Competitiveness in the visitor economy

Labour is a key part of competitiveness in hospitality, tourism and events, so it is a central focus of our research.

Research aims

We aim to address equality and diversity in employment and conduct studies of future labour markets, productivity, career mobilities, skills, flexible employment and entrepreneurial migration, while examining other aspects of competitiveness at both firm and destination levels, such as advances in destination branding, visitor satisfaction, innovation, revenue management, and risk and disaster impacts.

We also aim to maintain our world-leading position in demand-forecasting research, which provides a scientific foundation to support businesses’ and governments’ decision making to improve their competitiveness.

Partners

We have strong collaborations with world-leading institutions in tourism research, such as Hong Kong Polytechnic University, the University of Queensland, and Sun Yat-Sen University.

We also collaborate with governments, businesses and tourism organisations nationally and globally, including:

We would like to collaborate with other leading research institutions and build strong links with national and international organisations and industry partners to generate wider research impact beyond academia.

    Research projects

    Competitive advantages

    Overview

    This project is going to investigate marketing capability of Chinese exhibitors in oversea countries.

    Principal investigator

    Jingna Wang

    Co-investigators

    Tracy Xu

    Funder

    National Social Science Fund of China

    Start date

    July 2018

    End date 

    July 2021

    Overview

    Co-investigators
    • Pattanapong Tiwasing, Newcastle University
    • Yoo Ri Kim, University of Surrey
    • Katiuscia Lavoratori, University of Warwick
    • Temitope Akinremi, University of Warwick
    • Diletta Pegoraro, University of Birmingham
    Funding amount

    £2,500

    Funder

    The Productivity Insights Network was established in January 2018 and is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. As a multi-disciplinary network of social science researchers engaged with public, private, and third sector partners, our aim is to change the tone of the productivity debate in theory and practice.  It is led by the University of Sheffield, with co-investigators at Cambridge Econometrics, Cardiff University, Durham University, Glasgow Caledonian University, SQW, University of Cambridge, University of Essex, University of Glasgow and the University of Leeds.

    Synopsis

    The main aim of the project is to identify the firm, locality (as captured by local enterprise partnerships [LEPs]) and regional determinants of small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) productivity in the service sector. This helps to understand and improve the spatial disparities in productivity of the UK SMEs operating in the service sector for different localities, and an evidence-based multilevel regression analysis of how place and productivity interact, with a strong emphasis on service SMEs, was conducted.

    About

    Project detail

    This project have drawn on the cross-sectional multi-level analysis of SMEs in England from the Longitudinal Small Business Survey (LSBS) for 2015 from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). The analysis highlighted significant variations in firm characteristics and LEPs, leading to disparities in SME productivity in the service sector in England. This suggests the need for adequate support at the LEP level, for example, identifying the strongest and weakest LEPs in their productivity performance, which can help develop better place-based strategies for effective usage of government funding that can fairly be distributed across the local economies depending on their productivity needs. Additionally, strengthening the LEPs and their local business networks can be key to sharing knowledge and experience within the LEPs. Firm-level findings have shown the importance of the survival of family and small businesses in improving productivity, and the need for investments in training and development for all skill levels, particularly at the management level. Further findings suggest the need for investments and improvements of digital infrastructure to enhance business networks and inter- and intra- connectivity of LEPs to address the issues of spatial disparities in the productivity of service SMEs.

    Project outputs

    PIN report titled ‘Spatial Disparities in SME Productivity: Evidence from the Service Sectors in England’ to be published.

    Demand forecasting

    Overview

    This project is produced by the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) in collaboration with The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and expert members of the University of Surrey.

    Principal investigator

    Professor Haiyan Song

    Co-investigators

    Funder

    Pacific Asia Tourism Association (PATA)

    Start date

    December 2012

    Synopsis

    With the Asia-Pacific region showing strong growth leadership globally, tourism has become an increasingly important sector in the region’s economy. To maintain the region’s competitive edge, a reliable and effective forecasting system is essential to assist destinations in the development of strategies for the coming years by accurately predicting arrivals, visitor receipts and departures.

    Project detail

    Project outputs

    Economic modelling

    Overview

    Bayesian bagging will be incorporated to the general-to-specific modelling approach to improve the forecasting accuracy.

    Principal investigator

    Professor Haiyan Song

    Co-investigators
    • Professor Gang Li
    • Dr Anyu Liu
    Funding amount

    £42,500

    Funder

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

    Start date

    September 2019

    End date

    August 2022

    Synopsis

    Tourism development plays a crucial role in destinations’ sustainable economic growth. The accurate forecasting of tourism demand forms a scientific and rigorous foundation for tourism stakeholders’ policymaking, strategic planning and operations management, and therefore has significant economic consequences. Prof. Gang Li and Dr. Anyu Liu were involved in the Hong Kong Polytechnic University’s project with the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) to produce annual reports on ‘Asia Pacific Visitor Forecasts’ (APVF) for the seven years from 2012. The main approach used in APVF is the autoregressive distributed lag and general-to-specific (ADL-GETS) econometric model, which provides accurate forecasts of tourism demand for 38 destinations in the Asia Pacific region. The frequently updated forecasts have been used as key references for the strategic decision-making of many industry practitioners in places including theme parks, hotels and government agencies.

    Although ADL-GETS can produce generally accurate forecasts, the consistency and stability of the forecasting performance can be further improved. In some circumstances the ADL-GETS model deduction process cannot ensure that the optimal model will be reached. In other words, the decision rule for model deduction is unstable. As a result, the forecasting performance of the selected model is not optimal in such cases. This study was designed to address these concerns by proposing a new forecasting method with a view to further improving the forecasting performance of the existing APVF models built by the investigators. The new method integrates a statistical technique called Bayesian bootstrap aggregation, or BBagging, into the ADL-GETS model selection process. BBagging is designed to reduce forecasting errors through selecting predictors when the decision rules are unstable and the sample size is small. Both empirical and theoretical evidence show that BBagging can push an unstable procedure towards the goal of optimality.

    This research represents the first attempt to introduce the BBagging technique into the tourism forecasting field and integrate it with the ADL-GETS model. This research not only has scientific merits, but also significant socio-economic impacts. We expect that it will lead to improved performance of APVF. As a widely used reference point, more accurate APVF forecasts will provide more rigorous support to tourism stakeholders’ strategic decision making to achieve sustainable development of the tourism industry and the Asia Pacific region’s overall economic growth.

    Innovation and entrepreneurship

    Overview

    Analysis of how co-production of knowledge contributes to the innovation process in the exhibitions industry in Hong Kong.

    Principal investigator
    • Jin Soo Lee
    Co-investigators
    • Allan Williams
    • Sangwon Park
    Funder

    Hong Kong Research Council GRF Fund

    Start date

    January 2020

    End date

    December 2021

    Synopsis

    Meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) tourism are high value-added forms business tourism which exert considerable impact on local economies. Innovation is a key to maintaining competitiveness in this important sector, and the service-dominant (S-D) logic perspective provides insights into how co-creation can contribute to generating value propositions to customers.

    This project aims to identify the process whereby such practices inform the innovation process in the exhibition industry in Hong Kong. To achieve this aim, we will utilise big data analytics, exhibition service innovation project analysis, conduct in-depth interviews and expert panel reviews to identify key features of the co-production and innovation processes. It will then use a survey to validate the findings with respect to how propositions are developed and created for service innovation.

    Overview

    Principal investigators

    • Cristina Figueroa Domecq
    • Allan Williams
    Additional team members
    • Anna de Jong
    • Albert Kimbu
    Funding amount

    €183,455

    Funder

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement number: WomENT DLV-792738.

    Start date

    1 September 2018

    End date

    31 August 2020

    Synopsis

    Our main objective is to understand the different pathways of women’s entrepreneurship journey in a changing tourism industry, and how different environments, agents, policies and actions influence their opportunities, motivations and challenges.

    View project website.

    Project detail

    About

    The specific research objectives of this project are:

    1. To analyse women’s pathways in tourism entrepreneurship
      • Identify and assess the different pathways that women follow, based on a post-structuralist theoretical framework.
      • Evaluate the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
      • Understand what is visible and invisible.
    2. To develop evidence-based policy and practice recommendations to foster women’s entrepreneurship in tourism.
    3. To promote the culture of entrepreneurship among women in the tourism industry, through effective research-based dissemination.
    Project outputs

    Figueroa-Domecq. C. Invited conference “The implementation of a gender perspective in tourism research”. 12 November 2018. 2 hours. Rey Juan Carlos University Madrid, Spain.

    Figueroa-Domecq, C., Segovia-Pérez, M., Flecha-Barrio, M. D. y Palomo, J. (2018). Women in decision-making positions in tourism high-tech companies: Board of Director. XII Congreso Internacional Turismo y Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones, University of Málaga (Spain), 10-11 October 2018.

    Figueroa-Domecq, C., Palomo, J., Flecha-Barrio, M. D y Segovia-Pérez, M. (2019). Women in decision-making positions in tourism high-tech companies: Board of Director. International Conference Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism. Nicosia (Cyprus), January 30 – February 1 2019.

    Publications

    Domecq, C. F., Pérez, M. S., Barrio, M. D. F., & Martínez, J. P. (2018). Women in decision-making positions in tourism high-technology companies: board of directors. In XII Congreso Internacional de Turismo y Tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones (pp. 117-130). Universidad de Málaga (UMA).

    Figueroa-Domecq, C., Palomo, J., Flecha-Barrio, M. D., & Segovia-Pérez, M. (2019). Double Gender Gap in Tourism High-Technology Organisations: Results and Corporate Actions. In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2019 (pp. 383-395). Springer, Cham.

    Overview

    Principal investigator

    Albert Kimbu

    Additional team members
    • Anna de Jong
    • Manuel Alector Ribeiro
    • Cristina Figueroa Domecq
    • Dr Ewoenam AFENYO-AGBE, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
    • Dr Issahaku Adam, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
    • Dr Ogechi ADEOLA, Lagos Business School, Pan Atlantic University, Nigeria
    Funder

    This project has received funding from QR Global Challenges Research Fund (QR GCRF) – 2018/19.

    Start date

    January 2019

    End date

    August 2019

    Synopsis

    This study advances understanding of women’s experiences of tourism entrepreneurship in Ghana and Nigeria by examining how spatial contexts influence gendered entrepreneurial pathways.

    Project detail

    About

    This project’s specific objectives are:

    • Analyse women’s pathways in tourism entrepreneurship (How does the specificities of place shape women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities?)
    • Identify barriers and facilitators (What are the enablers and challenges involved in enabling women to engage in tourism entrepreneurship?)
    • Develop evidence-based policy and practice recommendations to foster women’s entrepreneurship in tourism (Identify key findings to be utilised as a case for support in a future research proposal.)

    Completed projects

    Competitive advantages

    Overview

    Analysis of how labour practices influence productivity in hotels.

    Principal investigators 
    Co-investigators

    Chris Cowls, Chief Executive of Eproductive

    Additional team members

    Natina Yaduma

    Start date

    August 2013

    End date

    March 2015

      Funding amount

      £200,000

      Funder

      Economic and Social Research Council

      Summary

      This project analyses the extent to which labour productivity is determined by flexible work practices and the employment of international migrant workers in hotels, a relatively neglected but significant source of output and jobs. We also examine the extent to which there is a relationship between work flexibility and the employment of migrants, and how the interaction between these influences firm performance. In more general terms, the research contributes to the continuing debate about the performance of the UK economy, and its ‘productivity gap’.

      Project details

      About

      The project overcomes the limitations of secondary data by having privileged access to a unique data base for three large companies, with some 80 hotels in the UK and the Netherlands. This provides data not just at establishment level, or even at departmental level, but at individual employee level. Data is recorded on an hourly basis for different types of labour inputs (part time, contracted, seasonal etc.) over a continuous five year period. Outputs are measured in terms of both service outcomes (rooms occupied etc.) and financial terms. The availability of data for 2007-13 also allows analysis of how firms have responded to a changing operating environment through the economic crisis.

      Project outputs
      • Webinar organised by Institute of Hospitality
      • Final symposium held in London 2015
      Publications

      Yaduma, N., Williams, A. M., Park, S., & Lockwood, A. (2015). Performance, Labour Flexibility and Migrant Workers in Hotels: An Establishment and Departmental Level Analysis, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 50, 94-104.

      Park, S., Yaduma, N., Lockwood, A. J., & Williams, A. M. (2016). Demand Fluctuations, Labour Flexibility and Productivity, Annals of Tourism Research, 59, 93-112.

      Overview

       

      This project investigates the challenges faced by arts events and festivals in the UK and the supports they would need and expect from a national association. 

      Principal investigator
      • Tracy Xu
      • Yanning Li
      Funder

      Research England - Innovation Voucher Scheme

      Start date

      May 2019

      End date 

      July 2019

      Overview

      This H2020 project analyses the role played by intra-EU international migration in the transition from youth to adulthood in terms of human capital, employment, identities and housing.

      Principal investigators 
      Co-investigators
      • University of La Sapienza
      • University of Bielefeld
      • University of Almeria
      • University of Cork
      • University of Latvia
      • University of Bucharest
      • University of Malmo
      • University of Sussex
      • Slovak Academy of Science
      Additional team members
      Start date

      March 2014

      End date

      March 2018

        Funding amount

        €2,500,000

        Funder

        EU Horizon 2020

        Summary

        YMOBILITY was a cross-disciplinary 3-year project that aimed to study the role of international migration in the transition from youth to adulthood. YMOBILITY’s specific objectives were:

        • To establish the extent to which individuals consider international mobility to be a key strategy for mediating significant life course transitions.
        • To provide a comprehensive overview and quantification of the main types of youth mobility in the EU, focusing particularly on three main categories: students, higher-skilled and less-skilled workers.
        • To identify the outcomes of youth mobility for individuals in terms of: a) their lifelong portfolio of skills and competences, b) their social welfare and health, c) the formation of more European and/or cosmopolitan identities, and d) the transition from youth to full adulthood.
        • To analyze the short- and long-term regional implications of youth mobility for both sending and destination regions.
        • To understand, and provide typologies of how individuals would respond to contrasting future migration scenarios, reflecting changing structural and personal circumstances.
        • To provide evidence-based recommendations for migration and flanking policies that will help to maximize the opportunities, and minimize the costs, associated with youth mobility for individuals, labor markets and regions.

        View project website.

        Project details

        About

        YMOBILITY developed a comprehensive research programme which addressed the following issues:

        1. Identifying, and quantifying, the main types of international youth mobility in the EU, and their key characteristics.
        2. Understanding what determines which individuals do and which do not participate in international mobility as personal and professional development strategies: their motives, migration channels and information sources.
        3. Analysing the individual outcomes in terms of both employability and careers and non-economic terms.
        4. Analysing the territorial outcomes for the regions of both origin and destination, in economic, demographic and cultural terms.
        5. Differentiating between short-term and long-term outcomes, taking into account return migration and future intentions to migrate.
        6. Identifying implications for policies in migration but also of education, the economy and housing.

        The research relied on extensive primary quantitative data (panel survey of 30,000) and qualitative data (almost 900 interviews). It focused on nine countries representing different contexts for youth mobility: Romania, Slovakia and Latvia; the UK and Sweden; Germany, Italy, Ireland and Spain. The policy analysis was informed by interviews undertaken with key informants. Experimental methods were used to assess how individuals (almost 500) would respond to different scenarios of future economic and social change.

        Project outputs

        View project website.

        Publications

        A. M. Williams, C. Jephcote, H. Janta, G. Li (2018) “The Migration Intentions of Young Adults in Europe: A Comparative, Multi-Level Analysis”, Population Space and Place 24(1)

        Baláž, V. and Williams, A. M. (2017) Experimental research methods in migration: from natural to true experiments, Population Space and Place. V23(1)

        V. Balaž, A. Williams, M. Chrančokov. M. (2017) “Connectivity as the Facilitator of the Intra-European Student Migration”. Population, Place and Space. 24(3)

        V. Balaž, A. Williams (2018) “Migration decisions in the face of upheaval: An experimental approach”. Population, Space Place, 24(1)

        R. King, A. M. Williams (2018), “Introduction: New European Youth Mobilities”, Population Space and Place 24(1)

        • Creating the tourist satisfaction index of China inbound tourism from Britain [2016- 2017]
        • Destination branding: tourism and events in northern regions funded by the Norwegian Research Council: impact on enhancing destination competitiveness [2013-2016]
        • EU inward Marie Curie fellowships (€180,000) for Professor Vladimirov on competitiveness in small firms [2013-2015]
        • EU research project (€65,000) on socio-economic impact of Clean Sky 1 [2016- 2017]
        • Tourism and terrorism funded by the European Commission [2016]

        Demand forecasting

        Visitor forecasting for Shanghai Disney Resort: impact on Disney’s pricing strategy [2015]

        Innovation and entrepreneurship

        Overview

        Principal investigators 
        Start date

        1 June 2016

        End date

        31 May 2018

          Funding amount

          €183,455

          Funder

          This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the MarieSkłodowska-Curie grant agreement Nº 700893.

          Summary

          The main aim of the project is to deepen understanding of the different stages of the innovation journey followed by entrepreneurs in tourism. It will examine not only the classic startup process, involving opportunity recognition, development and early implementation of innovation in the market, but also the subsequent stages of business performance (discontinuance, growth, further innovation, etc.). This understanding will contribute to the design of more effective innovation policies.

          Download the summary information brochure (PDF).

          Project details

          About

          This project set out to provide insightful knowledge on different stages of the innovation journey followed by entrepreneurs in tourism. It examined the innovation process of a total of 57 entrepreneurs in Spain and the UK and carried out a longitudinal study of business performance of a sample of 16 innovators, the latest revealing high failure rates for innovation. The fact that innovation is a highly complex and uncertain process explains the high failure rates. The analysis of the innovation pathways of a total of 73 entrepreneurs (both successful and unsuccessful) during this 2 year project highlighted critical factors for success or failure which were discussed with policymakers in Spain. The results of this discussion was the co-production of an online survey allowing the potential policy measures and issues to be discussed with a wider sample of innovative entrepreneurs. The survey was completed by 269 tourism innovators both in Spain and the UK. The views of all the participants at different methodological stages were included in a policy recommendations report. The project findings were also disseminated via conference and published papers, videos and a policy briefing.

          Collaborators
          Project outputs
          Reports
          Videos
          News
          Publications

          Rodriguez Sanchez Isabel, Williams Allan M., Andreu Hugo García (2019) Customer resistance to tourism innovations: entrepreneurs? Understanding and management strategies, Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications

          Rodriguez Isabel, Williams Allan M, Brotons M. (2017). The innovation journey of new-to-tourism entrepreneurs, Current Issues in Tourism, 22(28), 877-904

          Overview

          Co-investigators
          Funding amount

          €221 606,40

          Funder
          • FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IEF (EU grant agreement 624930)
          • MC-IEF - Intra-European Fellowships (IEF)

          Project detail

          About

          This project set out to provide insightful knowledge on cross-border regional cooperation in terms of how different types of proximity and levels of integration of cross-border regional innovation systems impact on knowledge transfer mechanisms and levels of innovativeness. More specifically, the study addressed the following objectives:

          1. It compared the effects of different types of proximity on knowledge transfer and innovativeness in cross-border regions
          2. It developed a methodology for measuring the levels of integration of cross-border regional innovation systems and
          3. It evaluated the success of ENPI cross-border cooperation projects in facilitating cross-border knowledge flows and innovation in the field of tourism.

          The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as both comparative EU-level data and in depth case study materials (statistical, survey and interview data). Firstly, the project conducted three literature reviews/desk studies that concentrated on:

          1. Border region studies as a subfield of regional studies
          2. The cross-border regional innovation systems literature, its conceptual backgrounds and earlier empirical evidence
          3. Policy suggestions resulting from this research.

          These studies underline the importance of border regions as a distinct and significant field of regional studies and the importance of border region studies for the sustainable socio-economic development of border regions. Additionally, the research pinpointed the most severe contemporary research gaps in the empirical applications of cross-border regional innovation systems, guiding the work on the subsequent research objectives and providing further insights into (innovation) policy developments in border regions.

          Secondly, the project suggested a framework for empirically validating the concept of cross-border regional innovation systems and measuring their integration processes. This framework was further tested and developed in two separate case studies and in a wider comparative study. These studies demonstrate and highlight the feasibility of the empirical framework.

          Thirdly, the project extended the notions of cross-border cooperation into two empirical studies with secondary data sources focusing on:

          1. The impact of the enlargement of the European Union on scientific cross-border collaboration and the success of the European Research Area in achieving the goal of a common internal market for research within the European Union
          2. The selection of cross-border innovation cooperation partners.

          The results show that joining the European Union has had a significant positive impact on the volume of cross-border co-publishing between the established (EU-15) and new European Union member states. The same applies to the cross-border publication intensity between the new member states. This is arguably due to the improved financial resources that accompanies membership. This signals at least a partial success of the European Research Area in promoting a common internal market in research within the European Union. Of course, when it comes to firm-to-firm partnerships, several factors (such as geographical distance to the border) still influence the likelihood of participating in cross-border innovation collaboration.

          Fourthly, the project suggested:

          1. Survey metrics for collecting and analysing primary firm-level data with the aim of producing relevant measures for disentangling the impact of the various dimensions of proximity (geographical, institutional, social, cognitive etc.) on regional cross-border innovation cooperation
          2. Methods for illustrating cross-border cooperation networks with tools developed within social network analyses. Pilot study material was collected from firms and organisations situated in three different cross-border regions to demonstrate the feasibility of the metrics and tools.

          Finally, the project concluded with a qualitative study on the success factors of ENPI funded cross-border collaboration projects (in the field of tourism) in the context of joint innovation and knowledge transfer. The results pinpoint several pivotal suggestions (lessons learned) for practitioners and policy-makers to take into account when planning and executing cross-border projects.

          As a result, the project made an original theoretical and empirical contribution, through being the first substantial empirical study of the theoretical underpinnings of cross-border regional innovation systems, their levels of integration and knowledge transfer and of joint innovation in cross-border cooperation projects. These original contributions are highly policy relevant as the long term success of cross-border regions depends on collective efforts to further integrate on a trans-regional level in order to develop common innovation systems. With the proposed empirical framework, it is now possible for policy-makers in cross-border regions to monitor their integration processes, which would help the regions to better understand their trajectories in the context of developing common cross-border regional innovation systems.

          Additionally, the project collected a list of policy recommendations for facilitating the integration of cross-border regional innovation systems. The study also provided an analysis of `best practices´ in the context of tourism related cross-border cooperation projects. The lessons learned from these studies are relevant not only for the case study regions but also for other European cross-border regions and practitioners engaged in cross-border cooperation projects. The results also underline the positive impacts of the European Union/European Research Area on cross-border scientific cooperation.

          Project outputs
          Publications

          Makkonen, Teemu,Weidenfeld, Adi; Knowledge-based urban development of cross-border twin cities, Inderscience Publishing 2040-4468 2016DOI:10.1504/IJKBD.2016.080881.

          Makkonen, T,Mitze, T, Scientific collaboration between ‘old’ and ‘new’ member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference? Springer Verlag Scientometrics 2015.

          Our publications

          Altinay, L., Song, H., Madanoglu, M. and Wang, X.L. (2019). The influence of customer-to-customer interactions on elderly consumers’ satisfaction and social well-being, International Journal of Hospitality Management. Vol. 78, p223-233.

          Corbet, S., O’Connell, John F., Efthymiou, M., Guiomard, C., Lucey, B. (2019). The Impact of terrorism on European tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 75, 1-17

          Dayour F., Park, S. & Kimbu A.N. (2019). Backpackers’ perceived risks towards smartphone usage and risk reduction strategies: A mixed methods study. Tourism Management, 62, pp 52-68.

          Kimbu A.N., Ngoasong, M.Z., Adeola, O. & Afenyo-Agbe, E. (2019). Collaborative Networks for sustainable human capital management in women’s tourism entrepreneurship: The role of tourism policy. Tourism Planning & Development, 16 (2) pp. 161-178

          Li, G., D.C. Wu, M. Zhou & A. Liu (2019). The combination of interval forecasts in tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 75, 363-378. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2019.01.010.  

          Li, S., A. Liu & H. Song (2019). Does tourism support supply-side structural reform in China?, Tourism Management, 71, 305-314.

          Ngoasong M. Z. & Kimbu A.N. (2019). Why Hurry? The Slow Process of High Growth in Women‐Owned Businesses in a Resource‐Scarce Context. Journal of Small Business Management, 57(1), pp. 40-58.

          Rodriguez Sanchez Isabel, Williams Allan M., Andreu Hugo García (2019) Customer resistance to tourism innovations: entrepreneurs? understanding and management strategies, Journal of Travel Research SAGE Publications (in press).

          Rodriguez, I., Makkonen, T., & Williams A. M. (2019). Originality peer review assessment in tourism journals, Annals of Tourism Research (in press).

          Stienmetz, J. L., A. Liu & I.P. Tussyadiah (2019). UK Residents’ Opinions of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Impact on Quality of Life, In: Pesonen J., Neidhardt J. (eds.),    Inf ormation and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2019, 80-91

          Segovia-Pérez Mónica, Figueroa-Domecq Cristina, Fuentes-Moraleda Laura, Muñoz-Mazón Ana (2019). Incorporating a gender approach in the hospitality industry: Female executives’ perceptions. International Journal of Hospitality Management76, pp. 184-193.

          Sun, H., Wu, S., Li, Y.,  Dai, G. (2019) Tourist-to-tourist interaction at festivals: a grounded theory approach. Sustainability, 11(15), 4030. doi:10.3390/su11154030

          Tichaawa, M.T.  & Kimbu A.N. (2019) Unlocking Policy Impediments for Service Delivery in Tourism Firms: Evidence from Small and Medium Sized Hotels in Sub-Saharan Africa. Tourism Planning & Development, 6 (2) pp. 179-196

          Xu, S., & Cao, Z. (2019). Antecedents and outcomes of work-nonwork conflict in hospitality: A meta-analysisInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. (Accepted).

          Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., & Smith, N. (Accepted). The effects of attractiveness, gender and self-esteem in service jobs. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

          Xu, S. & Wang, J. (2019). Still waters stay put: Uncovering the effects of emotional variability using experience sampling methodologyScandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. (Accepted).

          Wu, S., Li, Y., Wood, E., Senaux, B. & Dai, G. (2019) Liminality and festivals - insights from the east. Annals of Tourism Research.

          Verreynne Martie-Louise, Williams A, Brent, R, Sarel, G., & Kim, B. (2019) Innovation diversity and uncertainty in small and medium sized tourism firms, Tourism Management, 72, 257-269.

          Assaf A, Li G, Song H, Tsionas M (2018) Modeling and Forecasting Regional Tourism Demand Using the Bayesian Global Vector Autoregressive (BGVAR) Model, Journal of Travel Research. DOI: 10.1177/0047287518759226.

          Fan, D.X.F., A. Liu & R.T.R. Qiu (2018). Revisiting the relationship between host attitudes and tourism development: A utility maximization approach, Tourism Economics, DOI: 10.1177/1354816618794088.

          Ji M, Eves A & Wong A (2018). A Multilevel Investigation of China’s Intra-Regional Economic Condition on Experience Co-Creation and Dining Outcomes. IJCHM 30 (4) 2132 - 2152

          Kim, B., L. Zhou & A. Liu (2018). Culture and Service Quality: Case of Hong Kong, In: Cai, L.& Alaedini, P. (eds), Quality Services and Experiences in Hospitality and Tourism, 59-74, Emerald Publishing Limited.

          Lin Vera Shanshan, Yang Yang, Li G (2018) Where can tourism-led growth and economy-driven tourism growth occur?, Journal of Travel Research, DOI: 10.1177/0047287518773919.

          A. Liu., H. Song & A. Blake (2018). Modelling productivity shocks and economic growth using the Bayesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium approach, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2017-0686.

          A. Liu., V.S. Lin & H. Song (2018). Analysing and Forecasting Tourism Demand, In: Cooper C., Volo, S., Gartner W., and Scott N. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Management, pp. 202-221, SAGE Publishing.

          Liu, A., Wang, X.L., Liu, F. Yao, C. and Deng, Z. (2018) Soundscape and its influence on tourist satisfaction. The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 38, p164-181.

          Makkonen Teemu, Williams Allan, Habersetzer Antoine (2018) Foreign board members and firm innovativeness: An exploratory analysis for setting a research agenda, Corporate Governance 18 (6) pp. 1057-1073.

          Makkonen Teemu, Williams Allan, Mitze Timo, Weidenfeld Adi (2018) Science and Technology Cooperation in Cross-border Regions: A Proximity Approach with Evidence for Northern Europe, European Planning Studies 26 (10) pp. 1961-1979 Taylor & Francis.

          Manyiwa, S., Piporas, C. and Wang, X.L (2018) Influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city. Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol.11, No.1, p66-77.

          Martinez, L. R., Xu, S., & Hebl, M. (2018). Utilizing education and perspective taking to remediate the stigma of taking antidepressants. Community Mental Health Journal, 54, 450-459.

          Nadine Meichsner, N.A., O’Connell, John F., Warnock-Smith, D. (2018). The future for African air transport: Learning from Ethiopian Airlines, Journal of Transport Geography, 71, 182-197.

          Qiu, R. T., Fan, D. X., & A. Liu. (2018). Exploring the booking determinants of the Airbnb properties: an example of the listings of London. In: Stangl B. and Pesonen, J. (eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2018 pp. 44-51. Springer, Cham.

          Saayman Melville, Li G, Uysal Muzaffer, Song Haiyan (2018) Tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being: An index approach, International Journal of Tourism Research 20 (3) pp. 388-399. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.2190.

          Song, H., Altinay, L., Sun, T. and Wang, X.L. (2018). The influence of social interactions on senior customers’ experience and loneliness, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.30, No.8, p2773-2790.

          Van der Rest, J.P., Roper, A. and Wang, X.L. (2018) Why is a Change of Room Rate Pricing Policy so Hard to Implement? International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 69, p30-40.

          Vijaykumaran R, Eves A & Lumbers M (2018) Understanding Patients’ Meal Experiences through Staff’s Role: Study on Malaysian Public Hospitals.  Hospital Practices and Research 3 (2) 50 - 58.

          Vladimirov Zhelyu, Williams Allan (2018) Hotel innovations and performance? the mediating role of staff related innovations, Tourism Management Perspectives Elsevier.

          Volchek, K., A. Liu, H. Song & D. Buhalis (2018). Forecasting tourist arrivals at attractions: Search engine empowered methodologies, Tourism Economics, DOI:10.1177/1354816618811558.

          Wang C, Xu H, Li G (2018) The corporate philanthropy and legitimacy strategy of tourism firms: a community perspective, Journal of Sustainable Tourism pp. 1-18 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2018.1428334.

          Wang Caiping, Xu Honggang, Li G, Chen Jason Li (2018) Community social responsibility and the performance of small tourism enterprises: Moderating effects of entrepreneurs' demographics, International Journal of Tourism Research 20 (6) pp. 685-697.DOI: 10.1002/jtr.2216.

          Wang Caiping, Li G, Xu Honggang (2018) Impact of lifestyle-oriented motivation on small tourism enterprises? social responsibility and performance in historic towns, Journal of Travel Research.

          Weidenfeld Adi, Björk Peter, Williams Allan (2018) Identifying Cultural and Cognitive Proximity Between Managers and Customers in Tornio and Haparanda Cross-Border Region, Journal of Borderlands Studies Taylor & Francis.

          Wu, D. C., Liu, J., Song, H., A. Liu., & Fu, H. (2018). Developing a Web-based regional tourism satellite account (TSA) information system. Tourism Economics, DOI: 10.1177/1354816618792446.

          Xavier Font, Rosa English & Alkmini Gkritzali (2018) Mainstreaming sustainable tourism with user-centred design, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26 (10), 1651-1667, DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2018.1491981.

          Xu, S. & Martinez, L. R. (2018). Applications of latent growth curve modelling: A research agenda for hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30, 3268-3286.

          Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., Van Hoof, H., Estrella, M., Maldonado, G., & Gavilanes, J. (2018). Emotional exhaustion among hotel employees: The interactive effects of affect dispositions and positive work reflection. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 59(3), 285-295.

          Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., & Van Hoof, H. (2018). The Use of Latent Growth Curve Modeling in Measuring Student Perceptions about Mandatory Work Experiences. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 30(4), 241-249.

          Xu, S., Van Hoof, H., & Nyheim, P. (2018). The Effect of Online Scheduling on Employees’ Quality of Life. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 21, 172-186.

          Xu, S., Martinez, L. R., Van Hoof, H., Tews, M. J., Torres, L., & Farfan, K. (2018). The impact of abusive supervision and coworker support on hospitality and tourism student employees’ turnover intentions in Ecuador. Current Issues in Tourism, 21, 775-790.

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