight new understandings of caregiving that wrestle with hegemonic discourses, and extend understanding of the normative creativity of lesbian lives to the domain of elder care.
Public engagement and knowledge transfer are now necessary supplements to academic research and teaching activity for university-based psychologists in the United Kingdom. However, a ?deficit model? of public understanding is often assumed by national policies. We argue that bidirectional approaches between researchers and concerned communities are necessary, and that bidirectional transfer recognizes different kinds of expertise and experience. We argue further that researchers working in the field of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) psychology have routinely been engaged in bidirectional translational work, by drawing on historical and recent examples. Bidirectional models of knowledge transfer do not resolve all of the potential problems that arise during public engagement. For example, it is not clear how academics should respond when end users do not accept their findings. However, involving concerned communities is clearly necessary to achieving, and maximizing, impact validity and LGBT psychologists have long been at the forefront of so doing.
Hegarty P, Hardman D (2006) Speaking of sexual politics in psychology, Psychologist 19 (1) pp. 27-29
Hegarty PJ, Pratto F (2010) Interpreting and communicating the results of gender-related research, In: Chrisler JC, McCreary DR (eds.), Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology 1 pp. 191-211 Springer Verlag
In this chapter we argue that people (including psychologists) communicate about gender-relevant findings in active interpretive ways that are characterized by precisely these kinds of revisable implicit assumptions. Often these assumptions work to reify gender stereotypes and to communicate implicitly that men are more important kinds of people than women are. However, these assumptions can also be challenged in ways that lead to less obvious, less sexist, and more thoughtful, considered, and open-minded ways of thinking about difference. Psychologists have often offered each other advice about how we ought to communicate about gender-related findings. In this chapter, we focus on implicit meanings of gender-related research to argue that we often communicate much more than we intend when we communicate about gender-related findings. We assume that "gender-relatedness" does not reside in particular attributes, behaviors, preferences, or body parts.
Pratto F, Liu JH, Levin S, Sidanius J, Shih M, Bachrach H, Hegarty P (2000) Social dominance and the legitimation of inequality across cultures., Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 31 pp. 369-409
Hegarty P, Pratto F, Crawford M (2002) An unconventional family, Feminism & Psychology 12 (1) pp. 120-124
Research has suggested that some magazines targeted at young men ? lads? mags ? are
normalizing extreme sexist views by presenting those views in a mainstream context.
Consistent with this view, young men in Study 1 (n=90) identified more with derogatory
quotes about women drawn from recent lads? mags, and from interviews with convicted
rapists, when those quotes were attributed to lads?mags, than when they were attributed
to convicted rapists. In Study 2, 40 young women and men could not reliably judge the
source of those same quotes. While these participants sometimes voiced the belief
that the content of lads? mags was ?normal? while rapists? talk was ?extreme?, they
categorized quotes from both sources as derogatory with equal frequency. Jointly, the
two studies show an overlap in the content of convicted rapists? talk and the contents
of contemporary lads? mags, and suggest that the framing of such content within lads?
mags may normalize it for young men.
Psychologist Catharine Cox Miles (1890?1984) is often remembered as the junior author, with Lewis Terman, of Sex and Personality. Written with support from the Committee for Research on the Problems of Sex (CRPS), Sex and Personality introduced the ?masculinity-femininity? personality measure to psychology in 1936. Miles has been overlooked by some historians and constructed as a silent, indirect feminist by others. Private letters show that Terman and Miles had different assumptions about the need for library research work to precede the empirical work for Sex and Personality. Miles's 1935 chapter on the ?Social Psychology of Sex? shows that her theoretical formulation of sex differed from Terman's in its emphasis on female embodiment, respect for the emerging tradition of the sex survey, and its opinions about the determinants of marital happiness, and the variability of intelligence. Ironically, CRPS monies wired to Terman may have funded Miles to develop this early formulation of the psychology of sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
Hayter D, Hegarty P (2015) A genealogy of postmodern subjects: Discourse analysis and late capitalism, Theory and Psychology 25 (3) pp. 369-387
© The Author(s) 2014Critiques of psychology?s complicities with the ideological workings of capitalism have focused on psychologies developed prior to the 1980s, against which discursive and postmodern theories are often positioned as liberatory or revolutionary. Critical Marxist theory and anthropologies of finance are used here to frame a genealogy of Jonathan Potter and Margaret Wetherell?s seminal text of discourse analysis Discourse and Social Psychology that challenges this narrative. We focus on the ontological differences between Potter and Wetherell and the modernist theorists of language and social order that they cite: Noam Chomsky, John Austin, and Harold Garfinkel. We argue that the ontology of both personhood and research within this text converged with the subjectivities constituted and required by late capitalism that dislocate and dispense notions of individual accountability upon which earlier modes of capitalism depended.
Hegarty PJ, Hubbard K, Nyatanga L (2015) Innovative approaches to teaching CHIP: An introduction to the Special Issue, History and Philosophy of Psychology 16 (1) pp. 1-3 British Psychological Society
In this chapter, we propose that the study of graphs from a social psychological
perspective is both warranted and necessary. We review the literatures
on both cognitive studies of graphing, as well as the relativist theory
of scientific visualization. Extending on these frameworks, we provide
a detailed review of our research on graphs that shows (a) a widespread
preference to graph men before women, (b) that this preference is influenced
by social thought, (c) that this social thought is not easily deciphered
when people assess graphs for evidence of bias, and (d) that preferences for
graph order change when people draw on different social beliefs about the
groups that are represented. We conclude by recommending that these initial
empirical studies of what graphs mean should be the impetus for developing
a social psychology of graphs.
Heterosexual people with more positive attitudes to lesbians and gay men generally believe that homosexuality is immutable, is not a discrete social category, and that homosexuality exists in all cultures and time periods. Equivalent beliefs about heterosexuality and beliefs about components of sexuality have been less-often researched. 136 people with diverse sexualities described heterosexuality as more universal across history and culture than homosexuality (Study 1). 69 heterosexual-identified participants similarly believed that love, identity, behaviour and desire were more historically invariant aspects of heterosexuality than of homosexuality (Study 2). Less prejudiced participants thought all components of homosexuality ? except for identity ? were more historically invariant. Teasing apart beliefs about the history of components of heterosexuality and homosexuality suggests that there is no ?essential? relationship between sexual prejudice and the tension between ?essentialist? and ?constructivist? views about the history of sexual identity.
Hegarty P (2015) Book review: Living in an asymmetrical world: how writing direction affects thought and action, by Anne Maass, Caterina Suitner, and Jean-Pierre Deconchy (2014), Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition 20 (5) pp. 639-641
Between 1956 and 1958, 22-year-old French psychologist Jean-Pierre Deconchy taught the youngest students at a primary school in the Lebanon. That school, whose students were largely Arabic Maronite Christians, was twinned with a training centre of the United Nations Relief and Work Agency ?in an attempt to heal some of the wounds inflicted by the events in Palestine? (p. vii). Deconchy made a series of observations and conducted several investigations about the schoolchildren?s cognition in regard to the left-right axis in space. Their thinking was influenced by their first language, Arabic, which is written right to left. Deconchy was concerned that this first language complicated the children?s task of learning in French, a language written left-to-right. These studies were presented as part of Deconchy?s postgraduate diploma in philosophy with psychology. His research is translated into English and presented here as this book?s first three substantive chapters. It is accompanied by his foreword; and a short introduction, some commentary, and two chapters authored by Anna Maass and Caterina Suitner. These two psychologists describe current understanding of processing of information in the left-right axis, and of changes in research practices from Deconchy?s time to their own.
Bruckmüller S, Hegarty P, Abele AE (2012) Framing gender differences: Linguistic normativity affects perceptions of power and gender stereotypes, European Journal of Social Psychology 42 (2) pp. 210-218 Wiley
When unknown groups and equal status groups are compared by contrasting one group (?the effect to be explained?) against another (?the linguistic norm?), the group positioned as the norm is sometimes perceived as more powerful, more agentic, and as less communal. Such perceptions may contribute to status-linked stereotypes, as group differences are spontaneously described by positioning higher-status groups as the linguistic norm. Here, 103 participants considered gender differences in status to be larger and more legitimate and applied gender stereotypes more readily upon reading about gender differences in leadership that were framed around a male rather than a female linguistic norm. These effects did not generalize to 113 participants who read about gender differences in leisure time preferences framed around either norm. Jointly, these results suggest that the effects of linguistic framing on perceived group status and power and on group stereotypes generalize to domains where there are real differences in status, and contexts in which higher-status groups are the default standard for comparison.
Hegarty P (2007) Slaying the Witch King: Androcentrism in psychology, and the seven habits of anti-normative people., Dialogue: The Official Newsletter of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology 22 (1) pp. 6-30
A preference to name stereotypically masculine before stereotypically feminine individuals explains why men are typically named before women, as on the Internet, for example (Study 1). Heterosexual couples are named with men's names first more often when such couples are imagined to conform to gender stereotypes (Studies 2 and 3). First-named partners of imaginary same-sex couples are attributed more stereotypically masculine attributes (Study 4). Familiarity bounds these effects of stereotypes on name order. People name couples they know well with closer people first (Study 5), and consequently name familiar heterosexual couples with members of their own gender first (Study 6). These studies evidence a previously unknown effect of the semantics of gender stereotypes on sentence structure in the everyday use of English.
Hegarty PJ (2003) Pointing to a crisis: What finger-length ratios tell us about the construction of sexuality, radical statistics (83) pp. 16-30
Graphs seem to connote facts more than words or tables do. Consequently, they seem unlikely places to spot implicit sexism at work. Yet, in 6 studies (N _ 741), women and men constructed (Study 1) and recalled (Study 2) gender difference graphs with men?s data first, and graphed powerful groups (Study 3) and individuals (Study 4) ahead of weaker ones. Participants who interpreted graph order as evidence of author ?bias? inferred that the author graphed his or her own gender group first (Study 5). Women?s, but not men?s, preferences to graph men first were mitigated when participants graphed a difference between themselves and an opposite-sex friend prior to graphing gender differences (Study 6). Graph production and comprehension are affected by beliefs and suppositions about the groups represented in graphs to a greater degree than cognitive models of graph comprehension or realist models of scientific thinking have yet acknowledged
Hegarty P (2001) Sciences of the flesh: Representing body and subject in psychoanalysis, Journal of the History of Sexuality 10 (1) pp. 140-143 University of Texas Press
This Guide accompanies the following article "Hegarty P, Bruckmüller S (2013). Asymmetric Explanations of Group Differences: Experimental Evidence of Foucault's Disciplinary Power. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 7(3):176-186. Available online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/spc3.12017/abstract
Hegarty P (2004) Was he Queer& or just Irish? Reading the Life of Harry Stack Sullivan, Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review 5 pp. 103-108
Hegarty P (2006) Where's the sex in sexual prejudice?, Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review 7 pp. 264-275
Past research has found that explanations of group differences focus attention on lower status and less prototypical social groups, whilst positioning higher status and more prototypical groups as the norm for comparison. The present experiment examined attention in explanations of national group differences. Two hundred and thirty-nine Irish and British students read vignettes that attributed either relatively more overconsumption of alcohol, or of fatty foods, to either Irish or British people, and wrote explanations of these group differences in their own words. As predicted, the explanations focused more on the group described as over-consumers. Participants did not explain the national out-group more than the national in-group and did not explain the Irish or the British more. Rather, explanations focused particularly on the Irish only when they were described as over-consumers of alcohol. These findings show flexibility in the setting of norms for comparison, and an influence of essentialist stereotypes, rather than ethnocentrism or historical power differences, on the spontaneous framing of explanations of group differences.
Hegarty PJ (2012) Gentlemen's Disagreement: Alfred Kinsey, Lewis Terman and the Sexual Politics of Smart Men., University of Chicago Press
What is the relationship between intelligence and sex? In recent decades, studies of the controversial histories of both intelligence testing and of human sexuality in the United States have been increasingly common?and hotly debated. But rarely have the intersections of these histories been examined. In Gentlemen?s Disagreement, Peter Hegarty enters this historical debate by recalling the debate between Lewis Terman?the intellect who championed the testing of intelligence? and pioneering sex researcher Alfred Kinsey, and shows how intelligence and sexuality have interacted in American psychology.
Through a fluent discussion of intellectually gifted onanists, unhappily married men, queer geniuses, lonely frontiersmen, religious ascetics, and the two scholars themselves, Hegarty traces the origins of Terman?s complaints about Kinsey?s work to show how the intelligence testing movement was much more concerned with sexuality than we might remember. And, drawing on Foucault, Hegarty reconciles these legendary figures by showing how intelligence and sexuality in early American psychology and sexology were intertwined then and remain so to this day.
1 A Gentlemen?s Disagreement?
2 Why the Gifted Boy Didn?t Masturbate
3 Less Than Ideal Husbands
4 Queer Individuals: Their Nature and Nurture
5 Gentlemen and Horse Traders
6 Ancient Ascetics and Modern Non-Americans
7 Frontier Living, by Figures Alone
8 Normalization Now
Hegarty P (2006) Prejudice against lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and trans people: A matter of identity, behaviour, or both?, Sexual Health Matters 7 pp. 37-40
Hegarty P (2001) ?Real science?, deception experiments and the gender of my lab coat: Toward a new laboratory manual for lesbian and gay psychology., Subjectivity: international journal of critical psychology 1 (4) pp. 91-108
Hegarty P (2007) What comes after discourse analysis for LGBTQ psychology?, In: Peel EA, Clarke VC (eds.), Out in psychology: LGBTQ Perspectives Wiley and Sons
Hegarty P (2007) Queer methodologies,In: Moon LT (eds.), Feeling queer or queer feelings: Radical approaches to counseling sex, sexualities and genders pp. 125-140
Hegarty P (2002) 'It's not a choice, it's the way we're built': Symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in the US and Britain, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 12 (3) pp. 153-166 Wiley
Heterosexual-identified Americans who believe that sexual orientation is immutable typically express more tolerant attitudes towards lesbians and gay men. Attribution theorists argue that this is because immutability beliefs reduce stigmatization. In two studies, 97 American and 72 British heterosexual-identified students reported their beliefs about the immutability and fundamentality of sexual orientation, their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men and their judgments about the values that those beliefs expressed. In both samples, tolerant attitudes and immutability beliefs were correlated only among participants who consistently judged that immutability beliefs would be expressed by more tolerant heterosexual persons. More condemning participants judged lesbian and gay people and heterosexual people to be more fundamentally different in both samples. I argue that links between immutability and tolerance depend more on social constructions of immutability beliefs as expression,; of tolerance and less on the attributional content of such beliefs than previous theorists have acknowledged. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
Hegarty P (2014) The need for historical understanding in the psychology of peace and conflict, Peace and Conflict: journal of peace psychology 20 (3) pp. 337-340
Psychologists know that peace and conflict form the conditions within which psychological lives are actually lived, and that those lives make up social contexts of peace and conflict. Psychologists also share an understanding that peace and conflict are anything but simple. These little words ?peace? and ?conflict? are used to name very different and determining configurations of events in different places and times, and the naming of such configurations as peaceful or warlike is itself a social action that affects the social contexts so described. In his term as associate editor of Peace and Conflict, P. Hegarty aims to encourage new research that incorporates a reflexive understanding of psychologists? work in naming, explaining, and intervening in peace and conflict. As a historian of psychology, he wants to insist on recognition that the peace and conflict that we study and our ways of studying them are historical. He urges new empirical research to examine contemporary peace and conflict as part of an ?eventful psychology? that will be all the more impactful for the recognition that it is situated in history.
Hegarty PJ (2003) Contingent Differences: An historical note on Evelyn Hooker?s use of significance testing., Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review 4 pp. 3-7
Drawing together social psychologists? concerns with equality and cognitive psychologists? concerns with scientific inference, six studies (n = 841) showed how implicit category norms make the generation and test of hypothesis about race highly asymmetric. Having shown that Whiteness is the default race of celebrity actors (Study 1), Study 2 used a variant of Wason?s (1960) rule discovery task to demonstrate greater difficulty in discovering rules that require specifying that race is shared by White celebrity actors than by Black celebrity actors. Clues to the Whiteness of White actors from analogous problems had little effect on hypothesis formation or rule discovery (Studies 3-4). Rather, across Studies 2-4 feedback about negative cases - non-White celebrities? - facilitated the discovery that White actors shared a race, whether participants or experimenters generated the negative cases. These category norms were little affected by making White actors? Whiteness more informative (Study 5). Whilst participants understood that discovering that White actors are White would be harder than discovering that Black actors are Black, they showed limited insight into the information contained in negative cases (Study 6). Category norms render some identities as implicit defaults, making hypothesis formation and generalization about real social groups asymmetric in ways that have implications for scientific reasoning and social equality.
Biological theories of sexual orientation, typically presented in human sexuality classes, are considered by many social psychologists to cause reductions in students' sexual prejudice. Yet when biological theories were not presented to 36 psychology students in a 10-week seminar on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology, both sexual prejudice and two forms of essentialist thinking reduced significantly. Prejudice reduction was causally related to decreased essentialist belief in clear boundaries between sexual orientation categories but not to decreased belief in the immutability of sexual orientation categories. Students characterised belief in the fluidity of sexual orientation categories as enlightened and empowering in their own words. This cross-lagged study confirms earlier cross-sectional studies showing that sexual prejudice is causally related to ?natural kind? beliefs about sexual orientation. It further shows that the typical practice of teaching human sexuality courses from a biological perspective is not the cause of prejudice reduction in this educational context.
Lenihan P, Hegarty P (2007) Exploring transsexualism, Archives of Sexual Behavior 36 (1) pp. 117-118
McAlpine C, Gill A, Hegarty P (2007) Why criminalize forced marriage? Islamophobia and assimilation-based justifications., Psychology of Women Section Review 9 (2) pp. 15-28
Brennan T, Hegarty P (2007) Who was Magnus Hirshfeld and why do we need to know?, History and Philosophy of Psychology 9 (1) pp. 12-28
Hegarty P (2007) FROM GENIUS INVERTS TO GENDERED INTELLIGENCE: Lewis Terman and the Power of the Norm, History of Psychology 10 (2) pp. 132-155
The histories of "intelligence" and "sexuality" have largely been narrated separately. In Lewis Terman's work on individual differences, they intersect. Influenced by G. Stanley Hall, Terman initially described atypically accelerated development as problematic. Borrowing from Galton, Terman later positioned gifted children as nonaverage but ideal. Attention to the gifted effeminate subjects used to exemplify giftedness and gender nonconformity in Terman's work shows the selective instantiation of nonaverageness as pathological a propos of effeminacy, and as ideal a propos of high intelligence. Throughout, high intelligence is conflated with health, masculinity, and heterosexuality. Terman's research located marital sexual problems in women's bodies, further undoing possibilities for evaluating heterosexual men's practices as different from a normative position. Terman's research modernized Galton's imperialist vision of a society lead by a male cognitive elite. Psychologists continue to traffic in his logic that values and inculcates intelligence only in the service of sexual and gender conformity. © 2007 American Psychological Association.
Hegarty P (2006) Undoing androcentric explanations of gender differences: Explaining 'the effect to be predicted', Sex Roles 55 (11-12) pp. 861-867
Even if a social category contain women and men, men are often considered the default category members. Such androcentric thinking leads people to explain gender differences in such categories as being 'about women' rather than being 'about men.' In two experiments (N=102) this bias was reversed within the category 'voters.' Participants generalized data about women voters to men and data about men voters to women, and explained the resulting gender differences. Explanations always focused on the group whose attributes were predicted, whether such predictions were unconstrained (Experiment 1) or constrained by forced-choice items (Experiment 2). People can reason about gender differences by taking women as the default gender, even within categories that are traditionally normed on men. Implications for the communication of gender differences and the bases of androcentric thinking are discussed. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Brennan T, Hegarty PJ (2012) Charlotte Wolff?s Contribution to Bisexual History and to (Sexuality) Theory and Research: A Reappraisal for Queer Times, Journal of the History of Sexuality 21 (1) pp. 141-161 University of Texas Press
This commentary on The Fewer The Merrier (TFTM) adopts a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) lens. Although LGB people commonly construct successful consensual nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships, the focus on opposite-sex relationships obscured some aspects of U.S. society that are actively resisting the stigmatization of CNM relationships. I call attention to the historic ways that ?adultery? has been legally defined in gendered terms, and argue for an analysis of social stigma that engages substantively with qualitative research about how CNM is lived among people of diverse sexualities.
Sexual prejudice is an important threat to the physical and mental well-being of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Therefore, we reviewed the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce such prejudice. A study-space analysis was performed on published and unpublished papers from all over the world to identify well-studied and underexplored issues. Most studies were conducted with North American undergraduates and were educational in nature. Dissertations were often innovative and well designed but were rarely published. We then performed meta-analyses on sets of comparable studies. Education, contact with gay people, and combining contact with education had a medium-size effect on several measures of sexual prejudice. The manipulation of social norms was effective in reducing antigay behavior. Other promising interventions, such as the use of entertainment media to promote tolerance, need further investigation. More research is also needed on populations other than American students, particularly groups who may have higher levels of sexual prejudice.
Hegarty P (2007) The history of power, History of Psychology 10 (2) pp. 75-226
An academic journal?s impact factor (hereafter JIFs) is an average measure of the citation count of individual articles published in that journal. JIF is used to assess merit, predict impact, and allocate resources, but the actual number of citations to individual articles is only modestly correlated with the JIFs of the journals in which they are published. We counted Psycinfo citations to 1,134 papers published in nine leading psychology journals (1996-2005). Both article length, r =.31, and reference list length, r = .41, predicted log-transformed citation counts better than JIF, r = .27. Articles with fewer graphs and more structural equation models were more frequently cited. Citation count was better predicted by a model based on article length and citation count rather than JIF. When JIF was used to predict citation count, the impact of women authors and social science research was underestimated. These findings distinguish impact in science, as measured by JIF, from actual impact in psychology, and show the unintended consequences of using a measure of the former to predict the latter.
Simon LeVay's research on neuroscience and sexuality has been reiterated in popular media, scientific communities and legal debates. A close reading of this work, drawing on performativity theory (Butler, 1990, 1993), reveals that this popular success is the result of citing and reiterating a number of heterosexist, sexist and culturally imperialist norms. LeVay's work excludes women and ethnic minorities and denies the political, cultural and historical nature of sexuality. Performativity theory suggests the limits of empiricism for feminists, and the importance of postmodern readings of the subject of psychology and neuroscience.
We assessed whether recent psychological literature on children reflects or contrasts with the zeitgeist of American Psychological Association's recent non-discrimination statement on ?transgender? and ?gender variant? individuals. Article records (N = 94) on childhood ?gender identity? and ?expression? published between 1999 and 2008 inclusive were evaluated for two kinds of cisgenderism, the ideology that invalidates or pathologises self-designated genders that contrast with external designations. Misgendering language contradicts children's own gender assignations and was less frequent than pathologising language which constructs children's own gender assignations and expression as disordered. Articles on children's gender identity/expression are increasingly impactful within psychology. Cisgenderism is neither increasing nor decreasing overall. Mental health professionals are more cisgenderist than other authors. Articles by members of an ?invisible college? structured around the most prolific author in this area are more cisgenderist and impactful than other articles. We suggest how authors and editors can implement American Psychological Association policy and change scientific discourse about children's genders.
Effects of language learning on categorical perception have been detected in multiple domains. We extended the methods of these studies to gender and pitted the predictions of androcentrism theory and the spatial agency bias against each other. Androcentrism is the tendency to take men as the default gender and is socialized through language learning. The spatial agency bias is a tendency to imagine men before women in the left-right axis in the direction of one's written language. We examined how gender-ambiguous faces were categorized as female or male when presented in the left visual fields (LVFs) and right visual fields (RVFs) to 42 native speakers of English. When stimuli were presented in the RVF rather than the LVF, participants (1) applied a lower threshold to categorize stimuli as male and (2) categorized clearly male faces as male more quickly. Both findings support androcentrism theory suggesting that the left hemisphere, which is specialized for language, processes face stimuli as male-by-default more readily than the right hemisphere. Neither finding evidences an effect of writing direction predicted by the spatial agency bias on the categorization of gender-ambiguous faces.
Edited special feature (2005) Editors' Introduction: An Undervalued Part of the Psychology of Gender Canon? Reappraising Anne Constantinople's (1973) 'Masculinity-Femininity: An Exception to a Famous Dictum?', Feminism & Psychology 15 pp. 379-440
Hegarty PJ (2007) ?Internationalizing the history of psychology? Edited by Adrian Brock., History and Philosophy of Psychology 9 (1) pp. 73-76
Hegarty P, Chryssochoou X (2005) Why "our" policies set the standard more than "theirs": Category norms and generalization between European Union countries, Social Cognition 23 (6) pp. 491-528
Five experiments examined how 333 British participants used representations of the category "EU countries," to judge similarities, reason about generalization, and explain differences between EU countries. EU countries vary in their prototypicality and the in-group (Britain) is distinctive (Experiment 1). Prototypicality affects preferences for statements about similarity between countries (Experiment 2). However, when generalizing a policy study between countries, category norms that included the policy's home country were formed, rendering that country's distinctive attributes implicit. Consequently participants generalized less to their distinctive in-group than from it, considered their in-group and the out-groups to be more similar when the policy's home country was their in-group rather than an out-group (Experiments 3a and 3b), and rarely mentioned attributes of the policy's home country while explaining differences between countries (Experiment 4). Country prototypicality had no effect on reasoning about generalization. We discuss how category norms can engender ethnocentrism at a cognitive level.
Brennan T, Hegarty PJ (2009) Magnus Hirschfeld, his biographies, and the possibilities and boundaries of ?biography? as ?doing history, History of the Human Sciences 22 (5) pp. 24-46 Sage Publications
This article considers the two major biographies of sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, MD (1868?1935), an early campaigner for ?gay rights? avant la lettre. Like him, his first biographerCharlotte Wolff (1897?1986) was a Jewish doctor who lived and worked in Weimar Republic Berlin and fled Germany when the Nazi regime came to power. When research- ing Hirschfeld?s biography (published in English in 1986) Wolff met a librarian and gay activist, Manfred Herzer, who would eventually be a cofounder of the Gay Museum in Berlin and publish (in German, in 1992) the other major Hirschfeld biography currently available. Using, inter alia, the correspondence between Wolff and Herzer, the article aims to explore and interrogate the boundaries and possibilities of ?biog- raphy? as a form of ?doing history?.
Hegarty P (2007) GETTING DIRTY: Psychology's History of Power, History of Psychology 10 (2) pp. 75-91
This introduction to the special issue on the history of power forwards the anthropological concept of "purification" as a means of drawing together disparate histories of psychology that invoke notions of power. Drawing on the work of Mary Douglas, Bruno Latour, Michel Foucault, and Donna Haraway, I argue for a history of psychology that links the carving up of people up into their properly natural and enculturated parts with keeping people in their place, the purification of interpretation by scientific representation, the maintenance of the body politic of the discipline, and the role of psychology in making up power in modern nation states. © 2007 American Psychological Association.
Hegarty P, Pratto F (2001) Sexual orientation beliefs: Their relationship to anti-gay attitudes and biological determinist arguments, Journal of Homosexuality 41 (1) pp. 121-135 Taylor & Francis
Previous studies which have measured beliefs about sexual orientation with either a Single item, or a one-dimensional scale are discussed. In the present study beliefs were observed to vary along two dimensions: the "immutability" of sexual orientation and the "fundamentality" of a categorization of persons as heterosexuals and homosexuals. While conceptually related, these two dimensions were empirically distinct on several counts. They were negatively correlated with each other. Condemning attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were correlated positively with fundamentality hut negatively with immutability, Immutability, but not fundamentality, affected the assimilation of a biological determinist argument. The relationship between sexual orientation belief's and anti-gay prejudice is discussed and suggestions fur empirical studies of sexual orientation beliefs are presented. (C) 2001 by the Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hayter D, Hegarty P (2015) Insisting on the unthinkable: A reply to Wetherell and Potter, Theory and Psychology 25 (3) pp. 396-402
© The Author(s) 2015This response to Wetherell and Potter (2015) clarifies both what our article (Hayter & Hegarty, 2014) did and did not attempt to do and considers how to address the questions that it raised. We re-state that genealogy is aimed at opening up questions about present consensus rather than formulating alternative competing psychological systems. We reflect on our own locations in social psychology which lead us to open up questions about the positioning of Potter and Wetherell?s work in late capitalism. We consider alternative answers to the questions that our article raises about their work, and argue that David Harvey?s work might be of broad utility in framing not only Potter and Wetherell?s work, but also in framing a broader ? and more global ? history of social psychology.
This article considers the "liminality" of the psychologist Charlotte Wolff, MD (1897-1986). Always living openly as a lesbian since her school days in Danzig, Wolff trained as a doctor-also pursuing a parallel interest in poetry and in philosophy. As a Jewish person, she was forced to leave the Berlin Health Service and flee Germany when the Nazi regime came to power. Having moved to Great Britain in 1936 after three years in France, Wolff reconfigured "exile" beyond the literal experience of emigration and immigration, as a form of "marginality" or "liminality" always involved in artistic and scientific endeavors. In her life and work she negotiated several liminal areas-from her gender presentation to her standing in the academic and scientific community (she was a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, to which she bequeathed her papers and the copyright to her work, but at the same time she was not an eminent psychologist), to her membership of sexual minority organizations (she conducted pioneering research on lesbianism and bisexuality, but some resented her connection with the psy-professions). In the spirit of Wolff's "liminality" as a strategy and creative zone, and along the lines indicated by Morawski (1994) as regards the transformative possibilities of feminist psychology as a liminal science, we argue for a reappraisal of Wolff's life and work that, in negotiating the borderlands between lesbian history and history of psychology, could enrich both disciplines.
Bharj N, Hegarty PJ (2015) A postcolonial feminist critique of harem analogies in psychological science, Journal of Social and Political Psychology 3 (1) pp. 257-275 PsychOpen
Since the 1930s, psychologists have used the term harem as an analogy for social relations among animals. In doing so they draw upon gendered and racial stereotypes located in the history of colonialism. We present an experimental study on the harem analogy as a means of confronting and challenging colonial undercurrents in psychological science. We investigated whether the use of this colonialist image in studies of animal societies could subtly affect thinking about Middle Eastern Muslim people. Two-hundred and forty-nine participants read about animal societies; in the experimental condition these were described as ?harems? and accompanied by the analogy of harems in Middle Eastern Muslim societies. In the two control conditions, animal societies were either described as ?groups? or ?harems?, with no mention of the analogy. In the experimental condition, participants falsely remembered descriptions of Muslim people of the Middle East as applying to animals. This finding replicates the ?resistance is futile? effect (Blanchette & Dunbar, 2002; Perrott, Gentner, & Bodenhausen, 2005) by which false remembering of analogical statements as previously seen literal descriptions is taken as suggestive of analogical mapping between two disparate concepts. As such, the study contributes to debate between feminist and evolutionary psychology about the value-neutrality of psychology, and to postcolonial critique of the partiality of mainstream psychological accounts of the universality of nature and society.
Whilst the same group differences can be explained in many ways, explanations of group differences tend to spontaneously figure the distinctive attributes of lower-status groups against a background norm of high-status groups? attributes. We suggest that this asymmetry occurs in the explanations of scientists and laypeople because of ?disciplinary power? and works to disempower lower-status people by making them visible to the human sciences. We argue that social groups who are habitually studied first in research programs, more commonly encountered social groups, and prototypical social groups are all less likely than their counterparts to be marked in spontaneous explanations of empirical group differences. We present evidence that groups who are explicitly mentioned in such explanations are assumed to be lower in power. We describe some limitations to current knowledge about such asymmetric explanations and suggest some directions for further research, including our thoughts about how to integrate existing findings with the possibility of formulating cognitive alternatives to the status quo among minority groups.
Hegarty P, Pratto F (2004) The differences that norms make: Empiricism, social constructionism, and the interpretation of group differences, Sex Roles 50 (7-8) pp. 445-453
We offer norm theory as a framework for developing some common ground within both feminist psychology and lesbian and gay psychology about the meaning of empirical differences between social groups. Norm theory is a social cognitive theory that predicts that empirical differences will be consistently explained by taking more typical groups ( e. g., men, straight people) as implicit norms for comparison and by attributing differences to less typical groups ( e. g., women, lesbians, and gay men). Results of an experiment (N = 114) are presented to show that norms shape interpretations of empirical differences between lesbian/gay and straight persons by ( 1) leading explanations to focus on attributes of lesbian/gay persons, and ( 2) leading to judgments that straight persons have less mutable attributes. Stereotypes also affected interpretations; stereotype-consistent results led to more essentialistic explanations and, when targets were female, to higher ratings of the results' importance and fundamentality. We highlight how experiments can be used to understand the process of constructing the meaning of scientific data, and make recommendations for empiricists' interpretive practices and constructionist theories in feminist psychology and lesbian and gay psychology.
Lundberg T, Lindström A, Roen K, Hegarty P (2016) From Knowing Nothing to Knowing What, How and Now: Parents' Experiences of Caring for their Children With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia., Journal of pediatric psychology
?This study investigates various kinds of knowing that European parents use when caring for their children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).? METHODS: ?Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 parents of 22 children with CAH.? RESULTS: ?Parents emphasized the importance of knowing what CAH is and what support their child needs, but also knowing how to cope and make sense of the new situation, how to attend to their child's medical needs as well as how to talk to their child. Parents also reported challenges related to connecting with their social network, experiences of emergency care, and how to help their children become independent. These challenges require knowing now: being able to respond appropriately to unique circumstances.? CONCLUSIONS: ?Parents experience diverse challenges that may moderate the effects of the diagnosis on children's well-being. Parenting children with CAH requires the development of knowing that goes beyond medical information.
Ansara YG, Hegarty P (2014) Methodologies of misgendering: Recommendations for reducing cisgenderism in psychological research, Feminism and Psychology 24 (2) pp. 259-270
Barker M, Hegarty P (2005) Queer politics: Queer science, Psychology of Women Section Review 7 (2) pp. 71-79
Hegarty PJ, Parslow O, Ansara YG, Quick F (2013) Androcentrism: Changing the landscape without leveling the playing field., In: Ryan M, Branscombe N (eds.), The Sage Handbook on Gender and Psychology
Brown N, Hegarty P (2005) Attributing primary and secondary emotions to lesbians and gay men: Denying a human essence or gender stereotyping?, Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review 6 pp. 14-20
I engage queer theory and the history of the intelligence quotient (IQ) movement in the United States here to re-imagine the critical nature of both projects. Early IQ researchers, such as Terman and Goddard, hypothesised that IQ was necessary for sexual morality and tested the hypothesis that prostitutes had lower IQ than other women. Terman was further concerned that gifted children not be ?queer? and appealed to a Freudian logic of sublimation to explain why children whom he deemed gifted sometimes engaged in homosexual acts. Intelligence testing is not simply a ?disciplinary? form of power/knowledge of the sort described by Foucault in Discipline and Punish; it is not oriented towards normalising ?gifted? people that it individualises. Rather, gifted people are made visible within a strategy of changing government to accommodate their difference from typical intelligence. This analysis of power suggests new ways of thinking about the intersectional politics of conservative rhetoric that relies on IQ testing, such as the book The Bell Curve.
Ansara YG, Hegarty P (2013) Misgendering in english language contexts: Applying non-cisgenderist methods to feminist research, International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches 7 (2) pp. 160-177
The American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual (2010) cautions authors against generic masculine language, which uses 'he' and 'man' for all people. This misgendering designates people as members of a gender category with which they do not identify. Misgendering may occur to anyone, but is a particularly common experience of people typically labelled as 'trans'. Misgendering is a form of cisgenderism, the discriminatory ideology that delegitimises people's own designations of their bodies and genders. We analysed four empirical papers with the highest current impact factors in English sexist language research: Moulton, Robinson, and Elias (1978); Hyde (1984); Gastil (1990); and Gannon, Luchetta, Rhodes, Pardie, and Segrist (1992). We applied a cisgenderism framework to identify limitations of defi ning sexist language chiefl y as masculine generics. We then discuss actual experiences of misgendering that current sexist language research overlooks. We explore how the adoption of non-cisgenderist research methods can reduce misgendering and benefi t Feminist research. © eContent Management Pty Ltd.
Hegarty PJ (2005) Kitzinger's irony: Then and now, Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review 6 pp. 114-116
Curtin N, Hegarty PJ, Stewart AJ (2012) Fostering research collaborations in LGBT psychology: An introduction to the special issue, Psychology and Sexuality 3 (3) pp. 187-194 Taylor & Francis
We introduce the special issue by providing an overview of the 2008 and 2010 International Summer Institutes in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology at the University of Michigan. Using the literature on stigmatization of LGBT peoples, minority stress, and the demonstrated under-representation of LGBT issues (including heterosexism) in psychology, we argue that the Institutes served a necessary and timely ? if not overdue ? intervention to establish an ?invisible college? that allowed emerging scholars to connect with eminent senior scholars. This was the starting point for systematic and sustained collaborations among the scholars in attendance, and some of the fruits of those collaborations are included in this issue. Post-institute participant surveys from both sessions revealed that the Institutes not only facilitated the formation of an ?invisible college?, but that participants also reported individual shifts in perspective associated with an increased commitment to social change: the development of new networks, critical perspectives on the inclusion of LGBT people/and issues, shifts in identity, and new possibilities for reaching (and changing) other people through research and teaching. We discuss these findings and their implications for the future directions of LGBT Psychology.
We develop a critique of the social psychological hypothesis that media images of women engaged in same-sex activity have a positive effect on heterosexual men?s general attitudes to lesbians. A content analysis suggests that British print media usually represent lesbians either in news stories that also include gay men, or in entertainment stories. In focus groups, both gay and straight men were presented with photographs of ?heteroflexible? representations from the ?lad mag? FHMand photographs of ?real? lesbians from Gay Times. Men were asked to define what made a woman a real lesbian. Straight men rejected the formulation that there was a single ?stereotype? of lesbians in favor of the claim that the FHM images did not represent real lesbians. Gay men came to agree that the heteroflexible women were not identified as lesbian. Our analysis suggests that both gay and straight men perform bounded sexual identities in response to heteroflexible images which are scripted to be attractive to heterosexual men.
Hegarty PJ (1999) Taking intersexuality seriously: A new challenge for lesbian and gay psychology., newsletter of the BPS Lesbian and Gay Psychology Section (3) pp. 6-8
Hegarty P, Massey S (2006) Anti-homosexual prejudice... as opposed to what? Queer theory and the social psychology of anti-homosexual attitudes, Journal of Homosexuality 52 (1-2) pp. 47-71
This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics. © Copyright (c) by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Barker M, Hagger-Johnson G, Hegarty P, Hutchison C, Riggs D (2007) Responses from the lesbian & gay psychology section to crossley's 'Making sense of 'barebacking", British Journal of Social Psychology 46 pp. 667-677
The aim of the present study is to summarize key responses to Crossley's (2004) article 'Making sense of barebacking' from members of the British Psychological Society's Lesbian & Gay Psychology Section. These responses are assembled into four main themes: (I) terminology, including descriptions of sexual behaviour that are inaccurate and pejorative; (2) representations that endorse culturally dominant and stigmatizing stereotypes of gay men as hedonistic, promiscuous, morally irresponsible and interested in sex rather than relationships; (3) methodology, particularly the use of autobiographical and fictional accounts as reliable sources of data about HIV risk; (4) ethics, especially the infringement of the dignity and the worth of those researched or represented. We welcome attempts to address the continuing problems of HIV/AIDS but recommend that authors and editors enter into dialogue with colleagues who are members of sexual minority communities as part of the research process.
Hegarty PJ, Chase C (2000) Intersexed activism, feminism, and psychology: Opening a dialogue on theory, research, and practice., Feminism and Psychology 10 (1) pp. 117-132 Sage
Hegarty P, Buechel C, Ungar S (2006) Androcentric preferences for visuospatial representations of gender differences, In: Diagrammatic Representation and Inference, Proceedings pp. 263-266
Robinson E, Hegarty P (2005) Premise-based category norms and the explanation of age differences, New Review of Social Psychology 4 pp. 138-143
Brennan T, Hegarty PJ (2010) Man seeks man: Gay men?s profiles on a website as subject production, Psychology of Sexualities Review 1 (1) pp. 5-18 British Psychological Society
In this study, informed by social constructionist approaches to self and identity and LGBTQ psychology, 300 profiles posted by gay men on the dating website gaydar.co.uk were analysed in terms of the narrative and interpretative resources used to construct an online gay identity. The analysis found evidence of a very active engagement with communication technology, with several profiles inviting the viewer to chat or send a message or photographs. Many profile owners professed to be ?genuine?. Distancing themselves from the alleged shallowness of the majority of other website members. A widely used discursive strategy for constructing the self and the type of person(s) sought was the expression ?straight acting,? with an attendant rejection of camp and derogation of a ?visibly gay? style ? a concerning finding that points to the policing of (self) presentation along exclusionary lines. While many profiles celebrated the site as a locus of new possibilities for sexual expression, website users mainly looking for a relationship constructed the website?s perceived emphasis on sex as commodification. As this was an exploratory study, future research could consider more websites, specialized (e.g., fetish) sites and emphasise their photographic/multimedia and interactive possibilities.
Hegarty P (2013) Deconstructing the ideal of fidelity: A view from LGB psychology, Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 13 (1) pp. 31-33
This commentary on The Fewer The Merrier (TFTM) adopts a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) lens. Although LGB people commonly construct successful consensual nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships, the focus on opposite-sex relationships obscured some aspects of U.S. society that are actively resisting the stigmatization of CNM relationships. I call attention to the historic ways that "adultery" has been legally defined in gendered terms, and argue for an analysis of social stigma that engages substantively with qualitative research about how CNM is lived among people of diverse sexualities. © 2012 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
Hegarty P (2005) More clarity, please, Psychologist 18 (4) pp. 200-200
Hegarty P, Massey S (2013) Anti-homosexual prejudice... as opposed to what? Queer theory and the social psychology of anti-homosexual attitudes, pp. 47-71
This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Social psychologists have argued that popular U.K. and U.S. men?s magazines known as ?lads? mags? have normalized hostile sexism among young men. Three studies develop this argument. First, a survey of 423 young U.K. men found that ambivalent sexism predicted attitudes toward the consumption of lads? mags, but not other forms of direct sexual consumption (paying for sex or patronizing strip clubs). Second, Study 2 (N 81) found that young men low in sexism rated sexist jokes as less hostile toward women, but not as either funnier nor more ironic, when those jokes were presented within a lads? mags context. These findings refute the idea that young men readily read lads? mags? sexism as ironic or ?harmless fun.? They show instead that placing sexist jokes in lads? mags contexts makes them appear less hostile. The third study (N 275) demonstrated that young men perceived lads? mags as less legitimate after attempting to distinguish the contents of lads? mags from rapists? legitimations of their crimes. Implications for contemporary studies of masculinities and consumption are discussed.
Events are temporal ?figures?, which can be defined as identifiable segments in time, bounded by beginnings and endings. But the functions and importance of these two boundaries differ. We argue that beginnings loom larger than endings by attracting more attention, being judged as more important and interesting, warranting more explanation, and having more causal power. This difference follows from a lay notion that additions (the introduction of something new) imply more change and demand more effort than do subtractions (returning to a previous state of affairs). This ?beginning advantage? is demonstrated in eight studies of people?s representations of epochs and events on a historical timeline as well as in cyclical change in the annual seasons. People think it is more important to know when wars and reigns started than when they ended, and are more interested in reading about beginnings than endings of historical movements. Transitional events (such as elections and passages from one season to the next) claim more interest and grow in importance when framed as beginnings of what follows than as conclusions of what came before. As beginnings are often identified in retrospect, the beginning advantage may distort and exaggerate their actual historical importance.
One of the clearest signs that Psychology has impacted popular culture is the public?s familiarity with the Rorschach ink blot test. An excellent example of the Rorschach in popular culture can be found in Watchmen, the comic/graphic novel written by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons (1987). In the mid-20th century Psychology had an especially contentious relationship with comics; some psychologists were very anxious about the impact on comics on young people, whereas others wrote comics to subvert dominant norms about gender and sexuality. Yet historians of Psychology have had almost nothing to say about this popular and critically acclaimed novel. We read Watchmen here for its narratives that most concern the history of Psychology. We focus on such themes as anti-psychiatry, sexual violence, homophobia, lesbian erasure, and social psychological research on bystander intervention. We argue it is possible to more closely align Psychology and comics despite their sometimes contentious history. In doing so we demonstrate the active role of the public in the history of the Rorschach, public engagement of Psychology via comics, and also reveal what is possible when historians consider comics within their histories.
Substance use disorders are one of the most highly stigmatised conditions in the western world. Current figures indicate that illicit drug related deaths are the highest they have ever been in the UK. Stigmatising attitudes have been found to act as a barrier to treatment uptake and engagement. This thesis aimed to explore healthcare professionals? attitudes towards illicit drug users. Part one of this portfolio presents a systematic literature review of healthcare professionals attitudes towards illicit drug use and the treatment of drug users. The findings of the review suggested that healthcare professionals do display stigmatising attitudes towards drug users but that these attitudes may be moderated by factors such as increased contact and the type of drug used. Part two presents an empirical paper that firstly investigated clients and healthcare professionals? understandings of positive and negative treatment interactions. Secondly, the paper investigated clients? perceptions of healthcare professionals? attitudes compared to professionals? own reports, and the impact of attributions of controllability on attitudes towards a fictional heroin user. The findings highlighted clear discrepancies between clients and healthcare professionals? understandings of what constitutes a positive and negative treatment interaction. Clients were also found to perceive healthcare professionals as more stigmatising than the healthcare professionals reported being. Attributions of controllability had a variable impact upon attitudes towards the fictional heroin user. Part 3 provides a summary of my clinical experience throughout training. Part 4 presents the assessments that I have completed during training.
To investigate specialist clinicians? experiences of treating vaginal agenesis.
12 hospitals in Sweden and the UK.
32 health professionals connected to multidisciplinary teams including medical specialists and psychologists.
Theoretical thematic analysis of recorded verbatim data.
The gynecologist and psychologist interviewees share certain observations including the importance of psychological readiness for and appropriate timing of treatment. Three overlapping themes are identified in our theoretical analysis of the MDT clinicians? talk: 1) The stigma of vaginal agenesis and the pressure to be ?normal? can lead patients to minimize the time, effort, physical discomfort and emotional cost inherent in treatment. 2) Under pressure, treatment may be presented to patients with insufficient attention to the potential psychological impact of the language used. Furthermore, the opportunity to question what is ?normal? in sex is generally not take up. It can be challenging to help the women to transcend their medicalized experiences to come to experiencing their bodies as sexual and enjoyable. 3) The reality of treatment demands, which is not always adequately processed prior to treatment, can lead to discontinuation with treatment and even disengagement with services.
Whilst the MDT clinicians in this study emphasized the importance of psychological input in vaginal construction, such input may need to proactively question social norms about how women?s genital should appear and function. Furthermore, rather than steering patients (back) to treatment, the entire MDT could more explicitly question social norms and help the women to do the same. By shifting the definition of success from anatomy to personal agency, the clinical focus is transformed from treatment to women.
This paper analyses the discourse of statements of the leaders of two Greek political parties
commemorating the restoration of Greek democracy on 24th July 1974; the ruling party New
Democracy and the opposition, Coalition of the Radical Left. We focus on how these leaders
act as entrepreneurs of their identities by constructing their in-groups in broad or narrow terms
and their outgroups in vague or specific terms. These constructions were ventured during a
period of relative political stability (2008) and instability (2012), and we focus on how in-group
prototypes and group boundaries are narrated across Greece?s past, present and future in
ambiguous or concrete terms. The study aligns the social identity approach to political
leadership with studies on political discourse and ?the rhetoric of we?. We view commemorative statements as historical charters and respond to calls for discourse analysis to
take greater account of historical context. The findings suggest concrete hypotheses about how
leaders with different amounts of political support might define, as identity entrepreneurs, who
?we? are, and who ?we? are not in democratic contexts marked by stability or crisis.
Heteronormativity is an ideology that presumes that heterosexuality is, and should be, the only, the dominant, or the taken-for-granted sexuality for all. In the present thesis, I aim to develop a cognitive understanding of romantic love, as a heteronormative construct. In Chapter 1, I explore a history of psychological research on romantic love to develop my argument that researchers have typically taken heterosexuality as the default in research on romantic love. In Chapter 2, I expand on this argument and postulate that concepts (particularly social concepts) can encode heteronormative ways of thinking about the world. The next four chapters focus on exploring the cognitive construction of romantic love, and explore if participants? take heterosexual as the default when thinking about romantic love. Heterosexual participants were found to construct romantic love differently depending of task demands. When the task appeared difficult, participants responded with heterosexual as the default (Chapters 3 and 5). In contrast, when the task appeared easy participants responded equally across sexuality conditions (Chapters 4 and 5). Lesbians, gay men and bisexual individuals were found to construct very different understandings of romantic love from heterosexual individuals (Chapter 6). The following two chapters explore how different understandings of romantic love influence perceptions of romantic relationships. In Chapter 7, I observed that participants draw upon a cognitive construction of romantic love when developing an understanding of a romantic relationship. Building on this, in Chapter 8, I found that the prototype of romantic love only predicted the perceived validity of a heterosexual relationship. In the conclusion (Chapter 9), I propose that heterosexual people may construct an understanding of romantic love on the basis of heterosexuality, which biases the perceptions of same-sex relationships. However, this construct of romantic love is not absolute, and can change.
Research on the accuracy of ?gaydar? judgments has burgeoned but rarely considered targets? perspectives on cues that signal a person?s sexual orientation to others. We examined sexual majority and minority speakers (N = 241) beliefs about the extent to which their voices act as a ?gaydar? clue to others, and speakers? desire to be so disclosed. Men believed their voices were more revealing of their sexual orientation than women did. Moreover, sexual majority participants, particularly masculine-sounding heterosexual men, desired to be disclosed the most of all. Sexual majority participants perceived their voices as gender typical and sexual minority participants perceived their voices as gender atypical, and participants whose beliefs were most consistent with this pattern also believed most that their voices acted as gaydar cues. The findings suggested that group differences in beliefs about gaydar may complicate individuals? attempts to judge each other?s sexual orientations from minimal cues.
Various umbrella terms refer to sex characteristics that do not fit typical binary notions of somatic sex. Key terms include Intersex, reclaimed by 1990s activists, and Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) used in medicine since 2006. Professionals across diverse disciplines express strong preferences for specific terms, making assumptions about what those terms do. Here, we draw on 10 focus group-interviews (41 participants without particular knowledge of Intersex/DSD), and semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 33 parents and 22 young people with personal experience of Intersex/DSD to examine how diverse laypeople understand and use these two umbrella terms and their alternatives. Most participants agreed that ?DSD? was problematic. Most young people and parents used ?descriptive explanations? of how the body looked or worked. Many parents and young people also found ?Intersex? problematic, whilst a majority of focus group participants did not. We conclude that as ?experts by experience?, young people and their parents use language pragmatically and flexibly in everyday life to a degree that people unfamiliar with their experiences can easily underestimate. We further conclude that prescriptive discussions on terminology in this area may be needlessly constraining for people with such personal experience.
Moral identity, which is based on moral concerns, is one of the many types of identities that an individual may have. In recent literature, spanning the period from the 1980s to the present - including the work of the prominent researcher into moral identity, Blasi, and Aquino and Reed, who developed their widely used moral identity scale in 2000 - there has been a persistent assumption that fairness and caring, or the individualising moral foundations, comprise the entire contents of moral identity. However, it is well documented that broader cultural differences are considered to have a clear effect on individuals, as cultures vary in the degree to which their norms, values and beliefs influence individual identities. Despite this, no published studies have explored moral identity with respect to culture. Thus, in this thesis, I argued that culture influences people?s moral identity, and that we need to consider and expect more moral variation between people across different cultures. I aimed here to develop an understanding of the importance of culture influence on moral identity in two cultural contexts, those of Britain and Saudi Arabia.
In Study 1 (n=160), I employed the prototype approach, and my results show that traits related to fairness/reciprocity and care/harm were prototypical of the concept of a moral person among both the British and Saudi participants. Meanwhile, respect, as well as traits related to religiousness, were prototypical of the concept of a moral person in only the Saudi sample. In Study 2, (n = 539), participants from each culture were randomly assigned one of six conditions where they completed moral identity measures. In each condition, participants were presented either with a person characterised by the exact moral traits listed in Aquino and Reed?s (2002) moral identity scale, or with a person characterised by moral traits represent one of the five moral foundations. Also, for each condition, the moral traits important in the participants? own culture were examined. The results showed large differences between the British and Saudi samples with regard to three moral foundations: in-group/loyalty; authority/respect and purity/sanctity, all three of which relate to binding concerns. These differences were mediated by the perceived cultural importance of these traits in each sample, particularly the binding traits. In Study 3 (n=938), I developed a novel moral identity scale and tested it for its reliability and validity in overcoming the shortcomings of previous scales used to measure moral identity, particularly the overlooked element of cultural variations in morality. Finally, in Study 4 (n=496), and given that there is an assumption in the literature that moral identity which is based on the individualising moral foundations (particularly caring and fairness) has always pro-social implications. I argued in this study that when we expand our understanding of moral identity to include the long-overlooked binding moral approach (e.g., authority, purity, in-group loyalty), moral identity may relate to negative attitudes toward out-groups. The results supported the idea that we need not take for granted that moral identity contributes to a reduction in prejudice. The results also indicated that the new moral identity scale is better than Aquino and Reed?s (2002) moral identity scale in its ability to predict prejudice attitudes.
Overall, this thesis demonstrates that the contents of moral identity are more diverse than has been assumed in the moral identity research. In addition, the results indicate that there is a need to be mindful of a dark side to moral identity that is often neglected, specifically when we, as researchers, recognise and include various moral concerns in the conceptualisation and measurements of moral identity.
Psychological research provides insights into how parents approach medical decisions on behalf of children. The medical decision of concern here is the surgical alteration of a hypospadic penis, whose urethral opening does not appear at the tip. Hypospadias surgery is routinely carried out in infancy, despite criticism by international organizations concerned about children?s rights. The focus of this study is on the framing of hypospadias surgery.
The objective is to examine how health professionals frame hypospadias and hypospadias surgery in medical and non-medical ways.
This is a qualitative study designed to build on the experimental research of Streuli et al who investigated how medical versus non-medical information affects decision-making about non-essential childhood genital surgery.
Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 32 health professionals. Theoretically informed thematic analysis was used to examine how health professionals talk about hypospadias surgery and about supporting parents to make treatment decisions.
The analysis suggests that medical professionals? engagement with parents underestimates the effect of framing in influencing parental decisions about hypospadias surgery. Some psychological specialists in this area are actively framing hypospadias in ways that enable some parents to choose a non-medical pathway. Psychologically informed ways of talking about a child?s genital difference focus on psychological qualities, including affect, well-being, and unconditional positive regard.
The best interests of children with hypospadias may well be served when psychological pathways are highlighted, providing opportunities to support the flourishing of children whose genital appearance raises the question of medical intervention.
The Rorschach ink blot test was first developed by Hermann Rorschach in 1921. This thesis explains the history of the test in Britain throughout the 20th century. This is a history of a test which has power, is able to do things, and has become embedded into popular culture like no other. My approach to this history in this thesis is critical and interdisciplinary: I borrow from Psychology, History, Sociology, Gender Studies and Comic Studies. I use a particular queer feminist lens through which to approach this research and in doing so I aim to tell a more hidden history. I pay particular attention to the marginal, invisible and ?white spaces? of the history of the Rorschach. In regards to these ?white spaces? I specifically consider where the ink from the blots has metaphorically ?bled? in and out of Psychology. Chapter 1 introduces the thesis as a whole and based on this, Chapter 2 provides the theoretical underpinnings of the thesis and situates it within the history of Psychology more generally. Chapter 3 provides the core British history of the Rorschach. This is developed further in Chapter 4, where I pay closer attention to queer women and develop my own form of analysis for the history of Psychology. Chapter 5 provides a specific analysis of the graphic novel Watchmen which I argue exemplifies a significant ?loop? of Psychology into popular culture, and Chapter 6 concludes the thesis. In all, I provide an account of the Rorschach in Britain which allows for those who used the Rorschach; those who were tested with it; and the public; to be included. I argue that this interdisciplinary study of the history of the Rorschach test in Britain exemplifies what is possible when the marginal aspects of history are included. Consequentially, this has the power to allow historians of Psychology to re-imagine more normative histories. After all the Rorschach is all about imagination.
People with physical intersex characteristics can be subject to medical interventions that risk human rights to bodily integrity and self-determination. Proponents and opponents of medicalization use personal narrative videos on YouTube to frame intersex as a stigma best understood through a medical or social identity frame. 99 psychology students watched one of two YouTube videos with either a medical or social identity frame, or participated in a comparison group who watched no video. Participants extracted the videos? medical or social identity framing in their own words. The social identity video increased participants? sense that medicine was more harmful and less beneficial, and the medical video decreased participants? sense that medicine was harmful. Although the videos aimed at bringing about social understanding of intersex people, neither video impacted stigmatizing beliefs about intersex people as a group. Rather, effects of the videos on beliefs about harms of medicalization were moderated by two stigma measures; social distance and gender binary beliefs. Medical intervention on intersex has been justified, in part, on grounds that stigma is inevitable. Whilst intersex stigma has rarely been empirically examined, the present study shows that people with less propensity to stigmatize see less benefit from medicalizing intersex traits and are more open to learning few framings from personal experience videos.
Since 1970, research on romantic relationships has burgeoned, but its theories and methods were shaped by a heteronormative cultural context. Heteronormativity is an ideology that implicitly holds that heterosexuality is, and should be, the only, dominant, or taken-for-granted sexuality for all. The movement towards sexual equality, particularly legal recognition of equal marriage, now allows psychologists to investigate romantic love in a more equal manner than ever before. To orient psychology towards less heteronormative theories of love, we make explicit how researchers in the past have (1) defined love and relationships as heterosexual; (2) presumed heterosexual patterns of love to generalize to all; (3) used methodologies that introduce heterosexual bias; and (4) located differences in same-sex couples rather than between same-sex and opposite-sex couples. We conclude with recommendations of how critical thinking at all stages of research can make the difference between heteronormative and inclusive research on romantic love and relationships.
The present thesis aims to understand the ways that political leaders craft a sense of ?us? and ?them? as part of their identity entrepreneurship process. The social psychological literature of entrepreneurial identity is underpinned by some problematic assumptions that limit understanding of the meaning, formation and influence of social identity in action. Political leaders as entrepreneurs are presented or treated as a homogeneous group in terms of the embodied properties and powers related to the entire nation, which they govern or aim to do so, rather than as representatives of a uniquely embodied political group.
Therefore, findings of the present thesis build on the literature of social identity approach to political leadership in two ways: First, by suggesting concrete hypotheses about how leaders with different amounts of political support might define in various ways, as identity entrepreneurs, who ?we? are and who ?we? are not in democratic contexts marked by stability or crisis. Second, by considering different temporal accounts, in the form of who ?we? or ?they? were (past), are (present) or can become (future), as social identity maintenance strategies employed by political leaders.
In Chapter 1, I introduce the thesis, set the scene, list the research questions that this thesis aims to answer and provide a chapter-by-chapter break down framework. In Chapter 2, I summarise previous work on commemoration practice alongside research on social identity approach to political leadership and studies beyond the social identity approach to leadership that focus on group identities and discourses of ?we? and ?they?. In Chapter 3, I present the methodological framework of analysis of commemorative political speeches. Chapters 4 (content analysis), 5 (discourse analysis of ?we? and ?they?) and 6 (temporal positioning of ?we? and ?they?) present the findings of analysis of the speeches. I conclude, in this thesis, with a discussion, where I summarise findings, address implications of the current research and propose directions for future research.
How can cognitive psychology make a contribution to critical psychologies of science and technology? Here, we read cognitive experimental research on categorization diffractively (Barad, 2007), cutting between the commitment to positivist-empiricist ontology in any given experimental set up, and the empirical conclusions that human categorization practices are inherently hybrid. In so doing, we mean to exemplify the difference made by reading cognitive psychology as either non-critical (on the grounds of its positivist-empiricist ontology) or reparatively (on the basis of its conclusions) as a resource for critical psychology. We aim this intervention to normalize the idea that humans think queerly, and particularly to engage long-standing discussion of the relationship between criticality and positivist-empiricist methods in LGBTQ+ psychology. We aim to exemplify the difference that this diffractive reading can make, by drawing out its relevance for contemporary psychosocial research in intersex studies.
Stigma experienced by drug users by their healthcare professionals can be a barrier to treatment engagement, which in turn affects mortality and morbidity rates. Attribution theory suggests that stigma will be greatest whenever drug use is attributed to factors within personal control. Here, clients (n = 76) and healthcare professionals (n = 62) identified features that characterize good and bad clinical interactions, and responded to a vignette about a drug user who attributed his use to personal control or situational factors. Healthcare professionals completed the vignette and drug users gave their best guess of how healthcare professionals would react to this vignette. Clients and professionals held overlapping prototypes of clinical interactions. Clients overestimated both how negative healthcare professionals? reactions would be, and the extent to which healthcare professionals? reactions would accord with attribution theory. Despite healthcare professionals? believing they are acting in nonstigmatizing ways, they may engender stigma in clinical situations more than they realize. Discrepancies between professionals? hypothetical responses and clients? anticipation of these responses are discussed in terms of the influence of self?stigma and societal understandings of drug use and control. Attribution theory only offers a limited explanation for these discrepancies, because professionals? beliefs about drug users are complex. Implications for theories of stigma and engagement with services are discussed, and the importance of clients? anticipation of stigma is highlighted as a primary target for addressing treatment disengagement. Anti?stigma campaigns may also benefit from changing their focus from individuals? attributions to holistically addressing discrepant conceptions of treatment.
Reclaiming implies that homophobic labels used by gay individuals are perceived as less offensive and their use as empowering speakers. We examined whether listeners in Italy and Britain perceived homophobic labels as ?reclaimed? when men?s voices implied their homosexuality. Gay and straight male speakers used neutral or homophobic labels referring to themselves or another. Homophobic labels were offensive when used by straight speakers and when labelling others. Gay speakers self-labelling with homophobic labels were not perceived as more powerful.
In three studies (N = 340), we tested whether vocal cues to a person?s sexual orientation prompted sexual orientation discrimination in heterosexual individuals when hiring leaders. Our results inform how gender and sexual orientation intersect to produce discriminatory effects in the hiring context. Heterosexual participants listened to short clips of voices that sounded like job candidate was a lesbian or heterosexual woman, or a gay or heterosexual man, and rated all for job suitability and employability. Candidates applied for jobs as leaders (Study 1), as leaders or assistants (Study 2), and for leadership roles that varied in both gender role and status (Study 3). Sexual orientation discrimination occurred in all three studies and was greater among women job candidates. Refuting role congruity theory, several findings disconfirmed the prediction that lesbian-sounding women would be advantaged when stereotyped as masculine and when applying for leadership roles. Rather, in line with status-beliefs theory, lesbian-sounding women and gay-sounding men were rated and ranked poorly to the extent that they were perceived as less competent than heterosexual candidates. Findings suggest that hiring discrimination occurs in subtle ways, such as when individuals sound gay/lesbian. This has implications for recruitment as well as sexual-orientation discrimination court cases
Cultural heterosexist ideologies assume heterosexuality to be the default norm. Four studies investigated when concepts of romantic love are heterosexual?by?default (N = 685). In Studies 1?2, participants generated features of romantic love, in general (i.e., the default prototype) or among one of three sexual orientation?specific couples (lesbian, gay, or heterosexual). Heterosexual?identified participants? default prototypes were more similar to heterosexual than same?gender prototypes (Study 1). Lesbian? and gay?identified participants? default prototypes were more similar to both heterosexual and gay male than lesbian prototypes, whereas bisexual?identified participants? sexual orientation?specific prototypes were equivalently similar to the default (Study 2). However, heterosexual?identified participants rated presented features of love similarly across sexual orientation?specific conditions (Study 3). In a timed feature?verification task (Study 4), participants categorized fewer peripheral features of romantic love as relevant to same?gender than mixed?gender couples. Activating sexual orientation?specific representations affected subsequent default concepts of romantic love. We discuss implications for heterosexism theories and intervention.